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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED and Penicillin

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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Penicillin Side Effects

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Aspartate Aminotransferase Increased (6)
Swelling (6)
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Weight Decreased (6)
Angioedema (5)
Abdominal Pain Upper (5)
Fear (5)
Blood Creatinine Increased (5)
Haemorrhage (5)
Throat Tightness (5)
Dizziness (5)
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Restlessness (5)
Fatigue (5)
Decreased Appetite (5)
No Adverse Event (4)
Neutropenia (4)
Blood Alkaline Phosphatase Increased (4)
Nasopharyngitis (4)

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Oral Penicillin and Penicillin Levels in Venous Umbilical Cord Blood
Condition: Group B Streptococcus
Intervention: Drug: oral Penicillin V
Outcome Measures: The level of antibiotics in the umbilical vein cord blood of newborn infants after the administration of Penicillin orally while in labor.;   Compare levels of Penicillin in the umbilical cord blood of women who received oral Penicillin to the levels of women who received intravenous Penicillin in labor. Comparisons will be done through literature only.
2 Recruiting The Diagnosis of Penicillin/AminoPenicillin Allergy in Thailand
Conditions: Penicillin Allergy;   AminoPenicillin Allergy
Intervention:
Outcome Measures: The true prevalence of Penicillin/aminoPenicillin allergy;   The diagnostic values of currently used skin test reagents and drug-specific IgE measurement
3 Recruiting Perioperative Antibiotic Choices for Surgical Prophylaxis in Penicillin-allergic Pediatric Patients
Condition: Penicillin Allergy
Intervention: Drug: Antibiotic
Outcome Measure: Number of subjects with antibiotic related adverse event
4 Not yet recruiting Antibiotic Treatment and Intravenous Immunoglobulin Trial for PANDAS
Condition: Pandas
Interventions: Drug: Sertraline+Antibiotic (Penicillin/azithromycin);   Drug: Sertraline+placebo;   Biological: IVIG
Outcome Measures: The improvement of OC/tic symptoms will be superior in patients treated with SSRI+AB and in case with IVIG, compared with those treated with SSRI+placebo, as assessed by the YBOCS/YGTSS;   The degree of treatment response is expected to correlate with the percentage reduction in antibodies titers following IVIG administration;   The degree of treatment response is also expected to correlate with decreased inflammation in specific regions of the brain, as demonstrated by macroscopic changes and microstructural alterations on MRI and serum and CSF cytokines and chemokines
5 Recruiting A Comparative Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Daptomycin Versus Standard of Care in Pediatric Subjects Two - Seventeen Years of Age With Bacteremia Caused by Staphylococcus Aureus
Condition: Bacteremia
Interventions: Drug: Daptomycin;   Drug: Comparator (Vancomycin, Semi-synthetic Penicillin, First-generation cephalosporins, Clindamycin)
Outcome Measures: Safety of daptomycin measured by the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events, vital signs, echocardiogram (if performed) and clinical laboratory tests, use of concomitant medications,physical and neurological exam results.;   Efficacy of daptomycin will be based on Investigator's assessment of clinical response (cure, improved, failure or non-evaluable) at the Test of Cure (TOC) visit.
6 Not yet recruiting Patients Response to Early Switch To Oral:Osteomyelitis Study
Condition: Osteomyelitis
Interventions: Drug: oral antibiotics;   Procedure: intravenous antibiotics
Outcome Measures: Clinical Failures;   Evaluation of adverse events related to the use of antibiotics;   Cost of care from the hospital perspective
7 Unknown  Intravenous Immunoglobulins as Effective Treatment in Sydenham's Chorea
Conditions: Sydenham Chorea;   Post Streptococcal Movement Disorder
Interventions: Biological: Intravenous immunoglobulin;   Drug: standard interventions Penicillin VK and haloperidol
Outcome Measures: improved scores on the sydenham chorea assessment charts;   improved quality of life
8 Recruiting Neonatal and Paediatric Pharmacokinetics of Antimicrobials Study
Condition: Paediatric Antimicrobial Pharmacokinetics
Intervention:
Outcome Measure: The pharmacokinetic parameters of drug clearance and volume of distribution for each Penicillin.
9 Recruiting The Amputation Surgical Site Infection Trial (ASSIT)
Conditions: Wound Infection;   Amputation Wound
Interventions: Drug: Co-amoxiclav;   Drug: Iodine;   Drug: Metronidazole;   Drug: Chlorhexidine;   Drug: Teicoplanin;   Drug: Clindamycin
Outcome Measures: Surgical Site Infection;   Impact of different skin preparations on infection rates;   Rate of re-intervention;   Mortality;   Satisfactory healing rates;   Quality of life;   Resource use;   • Rate of C. Diff., MSSA (Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus), MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) infection;   Mobility;   Pain Control
10 Recruiting The Role of Antibiotics in Full Thickness Skin Graft Survival for Facial Reconstructive Surgery
Condition: Facial Defect
Intervention: Drug: cephalexin
Outcome Measures: Graft failure rate;   Percentage surface area of graft failure
11 Unknown  The Effectiveness of Probiotics for the Therapy of Acute Pharyngotonsillitis in Adult Patients
Condition: Throat Pain
Interventions: Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Probiotics
Outcome Measures: period of disease;   analysis
12 Recruiting Extended Open Challenge in Patients With a History of Drug Eruption Following Beta-lactam Treatment
Condition: Beta-lactam Allergy
Intervention: Drug: Beta-lactam oral challenge
Outcome Measure: The safety of a 5-day oral challenge in patients with suspected beta-lactam allergy
13 Not yet recruiting Mortality Reduction After Oral Azithromycin: Morbidity Study
Condition: Childhood Mortality
Interventions: Drug: Azithromycin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Presence of malaria parasites on thick blood smear in children 1-60 months;   Fraction of isolates of pneumococcus exhibiting macrolide resistance by nasopharyngeal swabs in children 1-60 months;   Fraction of isolates of Staphylococcus aureus exhibiting macrolide resistance by nasal swabs in children 1-60 months;   Fraction of isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes exhibiting macrolide resistance by oropharyngeal swabs in children 1-60 months;   Evidence of E. coli macrolide resistance in stool specimens in children 1-60 months;   Fraction of conjunctival swabs yielding ocular chlamydia in children 1-60 months;   Height over time in children aged 1-60 months;   Presence of malaria gametocytes, and density of malaria parasites and gametocytes, in children 1-60 months;   Rates of malaria parasitemia among children 1-59.9 months.;   Hemoglobin concentration and presence of anemia (hemoglobin <11 g/dL) in children 1-60 months;   Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal macrolide resistance in individuals 7-12 years;   Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal macrolide resistance in children aged 1-60 months seen in local health clinics for a respiratory complaint;   Rates of acute respiratory illness among children 1-59.9 months.;   Carriage rates and proportions of S. pneumoniae isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months.;   Carriage rates and proportions of S. pneumoniae isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months hospitalized for pneumonia and diarrhea.;   Presence of the trachoma grades "follicular trachoma" (TF) and "intense inflammatory trachoma" (TI), as defined by the WHO simplified grading system, in children 1-60 months;   Trachoma infection and antibody status in children (1-60 months);   Rates of diarrhea among children 1-59.9 months.;   Carriage rates and proportions E. coli isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months;   Carriage rates and proportions of E. coli isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months hospitalized for pneumonia and diarrhea.;   Studies of intestinal permeability and inflammation, microbial translocation, and immune activation assessed through venous sampling of children 6 months;   Studies of intestinal permeability and inflammation, microbial translocation, and immune activation assessed through urine samples for L:M ratios of children 6 months;   Studies of intestinal permeability and inflammation, microbial translocation, and immune activation assessed through stool (fecal neopterin) of children 6 months;   Nasopharyngeal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children 1-60 months;   Carriage rates and proportions of S. aureus isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months.;   Carriage rates and proportions of S. aureus isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months hospitalized for pneumonia and diarrhea.;   Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal resistance to Penicillin and clindamycin in children 1-60 months;   Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal macrolide resistance determinants (ermB and mefA), serotype, and multilocus sequence type in children 1-60 months;   Oropharyngeal Streptococcus pyogenes macrolide resistance to Penicillin and clindamycin in children 1-60 months;   Oropharyngeal Streptococcus pyogenes macrolide resistance determinants (mefA, ermB, ermTR) in children 1-60 months;   Microbial diversity in the conjunctival, nasopharyngeal, nasal, oropharyngeal, and intestinal microbiomes of children aged 1-60 months;   Serology for exposure to exotic pathogens cross sectional sample of children aged 1-60 months;   Knee-heel length and head circumference over time in children aged 1-60 months;   Commensal and diarrheagenic E. coli carriage in stool of children aged 1-60 months
14 Recruiting A Trial Comparing Two Modalities of Prophylactic Nutritional Support During Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer
Condition: Head and Neck Neoplasms
Interventions: Procedure: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement;   Procedure: nasogastric tube placement
Outcome Measures: Nutritional Status;   Quality of Life + Mental/Emotional health;   Cost of care;   Clinical Complications;   Nutritional status
15 Unknown  Study to Proof the Clinical and Bacteriological Non-inferiority of Ampicillin/Amoxicillin Versus Moxifloxacin in Hospitalized Patients With Non-severe Community-acquired Pneumonia
Condition: Community Acquired Pneumonia
Interventions: Drug: Moxifloxacin;   Drug: Ampicillin;Amoxicillin
Outcome Measures: Proof of the clinical non inferiority by the cure rate at the treatment of a Pneumonia at the therapy end (round 3: Day 7 to 10) with a standard Penicillin in a high dosage;   clinical cure rate;   bacteriological effectiveness on patients and seed level;   bacteriological sensitivity into-vitro;   time up to the drug-switch;   time until the dismissal of the patients necessity of the gift of additional antibacterial drug;   cost reduction of the antibiotic-therapy and the complete treatment;   assessment of the effectiveness by the investigator
16 Recruiting Levofloxacin in Preventing Infection in Young Patients With Acute Leukemia Receiving Chemotherapy or Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation
Conditions: Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage;   Bacterial Infection;   Diarrhea;   Fungal Infection;   Musculoskeletal Complications;   Neutropenia;   Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia;   Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia;   Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia;   Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies
Intervention: Drug: levofloxacin
Outcome Measures: Occurrence of at least 1 episode of true bacteremia among AL and HSCT subjects, respectively;   Susceptibility of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa to cefepime, imipenem, and levofloxacin;   Susceptibility of S. mitis to cefepime, levofloxacin, and Penicillin;   Presence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae;   Duration of parenteral antibiotic administration;   Incidence of febrile neutropenia, severe infection, and death from bacterial infection;   Incidence of severe infection;   Incidence of death from bacterial infection;   Incidence of CDAD, defined as a positive C. difficile toxin assay result and diarrhea, CTCAE version 4, grade 2 and higher
17 Recruiting The Effects of Modified Ultrafiltration on Vancomycin Levels During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Cardiac Surgery
Condition: Vancomycin Concentration
Intervention: Other: Vancomycin concentrations
Outcome Measure: Circulating vancomycin concentration
18 Recruiting Multicenter Pilot Study Evaluating the Immunogenicity of an Innovative Pneumococcal Vaccination Strategy in Splenectomized Adults
Condition: Splenectomized Patients
Intervention: Biological: Prime-boost pneumococcal immunization
Outcome Measures: Proportion of subjects responsive to 9 of the 13 serotypes common (serotypes 1, 3, 6A, 7F, 9V, 14, 19A, 19F, 23F).;   IgG dosage;   ELISA dosages;   Identification of predictive factors for immunogenicity;   Percentage of patients presenting local or systemic reactions post-immunization;   Evaluation of severe infectious episode;   OPA dosages
19 Not yet recruiting Prophylactic Antibiotics for Manual Removal of Retained Placenta in Vaginal Birth: a Randomized Controlled Trial
Condition: Endometritis
Interventions: Drug: Antibiotic prophylaxis;   Drug: Ampicillin;   Drug: Gentamycin;   Drug: Clindamycin
Outcome Measures: Endometritis rate;   Puerperal fever
20 Recruiting Assessment of the Optimal Dosing of Piperacillin-tazobactam in Intensive Care Unit Patients: Extended Versus Continuous Infusion
Condition: Infectious Disease
Interventions: Drug: piperacillin continuous infusion;   Drug: piperacillin extended infusion
Outcome Measures: pharmacokinetics of piperacillin continuous infusion compared to piperacillin extended infusion;   95% probability of target attainment (PTA95) versus MIC of different organisms.