table th, table td {text-align: left; padding: 3px 15px} What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Comparison of Pantoprazole and Ranitidine in Dyspepsia
Condition: Dyspepsia
Interventions: Drug: Pantoprazole;   Drug: Ranitidine
Outcome Measures: Visual analogue scale score;   Need for additional drug
2 Recruiting TPI 287 in Breast Cancer Metastatic to the Brain
Condition: Breast Cancer
Interventions: Drug: TPI 287;   Drug: Dexamethasone;   Drug: Benadryl;   Drug: Ranitidine
Outcome Measure: Overall Response Rate
3 Recruiting Treatment of Orthostatic Hypotension in Autonomic Failure
Conditions: Autonomic Failure;   Orthostatic Hypotension
Interventions: Drug: Atomoxetine;   Drug: Acarbose;   Drug: Pyridostigmine Bromide;   Drug: Yohimbine;   Drug: Midodrine HCl;   Drug: placebo;   Drug: Modafinil;   Drug: Octreotide;   Other: water intake;   Drug: Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride;   Drug: Ranitidine HCL;   Drug: Tranylcypromine;   Drug: Ergotamine/ Caffeine;   Drug: Celecoxib;   Drug: Pseudoephedrine;   Drug: Methylphenidate;   Drug: Indomethacin;   Drug: Ibuprofen;   Drug: Oxymetazoline 0.05% nasal solution;   Dietary Supplement: Bovril;   Drug: Acetazolamide;   Drug: Rivastigmine tartrate;   Drug: Carbidopa/levodopa;   Device: Inflatable abdominal binder;   Device: inflatable abdominal binder (sham)
Outcome Measures: Increase in seated systolic blood pressure 1-hr post drug compared to baseline.;   Increase in standing time 1-hr post drug compared to baseline
4 Not yet recruiting The Study of Eustachian Tube Dysfunction and Laryngopharyngeal Reflux
Conditions: Eustachian Tube Dysfunction;   Laryngopharyngeal Reflux
Interventions: Drug: Omeprazole;   Drug: Ranitidine;   Drug: Pantoprazole;   Procedure: 24-Hour Diagnostic pH-Probe Test;   Procedure: Laryngoscopy
Outcome Measure: Evidence of laryngopharyngeal reflux in patients complaining of ear fullness/pressure/pain
5 Recruiting Development of Voriconazole Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism in Children and Adolescents
Conditions: Pharmacokinetics;   Voriconazole
Intervention: Drug: Midazolam/Ranitidine/Esomeprazole
Outcome Measures: Voriconazole steady-state pharmacokinetics;   Voriconazole drug metabolizing enzyme activity
6 Recruiting Clinical Trial Corticoids For Empyema And Pleural Effusion In Children
Conditions: Parapneumonic Pleural Effusion;   Empyema
Interventions: Drug: Dexamethasone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: time to resolution;   number of children with complications.;   Number of children with complications attributable to corticoids
7 Unknown  Mechanisms of N-acetylcysteine Mediated Vascular Adverse Effects
Condition: Poisoning
Interventions: Drug: Chlorphenamine and Ranitidine;   Drug: Paracetamol
Outcome Measures: Attenuation of NAC induced vasodilatation by histamine antagonists (H1 and H2 antagonists) and/or paracetamol;   Inhibition of the inflammatory cascade contributes to a paracetamol mediated protective role against NAC adverse reactions.
8 Unknown  Antibiotic Resistant Helicobacter Pylori in Rajavithi Hospital
Condition: Dyspepsia
Intervention: Procedure: gastroscopic examination
Outcome Measures: Incidence of H. pylori Clarithromycin resistance gene;   Characteristic of H. pylori clarithromycin resistant gene mutation
9 Unknown  Efficacy of Acetilcysteine in 'Rescue' Therapy for Helicobacter Pylori Infection. Pilot Study
Condition: Helicobacter Pylori Infection
Interventions: Drug: Group A: NCA 600 mg+antibiotics;   Drug: Group B: antibiotic treatment (control)
Outcome Measure: To evaluate the usefulness of NAC as pre-treatment attempt associated with a culture-guided antibiotic therapy as rescue therapy after multi-attempts antibiotic failure
10 Recruiting Prospective Phase 2 Trial of Cabazitaxel in Patients With Temozolomide Refractory Glioblastoma Multiforme
Condition: Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) WHO Grade IV
Intervention: Drug: Cabazitaxel
Outcome Measures: Response including SD, PR or CR determined by MRI (modified RANO criteria);   Overall and progression-free survival;   Safety and tolerability;   Pharmacokinetics data concerning drug interactions (i.e. CYP3A induction);   Quality of life and neurocognitive functioning
11 Recruiting Standard Infusion Carboplatin Versus Prophylactic Extended Infusion Carboplatin in Patients With Patients With Recurrent, Ovary, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer
Conditions: Ovarian Cancer;   Fallopian Tube Cancer;   Peritoneal Cancer
Intervention: Drug: carboplatin
Outcome Measures: To determine if patients have lower rates of hypersensitivity reactions compared to those treated with standard infusion carboplatin.;   Determine the rate of successful planned treatment completion of carboplatin in each group;   Perform a cost-identification analysis of extended infusion carboplatin to estimate the cost per hypersensitivity reaction prevented.;   Perform exploratory analyses to correlate hypersensitivity rate to history of atopy, prior drug allergies, number of lifetime platinum cycles, duration since last platinum, and concomitant chemotherapy agent.
12 Not yet recruiting Safety and Efficacy Study of Vintafolide and Vintafolide Plus Paclitaxel Compared to Paclitaxel Alone in Participants With Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) (MK-8109-004)
Condition: Breast Neoplasms
Interventions: Drug: Vintafolide 2.5 mg;   Drug: Paclitaxel 80 mg/m^2;   Drug: Etarfolatide;   Drug: Folic acid;   Drug: Premedication for Paclitaxel
Outcome Measures: Progression Free Survival (PFS);   Objective Response Rate (Complete Response [CR] + Partial Response [PR]);   Clinical Benefit Rate (CR + PR + Stable Disease [SD] for >=6 months);   Overall Survival (OS)
13 Recruiting MAGIC vs. CROSS Upper GI. ICORG 10-14, V3
Conditions: Adenocarcinoma of the Oesophagus;   Adenocarcinoma of the Oesophago-gastric Junction;   Oesophageal Tumours;   Junctional Tumours;   Oesophageal Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Epirubicin;   Drug: Cisplatin;   Drug: 5 Flourouracil/ Capecitabine;   Radiation: (41.4 Gy/23 fractions);   Drug: Paclitaxel;   Drug: Carboplatin
Outcome Measure: Overall survival
14 Recruiting Phase I Study of PI3(Phosphoinositol 3)-Kinase Inhibitor BAY80-6946 With Paclitaxel in Patients With Advanced Cancer
Condition: Neoplasms
Interventions: Drug: Paclitaxel;   Drug: Copanlisib (BAY80-6946)
Outcome Measures: Adverse event collection;   Maximum tolerated dose, measured by adverse event profile;   Pharmacokinetics characterized by Cmax of BAY80-6946 (and its metabolite(s), if needed);   Pharmacokinetics characterized by Cmax/D of BAY80-6946 (and its metabolite(s), if needed);   Pharmacokinetics characterized by tmax of BAY80-6946 (and its metabolite(s), if needed);   Pharmacokinetics characterized by AUC(0-tlast) of BAY80-6946 (and its metabolite(s), if needed);   Pharmacokinetics characterized by AUC (if possible) of BAY80-6946 (and its metabolite(s), if needed);   Pharmacokinetics characterized by AUC/D of BAY80-6946 (and its metabolite(s), if needed);   Pharmacokinetics characterized by half-life of BAY80-6946 (and its metabolite(s), if needed);   Pharmacokinetics characterized by partial AUC values [eg, AUC(0-25)] of BAY80-6946 (and its metabolite(s), if needed);   Pharmacokinetics characterized by clearance of BAY80-6946 (and its metabolite(s), if needed);   Pharmacokinetics characterized by volume of distribution of BAY80-6946 (and its metabolite(s), if needed);   Estimation of percent of dose excreted [unchanged or as metabolites, if relevant) renally during 0 - 25 h after start of BAY80-6946 infusion (AE,ur(0-25)] (for Cohort 4 only);   Pharmacokinetics characterized by Cmax of Paclitaxel and 6-OH paclitaxel;   Pharmacokinetics characterized by tmax of Paclitaxel and 6-OH paclitaxel;   Pharmacokinetics characterized by AUC(0-t) of Paclitaxel and 6-OH paclitaxel;   Pharmacokinetics characterized by AUC of Paclitaxel and 6-OH paclitaxel;   Pharmacokinetics characterized by half-life of Paclitaxel and 6-OH paclitaxel;   Pharmacokinetics characterized by clearance of Paclitaxel and 6-OH paclitaxel;   Pharmacokinetics characterized by volume of distribution (If possible and needed) of Paclitaxel and 6-OH paclitaxel;   Effect of BAY80-6946 on paclitaxel PK will be assessed by comparing Cmax of Cycle 1 Day 1 and Cycle 1 Day 15;   Effect of BAY80-6946 on paclitaxel PK will be assessed by comparing AUC(0-tlast) of Cycle 1 Day 1 and Cycle 1 Day 15;   Number of patients with mutational status;   Tumor Response as measured by RECIST 1.1 criteria
15 Recruiting Modulation of Autophagy in Patients With Advanced/Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer - Phase II
Conditions: Non-small Cell Lung Cancer;   Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer;   Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Paclitaxel;   Drug: Carboplatin;   Drug: Hydroxychloroquine;   Drug: Bevacizumab
Outcome Measures: Antitumor activity, as measured by tumor response rate of hydroxychloroquine, paclitaxel, carboplatin, and bevacizumab (for eligible patients) in patients with advanced or recurrent NSCLC cancer;   Time to progression;   Survival;   Overall survival;   Toxicity of hydroxychloroquine, paclitaxel, carboplatin, and bevacizumab (for eligible patients) in patients with advanced or recurrent NSCLC cancer
16 Unknown  Gemcitabine, Paclitaxel, Ifosfamide, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Progressive or Relapsed Metastatic Germ Cell Tumors
Conditions: Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors;   Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor;   Ovarian Cancer;   Testicular Germ Cell Tumor
Interventions: Biological: filgrastim;   Biological: lenograstim;   Biological: pegfilgrastim;   Drug: cisplatin;   Drug: gemcitabine hydrochloride;   Drug: ifosfamide;   Drug: paclitaxel
Outcome Measures: Maximum tolerated dose of gemcitabine hydrochloride when administered with TIP chemotherapy comprising paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin with growth factor support (phase I);   Response rates (phase I);   Failure-free survival (phase I);   Utility of positron emission tomography scanning after Gem-TIP chemotherapy (phase I);   Degree of dose intensification achieved with Gem-TIP chemotherapy relative to a previous Medical Research Council study with TIP alone (phase II)