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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED and Lexapro

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting EScitalopram PIndolol ONset of Action
Condition: Unipolar Depression
Interventions: Drug: escitalopram, pindolol;   Drug: escitalopram
Outcome Measures: MADRS score change between baseline and 2 weeks of treatment;   Response/remission (MADRS) at 6 weeks;   Adverse events;   Correlation of drug level of pindolol and/or escitalopram and clinical outcome (primary outcome) between treatment groups
2 Recruiting Lexapro®'s Efficacy After Dose Escalation in Remission Study
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder
Intervention: Drug: escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS);   Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HAM-D);   Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A);   Clinical Global Impression-severity (CGI-S);   Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I);   Beck's Depression Inventory(BDI);   WHO Quality Of Life scale Abbreviated Version(WHOQOL-BREF);   Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS);   Short From-36 Health survey (SF-36 Health survey)
3 Unknown  Circadian Effects of Escitalopram
Condition: Depression
Intervention: Drug: placebo/escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Resetting effect of Escitalopram on the circadian pacemaker;   Correlation between improvement in depression with Escitalopram and the degree of realignment between the timing of sleep and the timing of the biological clock.
4 Recruiting Escitalopram Trial for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Patients With Panic Disorder
Conditions: Irritable Bowel Syndrome;   Panic Disorder
Intervention: Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS).;   State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
5 Recruiting Escitalopram, Placebo and tDCS in Depression: a Non-inferiority Trial
Conditions: Major Depressive Disorder;   Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Unspecified;   Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Unspecified
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram oxalate;   Device: transcranial direct current stimulation
Outcome Measures: Change in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 17 items (HAMD17);   Change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS);   Change in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI);   Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 17 items (HAMD17)
6 Not yet recruiting Cardiovascular Effects of Agomelatine and Escitalopram in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Interventions: Drug: Agomelatine;   Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Change from baseline in markers of sympathetic nervous system activity.;   Change from baseline in the magnitude of morning surge in blood pressure.;   To determine the association between sympathetic nervous system activity and left ventricular hypertrophy.;   Change from baseline in insulin resistance.;   Change from baseline on markers of cardiac risk.
7 Unknown  Cipralex in Treatment of Depressive Symptoms and Chronic Back Pain
Conditions: Low Back Pain;   Depression
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: In comparison to placebo-treated patients, patients with treated with Cipralex report a significant reduction in depressive symptoms (>= 50% HAMD score) after 4 weeks of treatment.;   In comparison to placebo, subjects treated with Cipralex report a significant reduction in pain intensity (>= 50% reduction of pain questionnaire score or VAS) after 12 weeks of treatment.;   In comparison with placebo, subjects treated with Cipralex report a significant improvement in physical and everyday functioning after 12 weeks of treatment.;   Personality traits do not have a significant influence on outcome regarding depressive traits, pain intensity and functioning.;   Personality disorders are significantly influencing worse outcome regarding depressive traits, pain intensity and functioning.
8 Recruiting Brain Aging and Treatment Response in Geriatric Depression
Conditions: Mild Neurocognitive Disorder;   MCI;   Depression
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram;   Drug: Memantine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores;   Change in cognitive domain scores
9 Recruiting DECIFER: DEpression and Citalopram In First Episode Recovery
Conditions: Schizophrenia;   Schizophreniform Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Citalopram;   Behavioral: Psychoeducation;   Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT);   Radiation: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS);   Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS);   Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS);   InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST);   Heinrich Quality of Life Scale (QOL)
10 Unknown  The Effects of Escitalopram on Cytokines
Condition: Depression
Intervention: Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: The changes in cytokines;   The changes in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale
11 Unknown  Relapse Prevention With Escitalopram or Nortriptyline Following Electro-Convulsive Treatment (DUAG-7)
Condition: Major Depression
Interventions: Drug: escitalopram;   Drug: nortriptyline
Outcome Measures: Hamilton depression rating scale;   Drop out due to side-effects of drugs
12 Not yet recruiting The ISLAND Study: InSuLa Assessed Needs for Depression
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram;   Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy;   Other: Combination treatment (Escitalopram + CBT)
Outcome Measures: Remission from major depressive episode;   Response to treatment
13 Unknown  Development of Escitalopram Genomic Device by Using Candidate Gene Approach and Genome-Wide Scanning
Conditions: Depression;   Continuous Antidepressant Abuse;   Adverse Reaction to Drug
Intervention: Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: antidepressant response at 2,4,6,8 weeks A/E monitoring at 1,2,4,6,8 weeks;   biological value at 0 week and 8 weeks
14 Recruiting Citalopram Effects on Craving and Dopamine Receptor Availability in Alcoholics
Condition: Alcohol Dependence
Intervention: Drug: citalopram
Outcome Measures: Craving for alcohol in type B alcohol dependence with citalopram compared to placebo;   Striatal dopamine receptor availability in type B alcohol dependence with citalopram, compared to placebo
15 Unknown  Neuroprotective/Neurotrophic Effect of Lexapro® in Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Condition: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Intervention: Drug: escitalopram (Lexapro)
Outcome Measures: Changes from baseline in brain structure, function, and biochemical metabolism, analyzed using the computational approach;   Change from baseline in Clinician-administered PTSD scale scores at 1st week;   Change from baseline in Clinician-administered PTSD scale scores at 4th weeks;   Change from baseline in Clinician-administered PTSD scale scores at 8th weeks;   Change from baseline in Hamilton depression rating scale scores at 1st week;   Change from baseline in Hamilton anxiety rating scale scores at 1st week;   Number of participants with adverse events;   Change from baseline in Hamilton depression rating scale scores at 4th weeks;   Change from baseline in Hamilton depression rating scale scores at 8th weeks;   Change from baseline in Hamilton anxiety rating scale scores at 4th weeks;   Change from baseline in Hamilton anxiety rating scale scores at 8th weeks
16 Unknown  Citalopram for Cocaine Dependence
Condition: Cocaine Dependence
Interventions: Drug: Citalopram;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Abstinence;   Cocaine Use Days;   Cocaine-negative Urines;   Retention in Treatment
17 Recruiting A Study to Evaluate the Impact of Escitalopram on Quality of Life and Social Functionality in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder With Anxiety Symptom
Condition: Depressive Disorder, Major
Intervention: Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Change From Baseline in Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF);   Change From Baseline in Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS);   Remission Rate at Week 8;   Onset of Effect Rate at Week 1;   Onset of Effect Rate at Week 2;   Change From Baseline to Week 8 in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) Scores;   Change From Baseline to Week 8 in Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) Scores;   Change From Baseline to Week 8 in Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report (QIDS-SR) Scores
18 Unknown  Cipralex® for Anxiety Disorders in Adolescents
Condition: Anxiety Disorder
Intervention: Drug: Cipralex®
Outcome Measures: Treatment Efficacy;   Physiological response to stress;   Suicide risk
19 Unknown  Intervention Study of Depression in Breast Cancer Patients
Conditions: Breast Cancer;   Depression;   Anxiety
Interventions: Behavioral: CBT and clinical management;   Drug: Escitalopram;   Behavioral: Clinical Management;   Drug: Sugar pill
Outcome Measures: Change from Baseline in Depression and Anxiety at 24 weeks, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA);   Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), Quality of Life (FACT-B), well-being index, pain score, Athens Insomnia Scale
20 Recruiting Effects of Intravenous (IV) Citalopram on Emotional Brain Activity in Healthy Young and Elderly Adults
Condition: Healthy Young and Elderly Volunteers
Interventions: Drug: Intravenous Citalopram;   Drug: Normal Saline
Outcome Measures: BOLD fMRI Response;   Genetics and Cognitive/Emotional Change