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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED and Amitriptyline

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Amitriptyline to Prevent Headache After Traumatic Brain Injury
Conditions: Brain Injuries;   Post-Traumatic Headache
Intervention: Drug: Amitriptyline
Outcome Measures: Frequency and severity of headaches;   Headache Impact Test - 6;   Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ);   Short Form-12® Health Survey (SF-12);   Number of participants with adverse events;   Headache characteristic survey;   Insomnia Severity Index;   Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9;   Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test;   Trail Making Test;   Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IV Digit Symbol
2 Recruiting Trial of Amitriptyline for Chronic Oral Food Refusal in Children 9 Months to 8 Years of Age
Condition: Chronic Oral Food Refusal
Interventions: Drug: Amitriptyline 1 mg/kg;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: To assess the efficacy of Amitriptyline in a 24-week outpatient multi-disciplinary protocol for transitioning children from tube to oral feeding;   To assess the role of pain in the efficacy of Amitriptyline in the 24-week outpatient multidisciplinary protocol.
3 Unknown  Efficacy of Gabapentin or Amitriptyline to Reduce Postoperative Pain After Lumbar Laminectomy and Diskectomy
Conditions: Herniated Disc;   Intervertebral Disc Displacement
Intervention: Drug: Gabapentin , Amitriptyline
Outcome Measures: 30% reduction in opium consumption in either study arms compared to the placebo group;   30% reduction in pain according to visual analogue scale in either study arms compared to the placebo group
4 Unknown  Amitriptyline or Pregabalin to Treat Neuropathic Pain in Incurable Cancer
Conditions: Cancer;   Neuralgia
Interventions: Drug: Amitriptyline;   Drug: pregabalin
Outcome Measures: VAS score;   EQ-5D, McGill, EORTC-C30, HADS
5 Unknown  Study With Amitriptylin to Evaluate the Efficacy of Melatonin in Treatment of Migraine
Condition: Migraine
Interventions: Drug: Amitriptyline;   Drug: Melatonin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in number of headache days from baseline to month 3 after treatment.;   Proportion of patients responding to treatment. Change from Baseline Phase to Double-Blind Phase in number of monthly migraine attacks,monthly migraine days, number of days/month requiring rescue medication.
6 Recruiting The Childhood and Adolescent Migraine Prevention Study
Conditions: Migraine;   Migraine Disorders;   Headache
Interventions: Drug: Amitriptyline;   Drug: Topiramate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Reduction in Migraine Frequency (Amitriptyline and topiramate);   Reduction in absolute migraine disability score on PedMIDAS;   Safety and tolerability of Amitriptyline and topiramate;   Occurrence of treatment-emergent serious adverse events;   Reduction in absolute migraine frequency days
7 Not yet recruiting Prediction of Migraine Prevention Efficacy: Individualization of Treatment by Coupling Drug's Mode of Action With Patient's Mechanism of Pain Modulation
Conditions: Migraine;   Preventive Treatment
Interventions: Drug: Amitriptyline;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measures: the association between pre-treatment assessment parameter(s) and the reduction in frequency of migraine attacks by Amitriptyline;   the association between pain-related psychological parameters and the reduction in migraine attacks by Amitriptyline
8 Unknown  Anti-inflammatory Pulmonal Therapy of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Patients With Amitriptyline and Placebo
Conditions: Cystic Fibrosis;   Pneumonia
Interventions: Drug: Amitriptyline;   Drug: Mannite
Outcome Measures: Improvement of the lung function parameter FEV1 (absolute and relative to baseline) under verum and placebo;   Increase in lung function measurements;   Ceramide concentration in epithelial cells;   Inflammation status;   Bacteriological and cell status;   Side effects
9 Recruiting Safety and Efficacy Study Comparing ETS6103 With Amitriptyline in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder
Interventions: Drug: ETS6103 (low dose);   Drug: ETS6103 (high dose);   Drug: Amitriptyline
Outcome Measures: The mean difference in baseline-adjusted (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale) MADRS score at the end of treatment.;   Assessment of MADRS score throughout the randomised study period;   Assessment of Clinical Global Impression (CGI) of Severity / Improvement Scale
10 Recruiting Alternative Dosing Regimens in the Pharmacotherapy of Insomnia
Condition: Insomnia
Interventions: Drug: Amitriptyline;   Drug: Zolpidem;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Objective Total Sleep Time;   Objective Sleep Onset Latency;   Self-reported Total Sleep Time;   Self-Reported Sleep Onset Latency;   Percentage of REM sleep;   REM onset latency;   Objective Sleep Efficiency;   Self-Reported Total Sleep Time;   Self-reported Sleep Onset Latency (min);   Self-reported Sleep Onset Latency (evaluation)
11 Unknown  A Study to Compare the Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Etravil® Tablet 10mg and Etravil® Tablet 25mg
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Drug: Etravil 10mg Tablet;   Drug: Etravil 25mg Tablet
Outcome Measures: Cmax of Amitryptiline in plasma;   AUClast of amityptyline in plasma;   Tmax of amityptyline in plasma;   terminal half-life (t1/2) of amityptyline in plasma;   CL/F of amityptyline in plasma
12 Recruiting Effect of Minocycline on Pain Caused by Nerve Damage
Condition: Neuropathic Pain Caused by Lumbar Radicular Pain
Interventions: Drug: Minocycline;   Drug: placebo;   Drug: Amitriptyline
Outcome Measures: Pain intensity;   neuropathic pain diagnostic questionnaire (DN4) score;   Amount of rescue medication taken
13 Recruiting Immune-Pineal Axis Function in Fibromyalgia
Condition: Fibromyalgia
Interventions: Drug: Melatonin and Placebo;   Drug: Amitriptyline and Placebo;   Drug: Melatonin and Amitriptylin
Outcome Measures: Change from Baseline in pain on Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) at week 6;   Change from Baseline in Pain Pressure Threshold (PPT) at week 6;   Change from Baseline Brain-derived neurotrophic factor at week 6;   Change from Baseline of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at week 6;   Change from Baseline of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale at week 6
14 Unknown  Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) on Gastric Emptying
Condition: Functional Dyspepsia
Interventions: Drug: Desipramine;   Drug: Amitriptyline
Outcome Measures: Gastric emptying;   Gastric volume
15 Recruiting Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Treatment Resistant Depression
Condition: Treatment Resistant Depression
Interventions: Other: IPT+ antidepressant drugs;   Drug: fluoxetine;   Drug: sertraline;   Drug: paroxetine;   Drug: Citalopram;   Drug: escitalopram;   Drug: fluvoxamine;   Drug: Venlafaxine;   Drug: Duloxetine;   Drug: Bupropion;   Drug: Lithium;   Drug: Risperidone;   Drug: tranylcypromine;   Drug: Imipramine;   Drug: Amitriptyline;   Drug: Clomipramine;   Drug: nortriptyline;   Drug: trazodone;   Drug: Mirtazapine;   Drug: sulpiride
Outcome Measures: Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) - continuous;   Beck depression Inventory (BDI)
16 Recruiting Open Label Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacogenetic Study on Polymorphisms in the Organic Cation Transporter OCT1
Conditions: Drug Metabolism;   Membrane Transport
Interventions: Drug: Drug application Amitriptyline;   Drug: Drug application Desvenlafaxine;   Drug: Drug application Sumatriptan;   Drug: Drug application Proguanil
Outcome Measures: Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of the investigational drugs;   Total clearance, Cmax, Tmax, Mean AbsorptionTime, Alpha and Beta half-lives, Mean Residence Time (MRT) and Volume of distribution of the investigated drugs and their metabolites;   Dry mouth, fatigue, nausea, headache, vertigo, tinnitus, chills, anxiety and difficulties to read on Visual Analog Scales.;   Sedation on Stanford sedation scale;   Pupil diameter, latency, diameter at maximal constriction, amplitude and time for 33% recovery of initial pupil diameter measured by pupillometrie;   Genetic variants in OCT1, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and MAO A
17 Recruiting Pharmacological Conditioning of Sleep Patterns in Healthy Participants Using Amitriptylin
Condition: Healthy Participants
Interventions: Drug: Amitriptyline;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Objective Total Sleep Time;   Percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
18 Unknown  Lidocaine on Pain Relief and IL and Substance P in Fibromyalgia
Condition: Fibromyalgia
Interventions: Drug: Lidocaine;   Drug: lidocaine
Outcome Measure: Evaluation of the effect of intravenous lidocaine on pain relief and plasma concentrations of interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6) and substance P in patients with fibromyalgia
19 Recruiting Cyclobenzaprine Extended Release (ER) for Fibromyalgia
Conditions: Fibromyalgia;   Pain;   Sleep;   Fatigue
Interventions: Drug: cyclobenzaprine ER (AMRIX);   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measures: Visual Analogue Pain Scale;   Brief Fatigue Inventory;   Analogue sleep/wakefulness scale;   Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire;   Sheehan Disability SCale;   Quick Inventory of Depression;   Reported Adverse Effects
20 Unknown  A Comparative Study Between Lysine Clonixinate+Cyclobenzaprine and Caffeine+Carisoprodol+Sodium Diclofenac+Paracetamol
Condition: Low Back Pain
Interventions: Drug: Tandrilax;   Drug: Dolamin Flex
Outcome Measures: Pain average reduction;   Identification of possible gastrointestinal effects