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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED and Ramipril

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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Ramipril Side Effects

Renal Failure Acute (252)
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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Ramipril and Clopidogrel in Oxidative Stress, Vascular Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy
Conditions: Diabetes Type 2;   Diabetic Nephropathy;   Vascular Disease
Interventions: Drug: Ramipril;   Drug: Clopidogrel
Outcome Measures: Changes in Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) blood levels after the combined treatment with Ramipril and clopidogrel compared with Ramipril monotherapy;   Changes in High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) blood levels after the combined treatment with Ramipril and clopidogrel compared with Ramipril monotherapy;   Changes in soluble CD40 Ligand (sCD40L)blood levels after the combined treatment with Ramipril and clopidogrel compared with Ramipril monotherapy;   Changes in urine 8-isoprostane-F2 levels after the combined treatment with Ramipril and clopidogrel compared with Ramipril monotherapy;   Reduction in albumine to creatine ratio after the combined treatment with Ramipril and clopidogrel compared with Ramipril monotherapy;   Changes in ADMA blood levels after treatment with Ramipril;   Increase of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) after combined treatment with Ramipril and clopidogrel and after Ramipril monotherapy;   Change from baseline in carotid intima-media thickness after combined therapy with Ramipril and clopidogrel and after Ramipril monotherapy
2 Recruiting Mechanisms of Ramipril Reduction in the Onset of Type 2 Diabetes
Condition: Metabolic Syndrome
Interventions: Drug: Ramipril;   Drug: HCTZ-hydrochlorothiazide;   Drug: Ramipril+HCTZ
Outcome Measure: Changes in Insulin Sensitivity
3 Recruiting Ramipril for the Treatment of Oligospermia
Conditions: Oligospermia;   Teratospermia;   Asthenozoospermia;   Male Infertility
Interventions: Drug: Ramipril;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Sperm density in infertile men with documented oligospermia.;   Total Motile Sperm Count(TMSC), total sperm count, sperm motility, and morphology in the ejaculate.;   Pregnancy rate;   Hormonal profile
4 Unknown  Clinical and Cost Effectiveness of ACE Inhibitor, Ramipril, in Intermittent Claudicants
Condition: Intermittent Claudicants
Intervention: Drug: Ramipril
Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure for this trial is the Maximum Walking Distance (MWD). Treadmill exercise test will be used to estimate the maximum distance the participant can walk at a speed of 2.5 km/h with a 10 degree incline.;   Other clinical indicators of lower limb ischaemia: a) Patient Reported Walking Distance (PRWD) b) Treadmill Intermittent Claudication Distance (ICD) c) Ankle Brachial Pressure Index at rest (ABPI- r) and following treadmill testing (ABPI - t);   Quality of life: a) Generic - measured using the SF36, SF8 and EuroQol (EQ5D) instruments b) Disease specific - measured using the VascuQol;   Cardiovascular prognosis using: a) Framingham, PROCAM, QRISK and Manchester charts scoring systems b) B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and N- terminal prohormone BNP (NT-proBNP) and a Lipid profile ( LDL, HDL, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides);   Markers of endothelial function and ischaemia reperfusion a) IL6 b) soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM -1) c) sE selectin d) Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio ( UACR);   Arterial effects: a) Arterial stiffness by measuring the Pulse Wave Velocity and assessing the effects on the extracellular matrix by measuring Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Tissue Inhibitor Metalloproteinases (TIMPs). b) Flow mediated vasodilatation;   Health economics (cost effectiveness / utility)
5 Unknown  Left Atrial Remodelling in Hypertension: Effects of Ramipril or Irbesartan
Conditions: Left Atrial Volume;   Hypertensive Heart Disease;   Antihypertensive Drugs;   Diastolic Function;   Renin Angiotensin System
Interventions: Drug: Ramipril;   Drug: irbesartan
Outcome Measures: left atrial volume;   diastolic function;   systolic and diastolic blood pressure
6 Unknown  Antiproteinuric Effect of Imidapril Versus Ramipril in Type 2 Diabetic and Hypertensive Patients With Microalbuminuria
Conditions: Hypertension;   Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus;   Microalbuminuria
Interventions: Drug: Ramipril;   Drug: Imidapril
Outcome Measures: Size of the reduction of urinary albumin in 24 hours to the various controls;   1. Size of the reduction of mean 24-hour average daytime and nighttime average. 2. Size of the reduction of central blood pressure. 3. Magnitude of changes in plasma concentrations of angiotensin II, bradykinin and BNP after 24 weeks of treatment.
7 Not yet recruiting Aliskiren Study of Safety and Efficacy in Senior Hypertensives
Condition: Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Aliskiren;   Drug: Amlodipine;   Drug: Ramipril;   Drug: Hydrochlorothiazide
Outcome Measures: Change from baseline in mean sitting systolic blood pressure (MSSBP) to week 8;   Number of patients with serious adverse events and adverse events;   Number of patients with hyperkalemia, hypotension and reduction of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR);   Change from baseline in mean sitting systolic blood pressure (MSSBP) at the end of double blind period;   Percentage of patients achieving blood pressure control;   Percentage of patients with major cardiovascular events;   Number of patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer
8 Unknown  Ramipril Versus Carvedilol in Duchenne and Becker Patients
Conditions: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy;   Becker Muscular Dystrophy
Interventions: Drug: carvedilol;   Drug: Ramipril
Outcome Measures: Left ventricular Ejection Fraction, systolic and diastolic left ventricular volumes and LGE (as a quantitative measure) detected by MRI and myocardial Ultrasound Tissue Characterisation data by Echocardiography.;   Prevalence of LGE in DMD and BMD patients,the effects of pharmacological therapy both on LGE evolution and myocardial UTC analysis.
9 Unknown  Aliskiren Versus Ramipril on Antiproteinuric Effect in Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Microalbuminuria
Conditions: Hypertension;   Type 2 Diabetes
Interventions: Drug: Ramipril;   Drug: Experimental
Outcome Measures: Antiproteinuric effect as well as antihypertensive effect of aliskiren 300 mg / daily versus Ramipril 10 mg daily in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.;   Average of 24 hours by ABPM, systolic and diastolic blood pressure;   Average daytime, systolic and diastolic blood pressure;   Average night, systolic and diastolic blood pressure
10 Recruiting Efficacy and Safety Study to Delay Renal Failure in Children With Alport Syndrome
Condition: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Interventions: Drug: Ramipril;   Drug: placebo to Ramipril
Outcome Measures: Time to next disease level;   Incidence of Adverse Drug Events before progression;   Albuminuria after three years;   Adverse Drug Events over three years
11 Unknown  Telmisartan Versus Ramipril After Acute Coronary Syndrome
Conditions: Acute Coronary Syndrome;   Myocardial Infarction;   Coronary Disease
Interventions: Drug: TELMISARTAN;   Drug: Ramipril
Outcome Measures: High sensitivity C-Reactive Protein;   Endothelial Progenitor Cells
12 Recruiting Impact of Body Composition on Bisoprolol and Ramipril Pharmacokinetics in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure
Conditions: Chronic Heart Failure;   Cachexia
Intervention:
Outcome Measures: Pharmacokinetic parameters of bisoprolol and Ramipril;   Body composition;   Cachexia diagnosis;   Renal function
13 Not yet recruiting Statin and Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor on Symptoms in Patients With SCAD
Condition: Coronary Artery Dissection, Spontaneous
Interventions: Drug: Ramipril;   Drug: rosuvastatin;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measures: Angina frequency domain of the SAQ;   Acute coronary syndrome or hospitalization for angina
14 Recruiting Sevelamer in Proteinuric CKD
Condition: Chronic Kidney Disease
Interventions: Drug: Sevelamer;   Drug: Ramipril and Irbesartan
Outcome Measures: 24-h urinary protein excretion;   Office blood pressure;   Glomerular Filtration Rate
15 Recruiting Genes, Fibrinolysis and Endothelial Dysfunction- Dialysis Aim 3
Conditions: Oxidative Stress;   Endothelial Dysfunction
Interventions: Drug: Ramipril (ACE inhibitor);   Drug: valsartan (ARB);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: To compare the long term effects of ACE inhibition or angiotensin receptor blockade versus placebo on biomarkers of fibrinolysis, oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis;   To compare the long term effects of ACE inhibition or AT1 receptor blockade versus placebo on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis;   Track safety endpoints- hyperkalemia, hypotension, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, death from cardiac causes, fatal stroke, death due to any cause.
16 Unknown  Defining Strategies for Improving Endothelial and Fibrinolytic Dysfunction in Obesity
Condition: Metabolic Syndrome X
Interventions: Drug: Eplerenone;   Drug: Ramipril
Outcome Measures: Secreted factors from adipocytes have autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects that have a deleterious effect on the fibrinolytic system, either by enhancing PAI-1 production or impairing endothelial t-PA release;   This study will analyze patients' genetic make up to identify who may be at greater risk for heart disease and strokes in relationship to high blood pressure and central obesity.
17 Not yet recruiting Cardiac Energetics and Function in Normal Human Ageing
Conditions: Left Ventricular Function Systolic Dysfunction;   Left Ventricular Function Diastolic Dysfunction;   Ageing
Intervention: Drug: Ramipril
Outcome Measures: Vascular Stiffness;   Left Ventricular Energetics;   Left Ventricular Function;   Effects of ACE inhibitor on left ventricular energetics and function in those subjects aged 40 and over
18 Not yet recruiting Effect of Chronic ACE and DPP4 Inhibition on Blood Pressure
Conditions: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus;   Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Sitagliptin;   Drug: Aprepitant
Outcome Measures: Blood pressure;   heart rate;   norepinephrine (NE) concentrations;   Low frequency variability of blood pressureactivity, aldosterone;   glucose;   insulin;   DPP4 activity;   ACE
19 Recruiting Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation by Inhibition Conversion Enzyme (ICE) After Radiofrequency Ablation of Atrial Flutter
Conditions: Atrial Fibrillation;   Atrial Flutter
Interventions: Drug: Ramipril;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: At least one relevant symptomatic or asymptomatic atrial fibrillation event;   All relevant cardiovascular event;   Secondary effects of the treatment
20 Recruiting Fixed Dose Combination Drug (Polypill)for Secondary Cardiovascular Prevention.
Condition: Myocardial Infarction
Interventions: Drug: FDC;   Drug: Separately drugs, simvastatin, aspirin and Ramipril
Outcome Measures: Proportion of patients receiving AAS, an ACE inhibitor and a statin among those without contraindications to any of these drugs Adherence to treatment measured by: Morinsky-Green test and Pill accountability.;   Adherence to treatment measured by the Morisky-Green questionnaire;   Treatment adherence measured by: Morisky-Green test: (Good adherence score 16-20) at 1 and 9 months.;   Treatment adherence measured by: Pill counts at 1-4-9 months. (Good adherence 80-110% PC);   Blood Pressure and Lipid Profile (LDL-cholesterol) at 1 and 9 months;   Safety and tolerability: Adverse events and rate of treatment withdrawal.