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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED and Promethazine

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Not yet recruiting Study of Promethazine for Treatment of Diabetic Gastroparesis
Condition: Diabetic Gastroparesis
Interventions: Drug: Promethazine;   Drug: Sugar pill
Outcome Measures: Change in patient-reported symptoms as measured by the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index score (GCSI, 14) from week 0 to week 4.;   Occurrence of adverse events;   Use of rescue medication;   The impact on work activity as measured by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. (WPAI).
2 Unknown  Morphine Versus Morphine-Promethazine Combination for Acute Low Back Pain Relief in the Adult Emergency Department
Condition: Low Back Pain
Interventions: Drug: Morphine-Promethazine;   Drug: morphine
Outcome Measures: Pain relief;   Ambulatory status
3 Recruiting Pharmacogenetic Factors and Side Effects of Metoclopramide and Diphenhydramine
Condition: Drug Metabolism, Poor, CYP2D6-RELATED
Interventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Metoclopramide
Outcome Measures: Area under curve of metoclopramide (MCP);   Area under curve of diphenhydramine(DPH);   Cmax of metoclopramide;   Tmax of metoclopramide;   Cmax of diphenhydramine;   Tmax of diphenhydramine
4 Unknown  Does Thiamine Help Vomiting and Nausea in Pregnancy?
Condition: Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Intervention: Drug: thiamine & Promethazine
Outcome Measure: the improvement in nausea and/or vomiting after treatment
5 Unknown  Adjunct Sedatives in Procedures Involving Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
Conditions: Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS);   Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
Interventions: Drug: Saline;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Promethazine
Outcome Measures: Sedation Level;   Time to achieve adequate level of sedation to begin procedure;   Time for Recovery;   Adverse Symptoms From Sedative Agents
6 Recruiting Diphenhydramine for Acute Migraine
Condition: Migraine
Interventions: Drug: metoclopramide;   Drug: diphenhydramine;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measure: Sustained headache relief
7 Recruiting Antitussive Effect of a Naturally Flavored Syrup Containing Diphenhydramine, Compared With Dextromethorphan and Placebo
Condition: Cough Reflex Sensitivity
Interventions: Drug: Phenylephrine;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Dextromethorphan
Outcome Measure: change in cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin
8 Not yet recruiting Diphenhydramine as an Adjunctive Sedative in Patients on Chronic Opioids
Conditions: Colonoscopy;   Adjunct Anesthesia Medication
Interventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Dosage of Fentanyl and Midazolam;   Quality of sedation;   Duration of Procedure;   Adverse events;   24 hour follow up
9 Not yet recruiting Randomized Trial of Diphenhydramine Versus Continued Midazolam in "Difficult-to-sedate" Patients Undergoing Colonoscopy
Conditions: Sedation;   Endoscopy
Interventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Midazolam
Outcome Measure: Proportion of patients who achieve adequate sedation to allow colonoscopy (defined as MOAA/S ≤3)
10 Recruiting Ketamine as a Rapidly-Acting Antidepressant in Depressed Emergency Department Patients
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Drug: Ketamine;   Drug: Diphenhydramine
Outcome Measures: Evaluate the effects of ketamine on depressive symptomatology;   Evalaute the effects of ketamine on treatment alliance;   Evalaute the effects of ketamine on suicidal ideation
11 Not yet recruiting Countermeasures to Reduce Sensorimotor Impairment and Space Motion Sickness Resulting From Altered Gravity Levels
Condition: Vestibular
Interventions: Drug: Promethazine;   Behavioral: Hyper gravity training;   Drug: Placebo;   Behavioral: No hypergravity training
Outcome Measure: Rate of recovery of roll tilt perception errors after exposure to hypergravity
12 Not yet recruiting Histamine Glutamate Antagonism in Stroke
Conditions: Acute Cerebrovascular Accident;   Cerebral Edema
Interventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Pantoprazole;   Drug: Famotidine;   Drug: Dextromethorphan
Outcome Measures: Modified Rankin Score;   National Institutes of Health Stroke Severity (NIHSS) Scale;   Neurological examination of the subject;   All cause mortality data
13 Not yet recruiting Psilocybin-facilitated Treatment for Cocaine Use
Condition: Cocaine-Related Disorders
Interventions: Drug: Psilocybin;   Drug: Diphenhydramine
Outcome Measure: The difference between the treatment and placebo groups in the number of participants with biochemically verified cocaine abstinence.
14 Recruiting Pazopanib Versus Temsirolimus in Poor-Risk Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)
Condition: Kidney Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Pazopanib;   Drug: Temsirolimus;   Behavioral: Quality of Life Assessment;   Drug: Benadryl
Outcome Measure: Progression Free Survival (PFS)
15 Not yet recruiting First-time-in-man, to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of BP1.5375
Condition: Healthy Male Volunteers
Interventions: Drug: BP1.5375 suspension;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Single Ascending Dose - safety and tolerability (Part 1);   Proof of Concept - effect on polysomnography (Part 2)
16 Not yet recruiting A Double-Blind Trial of Psilocybin-Assisted Treatment of Alcohol Dependence
Condition: Alcohol Dependence
Interventions: Drug: Psilocybin;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Behavioral: Motivational Enhancement and Taking Action (META)
Outcome Measures: percent heavy drinking days;   Changes in vital signs;   adverse events;   Percent days abstinent;   drinks per drinking day;   days to first drinking day;   Days to first heavy drinking day;   consequences of drinking;   craving;   self efficacy;   Motivation to change drinking behavior
17 Recruiting Study Looking at End Expiratory Pressure for Altitude Illness Decrease (SLEEP-AID)
Condition: Acute Mountain Sickness
Interventions: Device: Theravent;   Device: Control
Outcome Measures: Incidence of acute mountain sickness;   number of nocturnal desaturations;   acute mountain sickness severity;   nocturnal awakenings;   subjective quality of sleep
18 Recruiting The Role of Intravenous (IV) Lidocaine in the Management of Chronic Neuropathic Pain of Peripheral Nerve Origin
Condition: Neuropathic Pain
Interventions: Drug: Lidocaine;   Drug: Diphenhydramine
Outcome Measures: Changes from Baseline Pain scores on the Visual Analog Scale at 6 weeks;   Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale;   Modified Brief Pain Inventory;   Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire;   Patient Global Satisfaction with Treatment and Impression of Change;   Side Effects;   Quality of Life Health Outcome Instrument
19 Recruiting FUS1-nanoparticles and Erlotinib in Stage IV Lung Cancer
Condition: Lung Cancer
Interventions: Drug: DOTAP:Chol-fus1;   Drug: Erlotinib;   Drug: Dexamethasone;   Drug: Diphenhydramine
Outcome Measures: Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) Level for Drug Treatment Combination;   Response Rate
20 Unknown  Efficacy and Safety of the Herbal Medicine Sominex ® (Passiflora Incarnata L., Valeriana Officinalis L. and Crataegus Oxyacantha L.), Manufactured by the Laboratory EMS S / A in Patients With Psychophysiological Insomnia
Condition: Insomnia
Interventions: Drug: Sominex;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Improvement in sleep efficiency;   Improvement of the values obtained by the answers of the questionnaires obtained during the treatment