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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED and Medication

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Symptoms and Causes

table th, table td {text-align: left; padding: 3px 15px} What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Using Novel Canadian Resources to Improve Medication Reconciliation at Discharge
Conditions: Medication Reconciliation;   Adverse Drug Events
Intervention: Other: Electronic Medication Reconciliation
Outcome Measures: Adverse Drug Event;   Emergency Room Visit/Hospital Readmission;   Failure to re-start community Medications used for chronic conditions after discharge from hospital.;   Readiness for hospital discharge;   Time to complete medication history and discharge medication reconciliation with prescription.;   Therapy Duplication
2 Recruiting Pharmacokinetic Study of Antiretroviral Drugs and Related Drugs During and After Pregnancy
Condition: HIV Infections
Interventions: Drug: Current ARV Medications;   Drug: Current TB Medications;   Drug: Current hormonal contraceptive Medications
Outcome Measures: Drug parameter: Area under the curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC 0-12);   Drug parameter: Area under the curve from 0 to 24 hours (AUC 0-24);   Drug parameter: Maximum concentration (Cmax);   Drug parameter: Pre-dose concentration (Cdose);   Drug parameter: Minimum concentration (Cmin);   Drug parameter: Time after administration of drug when maximum plasma concentration is reached (Tmax);   Drug parameter: Clearance over systemic availability (Cl/F);   Drug parameter: Volume of distribution over systemic availability (V/F);   Drug parameter: Half-life (t1/2);   ARV concentrations in vaginal secretions;   ARV concentrations in plasma;   For contraceptives: plasma concentration;   Ratio of cord blood concentration to maternal blood concentration;   Ratio of unbound/total drug concentrations;   Rate of detection of study drugs in vaginal secretions;   Ratio of vaginal drug concentrations to simultaneous blood concentrations;   Rate of detection of HIV RNA/DNA in vaginal secretions and comparison to level in blood;   ARV exposure (as measured by area under the curve or other PK parameters) during pregnancy and postpartum according to genotype;   Adverse events of grade 3 or higher;   Infant neurological events of grade 1 or higher;   Adverse pregnancy outcome: preterm birth;   Adverse pregnancy outcome: low birth weight;   Adverse pregnancy outcome: fetal demise;   Adverse pregnancy outcome: congenital anomalies;   Infant HIV infection status
3 Unknown  Monitoring and Adjustment of Medication Therapy for Patients With Heart Disease
Conditions: Coronary Heart Disease;   Myocardial Infarction
Interventions: Other: Titration of Medications;   Behavioral: Lifestyle Counseling;   Behavioral: Medication Counseling;   Other: Usual Care with Medication Reconciliation
Outcome Measures: Percentage of patients at guideline goal for both blood pressure and lipids;   Composite cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality;   Patient Satisfaction with Clinical Pharmacist Services;   Change in Adherence with 8-item Morisky Adherence Tool
4 Not yet recruiting Clinical Decision Support System for Quality Assurance in Potassium-Increasing Drug-Drug-Interactions
Condition: Hyperkalemia
Intervention: Behavioral: decision support in potassium-inc. drug-drug-interactions
Outcome Measures: Impact on serum potassium monitoring during potassium-increasing drug-drug-interactions;   Frequency of hyperkalemia during potassium-increasing drug-drug-interactions;   Frequency of potassium-increasing drug-drug-interactions ordered in the presence of hyperkalemia;   Frequency of transfers to the ICU during potassium-increasing drug-drug-interactions in function of the serum potassium level;   Frequency of death during potassium-increasing drug-drug-interactions in the presence or absence of hyperkalemia;   Change in frequency distribution of serum potassium monitoring intervals;   Response of physicians to the computer-based alerts and reminders
5 Recruiting The Effect of Medication Reminder Technology on Medication Adherence and Hypertension Outcomes
Conditions: Medication Adherence;   Blood Pressure
Intervention: Device: Medication reminder
Outcome Measures: self-reported medication adherence using the Morisky 8-Item Medication Adherence Scale(MMAS-8) tool;   systolic blood pressure in mmHg using a valid automated device
6 Recruiting Multidisciplinary Program "Optimization of Drug Prescription" : Impact on the Quality of Drug Prescription in Hospitalized Elderly Patients
Condition: Potentially Inappropriate Medications
Intervention: Other: " Optimisation de la Prescription MEDicamenteuse " ("Optimization of drug prescribing")
Outcome Measures: Proportion of potentially inappropriate Medications (PIM) prescribed in discharge of hospitalized patients from 75 years old.;   Total number of drugs prescribed per discharge prescription sheet;   Number of rehospitalization within 12 months following discharge;   Number of emergency admission within 12 months following hospitalization;   Mortality within 12 months after hospitalization
7 Recruiting Multi-Center Medication Reconciliation Quality Improvement Study
Conditions: Adverse Drug Events;   Medication Administered in Error
Intervention: Other: Mentored medication reconciliation quality improvement
Outcome Measures: The primary outcome will be unintentional medication discrepancies in admission orders and discharge orders with potential for patient harm;   Patient satisfaction;   Administrative outcomes
8 Not yet recruiting A Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Research Trial of Three Treatments for COPD Patients
Condition: Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Interventions: Drug: Salbutamol (Ventolin®);   Drug: Formoterol (Oxis Turbuhaler®);   Drug: Salmeterol / fluticasone (Seretide®);   Drug: Bufei granule;   Drug: Bufeijianpi granule;   Drug: Bufeiyishen granule;   Drug: Yiqizishen granule;   Drug: conventional medicine + TCM
Outcome Measures: the frequency of exacerbation;   Forced expiratory volume in one second;   Dyspnea;   6 Minutes Walking Distance Test(6MWD);   Quality of life;   Economic Evaluation
9 Recruiting Improving Communication of Medication Instructions to Parents
Conditions: Medication Errors;   Medication Adherence
Intervention: Other: HELPix
Outcome Measure: Medication dosing error (observed)
10 Recruiting The Effect of a Pharmacist Home Visit on Drug-related Problems Post-discharge.
Conditions: Adverse Drug Event;   Patient Readmission;   Patient Compliance
Intervention: Behavioral: HomeCoMe-program
Outcome Measures: Identifying and solving adverse drug events (ADEs) and other drug-related problems (DRPs) post-discharge;   Improvement of adherence to medication at hospital discharge;   Patient assessment of medication knowledge at time of home visit;   Types of interventions made at the pharmacist home visit;   Patient satisfaction with the pharmacist home visit;   Assessment of patient reported health rating;   General practitioners satisfaction with the pharmacist home visit
11 Not yet recruiting Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians to Improve Admission Medication History Accuracy
Condition: Adverse Drug Events
Interventions: Other: Pharmacist obtains admission medication history;   Other: Pharmacy technician obtains admission medication history
Outcome Measure: Medication History Errors, or Medication Order Errors
12 Recruiting the Pharmacy Intervention Team Hospital-based (PITH) for People Study: Effect on Clinical and Economic Outcomes
Conditions: Adverse Drug Reaction;   Medication Administered in Error
Intervention: Other: integrated medicines management
Outcome Measures: number of rehospitalizations;   numbers of ADEs;   numbers of DRPs;   cost per prevented re-hospitalization;   general health care use
13 Recruiting Regional Data Exchange to Improve Medication Safety
Condition: Drug Toxicity
Intervention: Other: Medication reconciliation enhanced by regional health information exchange
Outcome Measures: Transition drug risk;   Adverse drug events;   Care duplication;   Transitional care satisfaction "Care Transitions Measure"
14 Recruiting Comparison of Drug Eluting Balloon and Drug Eluting Stent
Conditions: Coronary Artery Disease;   Stable Angina;   Unstable Angina;   NSTEMI
Interventions: Device: Drug eluting balloon + Bare metal stent;   Device: drug eluting stent (Zotarolimus-eluting stent)
Outcome Measures: in-segment late loss;   stent thrombosis;   angiographic and procedure success;   MACE
15 Not yet recruiting Supplemental Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) vs. Standard Medication Monotherapy for Treating Major Depression: An Exploratory Field Study
Condition: 1. Major Depressive Disorder.
Interventions: Device: Supplemental TMS;   Drug: Standard Medication Monotherapy
Outcome Measures: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS);   Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD)
16 Recruiting Pharmacist-led Medicines Management Outpatient Service
Condition: High Risk of Medication-related Problems
Intervention: Other: Medicines Management Outpatient service
Outcome Measures: Time to readmission to hospital;   Number of Readmission;   Number of GP consultations and GP home visits;   Number of Accident and Emergency (A&E) visits;   Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) score;   Health-related quality of life (HRQOL);   Medication Adherence Assessments;;   Cost Utility Analysis
17 Unknown  Enhancing the Detection and Management of Adverse Drug Events in Nursing Homes
Condition: Adverse Drug Event
Intervention: Behavioral: Active medication monitoring
Outcome Measures: Adverse drug event detection;   Adverse drug event response time
18 Not yet recruiting ADHD Medication and Predictors of Treatment Outcome
Condition: Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)
Interventions: Drug: methylphenidate medication;   Drug: atomoxetine medication;   Drug: lisdexamphetamine medication
Outcome Measures: change in SNAP-IV Teacher and Parent rating scale (Swanson, Nolan and Pelham ADHD Rating Scale);   change in P-SEC (Pediatric Side Effects Checklist);   change in CGI-S (Clinical Global Impression- of Severity);   change in C-GAS (Children´s global assessment scale);   change in SNAP-IV Teacher and Parent rating scale;   change in Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS);   change in heart rate;   change in systolic blood pressure;   change in diastolic blood pressure;   change in weight z-score;   change in height z-score
19 Recruiting Optimization of Mass Drug Administration With Existing Drug Regimens for Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis for Liberia
Conditions: Lymphatic Filariasis;   Onchocerciasis;   Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH) Infections
Intervention: Drug: Annual versus Semiannual Albendazole plus Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration
Outcome Measures: Microfilaria prevalence based on results of microscopic examination of blood smears and skin snips.;   Prevalence of filarial antigenemia in blood and intensity of filarial and intestinal worm infections based on results of microscopy.
20 Not yet recruiting Observational Study to Reduce Medication Errors
Condition: Medication Errors
Intervention:
Outcome Measures: Number of participants with adverse drug reactions due to medication errors occurring during hospitalization;   Number of participants with preventable ADRs due to medication errors