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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED and Prozac

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Not yet recruiting Fluoxetine Prevention Trial
Condition: Cognitive Dysfunction
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change from baseline in regional cerebral metabolism;   Durability of the protective effect of fluoxetine;   Change from baseline in neuropsychological (cognitive, functional) test results;   Correlation between cognitive functioning and cerebral metabolism by correlating neuropsychological testing results with PET imaging;   Correlation between inflammatory cytokines and cerebral metabolism by correlating blood cytokine marker levels with PET imaging
2 Not yet recruiting "Evaluation by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Benefit of Fluoxetine on Motor Recovery After Stroke"
Condition: Cerebral Infarction
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo of fluoxetine
Outcome Measures: Slope of the curve of recruitment of the PEMs;   Slope of recruitment of the PEMs;   Index finger force control in paretic hand under time-course of treatment of Fluoxetine;   in index finger force control in non-paretic hand under time-course of treatment of Fluoxetine
3 Unknown  Predictors of Treatment Response to Fluoxetine in PTSD Following a Recent History of War Zone Stress Exposure
Condition: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Combat-related
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Clinician Administered PTSD Scale;   PTSD Symptom Checklist
4 Recruiting A Study of Olanzapine and Fluoxetine for Treatment-resistant Depression
Condition: Treatment Resistant Depression
Interventions: Drug: Olanzapine;   Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in Montgomery-Äsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS);   Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Depression (CGI-S) Scale;   Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS);   Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36);   Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS);   Percentage of Participants who Achieve a Response Based on a ≥50% Reduction from Baseline in MADRS Total Score;   Percentage of Participants who Achieve Remission Based on MADRS Total Score ≤10 at 8 Weeks;   Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in the Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS);   Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS)
5 Recruiting Role of Inflammation Factors and Insulin Resistance in Major Depressive Disorder
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine + Valsartan;   Drug: Fluoxetine + Placebo
Outcome Measures: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS);   fasting plasma glucose;   fasting serum insulin;   C-reactive Protein, and IL-6
6 Recruiting Effectiveness Study to Compare Venlafaxine With Fluoxetine in the Treatment of Postmenopausal Women With Major Depression
Condition: Major Depression
Intervention: Drug: venlafaxine,fluoxetine
Outcome Measures: change of 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score;   the mean change of HAMD-24 subscale score in items 10, 11, 12, 13 (anxiety and somatizations) at endpoint
7 Recruiting Fluoxetine for Motor, Aphasia, and Neglect Recovery After Ischemic Stroke
Condition: Stroke
Interventions: Drug: fluoxetine;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measures: Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale (FMMS);   Western Aphasia Battery;   Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT);   Functional Independence Measure
8 Recruiting Fluoxetine for Motor Recovery After Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Conditions: Intracerebral Hemorrhage;   Motor Impairment
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Fugl Meyer Motor Scale score;   Barthel Index;   modified Rankin Scale;   NIH Stroke Scale
9 Unknown  Safety and Efficacy of Fluoxetine in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Condition: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Intervention: Drug: Fluoxetine
Outcome Measures: The primary endpoint will be change in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) measured by right heart catheterization after three months of therapy.;   Efficacy, Safety and tolerability endpoints will include change between baseline and three month QIDS-SR depression scale, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (systemic) and tabulation of adverse events
10 Recruiting Hypoglycemia Associated Autonomic Failure in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
Conditions: Type 1 Diabetes;   Hypoglycemia Associated Autonomic Failure
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo control
Outcome Measure: Change in Catecholamines
11 Unknown  Pharmacogenomics Studies of Antidepressants
Conditions: Major Depressive Disorder;   Antidepressive Agents;   Pharmacogenetics;   Venlafaxine;   Fluoxetine
Interventions: Drug: Venlafaxine;   Drug: Fluoxetine
Outcome Measures: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS);   C-reactive Protein and IL-6;   fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles
12 Recruiting Developing Adaptive Treatment Strategies for Children and Adolescents With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder.
Condition: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Interventions: Drug: fluoxetine;   Behavioral: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy
Outcome Measures: Treatment response status at week 28;   Treatment response status at week 14;   Predictors of treatment response at week 28
13 Not yet recruiting RCT of a Neuroplasticity Agent and CI Therapy for Severe Arm Paresis After Stroke
Condition: Severe Stroke With Affected Arm Motor Function
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo;   Procedure: eCMIT;   Procedure: Usual Care
Outcome Measures: Grade 4/5 Motor Activity Log (MAL) Arm Use Scale;   Grade 4/5 MAL Arm Use scale;   Grade 4/5 Wolf Motor Function Test Performance Rate score
14 Recruiting A Positron Emission Topographic (PET) Study on Depression Patient With Electroacupuncture
Conditions: Major Depressive Disorder;   Depression
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Procedure: DCEAS (Hwato®/ Dongbang®);   Procedure: n-CEA (Strietberger®)
Outcome Measures: HAMD-17;   SDS;   PET scanning;   Clinical response;   Remission;   Latency;   Adverse events
15 Recruiting Characterization and Sequential Pharmacotherapy of Severe Mood Dysregulation
Condition: Severe Mood Dysregulation
Interventions: Drug: lisdexamfetamine;   Drug: Placebo;   Drug: fluoxetine
Outcome Measures: Clinical Global Impression-Improvement-Severe Mood Dysregulation;   Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS);   Children's Depression Rating Scale;   ADHD-IV Rating Scale;   ADHD IV Rating Scale;   Columbia Suicide Severity Scales;   Barnes Akathisia Scale;   Children's Affective Lability Scale;   Physical Symptom Checklist;   Revised Modified Overt Aggression Scale;   Screen for Children's Affective Reactivity;   Affective Reactivity Index
16 Recruiting Efficacy of Exposure and Response Prevention(ERP) and SSRIs in Chinese OCD Patients
Conditions: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder;   Anxiety Disorders;   Mental Disorders
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Sertraline;   Drug: Paroxetine;   Drug: Citalopram;   Drug: Fluvoxamine;   Behavioral: Exposure and Response Prevention
Outcome Measures: The change of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale score;   The change of Beck Depression Inventory(BDI-II) score;   The change of Beck Anxiety Inventory(BAI) score;   The change of Stress Perceived Questionnaire (PSS-10) score;   The change of Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation System Scales score;   The change of Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11) score;   The change of Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire-44(OBQ-44) score;   The NEO-Five Factor Inventory-Revised (NEO-FFI-R);   The Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form(ETISR-SF)
17 Recruiting Clinical Trial of Fluoxetine in Anxiety and Depression in Children, and Associated Brain Changes
Conditions: Depression;   Mood Disorder;   Anxiety Disorder;   Healthy
Intervention:
Outcome Measure:
18 Recruiting Comparing Treatments for Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in People With Borderline Personality Disorder
Conditions: Borderline Personality Disorder;   Suicide
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Behavioral: DBT;   Drug: Citalopram
Outcome Measure: Suicidal and self-injurious behavior
19 Recruiting An Adaptive Treatment Strategy for Adolescent Depression-Continuation
Condition: Adolescent Depression
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Behavioral: Interpersonal Psychotherapy
Outcome Measures: K-SADS-PL - baseline; change from baseline in KSADS at week 16 and 32;   BDI-II-baseline; change from baseline in BDI at weeks 4/8/12/16/24/32;   HRSD-baseline; change from baseline in HRSD at weeks 4/8/12/16/24/32;   CSSR-S-baseline; change from baseline in CSSR-S at weeks 4/8/12/16/24/32
20 Recruiting An Adaptive Treatment Strategy for Adolescent Depression
Condition: Adolescent Depression
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Behavioral: Interpersonal Psychotherapy
Outcome Measures: K-SADS-PL - baseline; change from baseline in KSADS at week 16 and 32;   BDI-II-baseline; change from baseline in BDI at weeks 4/8/12/16/32;   HRSD-baseline; change from baseline in HRSD at weeks 4/8/12/16/32;   CSSR-S-baseline; change from baseline in CSSR-S at weeks 4/8/12/16/32