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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED and Ritalin

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting A Study Comparing Long-acting Methylphenidate (ConcertaTM) vs. Placebo in the Treatment of Memory Loss Due to HIV
Condition: HIV Dementia
Interventions: Drug: Long acting methylphenidate;   Drug: Matched placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in rate of reaction time as measured by neuropsychological testing;   Number of Subjects with Adverse Events as Measures of Safety and Tolerability of Concerta in HIV infected adults
2 Recruiting Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin®) on the Neural Basis of Anxiety
Condition: PTSD
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Changes in blood oxygenation level-dependent BOLD signal responses;   Changes in BOLD signal responses;   Changes in skin conductance response;   Latency and accuracy during a interoceptive stimulus task
3 Not yet recruiting The Effect of Ritalin (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) on Pain and Auditory Sensitivity: an Exploratory Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial on Healthy Subjects
Condition: Pharmacological Action (PA)
Interventions: Drug: methylphenidate hydrochloride;   Drug: Sugar pill (placebo)
Outcome Measures: Experimental pain intensity measured on a visual analogue scale (0-100);   effect of Ritalin on auditory sensitivity, measured by the response to different auditory stimulations;   pain intensity (NPS 0-100) in response to thermal stimuli and the measures of the auditory tests.
4 Not yet recruiting Identifying Characteristic Signature of Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Ritalin Treatment
Condition: "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder"
Interventions: Drug: Ritalin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Resting oscillation activity and Event-related-Potentials in Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and healthy subjects.
5 Not yet recruiting Dopamine Receptor Imaging to Predict Response to Stimulant Therapy in Chronic TBI
Condition: Traumatic Brain Injury
Interventions: Drug: methylphenidate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Relationship between tonic dopamine release (measured by displacement of [11C]-raclopride by oral methylphenidate) and change in processing speed between baseline and after methylphenidate treatment.;   Relationship between D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex and neuropsychologic deficits.;   Relationship between tonic dopamine release in the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex with neuropsychologic deficits after TBI.;   Relationship between D2/D3 receptor availability and functional connectivity of the prefrontal cortex with nodes of the default mode network.;   Relationship between TMS-induced short-interval cortical inhibition of M1 and tonic dopamine release.;   Test motivation and reward on and off methylphenidate in TBI patients.
6 Unknown  Amantadine Versus Ritalin in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Condition: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Amantadine;   Drug: Ritalin
Outcome Measure: The mean decrease in ADHD -RS-IV score from baseline will be used as the main outcome measure of response of ADHD treatment.
7 Recruiting Methylphenidate to Improve Balance and Walking in MS
Condition: Multiple Sclerosis
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate (Ritalin);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Timed Up and Go time (TUG time);   Automatic Postural Response (APR) Latency (in sec);   Timed 25 Foot Walk (T25FW in secs);   Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Assessment Questionnaire score;   Modified Fatigue Index Scale score;   Vestibular-Ocular Reflex time (in secs)
8 Unknown  Study of Methylphenidate as Add on Therapy in Depressed Cancer Patients
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: depressive symptoms;   Distress level
9 Recruiting Effects of Methylphenidate, Modafinil, and MDMA on Emotion-processing in Humans: A Pharmaco-fMRI Study
Conditions: Healthy;   Substance-related Disorder;   Mood Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Drug: Modafinil;   Drug: MDMA;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Effect on amygdala and striatum BOLD signal responses to emotional stimuli;   Effects on cognitive performance and associated BOLD signal changes in frontal areas;   Subjective effects;   Neuroendocrine effects;   Empathy and social behavior;   Physiological effects of methylphenidate, modafinil, and MDMA;   Genetic Polymorphisms;   Pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate, modafinil, and MDMA
10 Recruiting Methylphenidate vs. Risperidone for the Treatment of Children and Adolescents With ADHD and Disruptive Disorders
Conditions: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder;   Oppositional Defiant Disorder;   Conduct Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Drug: Risperidone
Outcome Measures: Change from baseline of aggressive behaviors.;   Clinical Global Impression - Improvement scale (CGI-I) questionnaire;   ADHD-RS questionnaire;   Children's Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) questionnaire;   Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) questionnaire;   Children Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ);   Clinical Global Impression - Severity (CGI-S) questionnaire
11 Recruiting The Effect of Methylphenidate Treatment in Familial Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Conditions: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Combined Type;   ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Type;   ADHD Predominantly Hyperactivity Type;   ADHD-not Other Specified
Intervention: Drug: Methylphenidate- Ritalin IR (Immediate Release)
Outcome Measures: Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale;   overall ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) score
12 Recruiting Methylphenidate as Treatment Option of Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis
Conditions: Multiple Sclerosis;   Fatigue
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate modified release;   Drug: Maltodextrin
Outcome Measures: Change of Fatigue as measured by Fatigue Severity Scale;   Change of Fatigue as measured by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS)
13 Not yet recruiting Methylphenidate on Intracortical Inhibition in Methamphetamine Abusers Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Condition: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Intervention: Other: methylphenidate tablets and Inter-stimulus Intervals (ISI)
Outcome Measures: Conners ADHD Rating Scale;   Change of Motor Evoked Potential (MEP)
14 Recruiting Control of Cognition
Conditions: Healthy;   Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder;   Alcohol Dependence;   Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Alcohol Dependence
Interventions: Drug: Methylphendiate;   Drug: Naltrexone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Identify abnormalities in prefrontal control neural circuits underlying attention control, motor control, and appetitive control;   Characterize effects of methylphenidate and naltrexone on neural circuits in prefrontal cortex associated with attention control, motor control, and appetitive control;   Reaction time on the Multi-Source Interference Task;   Accuracy on the Multi-Source Interference Task;   Reaction time variability on the Multi-Source Interference Task
15 Recruiting Multimodal Therapy for Treatment of Fatigue
Condition: Prostate Cancer
Interventions: Other: Placebo;   Drug: Methylphenidate;   Behavioral: Counseling Sessions;   Other: Sham Exercise;   Other: Standardized Exercise Intervention Program;   Other: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Outcome Measure: Change in Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue (FACIT-F) subscale scores
16 Recruiting Methylphenidate for Attention Problems After Pediatric TBI
Conditions: Traumatic Brain Injury;   TBI;   ADHD
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Parent report measures;   Neuropsychological Testing;   Teacher Report Measures
17 Not yet recruiting Reversal of General Anesthesia With Methylphenidate
Conditions: Post Operative Cognitive Dysfunction;   Emergence From Anesthesia
Intervention: Drug: Methylphenidate
Outcome Measures: Number of Participants with Adverse Events as a Measure of Safety and Tolerability;   Time to emergence from general anesthesia
18 Recruiting Impact of CES1 Genotype on Metabolism of Methylphenidate
Conditions: Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) Genotype;   CES1 Activity
Intervention: Drug: Methylphenidate
Outcome Measures: Plasma concentration of methylphenidate and Ritalinic acid;   Metabolomic Profile
19 Recruiting A Comparison of Methylphenidate and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder
Condition: Binge-Eating Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Outcome Measures: Frequency of binge episodes/days, as assessed by prospective daily binge diary;   Frequency of objective binge episodes and overall illness severity, as assessed by both the Eating Disorder Examination Interview and Questionnaire;   Clinician impression of illness severity and improvement, as assessed by the Clinical Global Impression scale;   Quality of life, as assessed by the Quality of Life Inventory;   Associated features of binge eating as captured by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Binge Eating Scale;   Body Mass Index
20 Not yet recruiting Methylphenidate ER Liquid Formulation in Adults With ASD and ADHD
Conditions: Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder;   Autism Spectrum Disorder
Intervention: Drug: Methylphenidate extended-release liquid formulation
Outcome Measure: Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Report Scale (AISRS)