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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED and SPIRONOLACTONE

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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SPIRONOLACTONE Side Effects

Hyperkalaemia (208)
Renal Failure Acute (103)
Dyspnoea (81)
Dehydration (59)
Asthenia (56)
Gynaecomastia (55)
Diarrhoea (52)
Nausea (50)
Blood Potassium Increased (50)
Blood Creatinine Increased (48)
Fatigue (46)
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Vomiting (33)
Hyponatraemia (33)
Oedema Peripheral (31)
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Blood Urea Increased (20)
Anxiety (20)
Blood Pressure Decreased (20)
Cardiac Failure Congestive (20)
Headache (20)
Weight Increased (19)
Pulmonary Embolism (18)
Blood Pressure Increased (18)
Breast Pain (18)
Confusional State (17)
Weight Decreased (17)
Hypokalaemia (17)
Syncope (16)
Pneumonia (16)
Myocardial Infarction (16)
Oedema (15)

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Effects of Spironolactone on Collagen Metabolism in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Condition: Pulmonary Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Spironolactone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in biomarker levels in the Spironolactone treated as compared to placebo treated group.;   Number of adverse events in patients treated with Spironolactone as compared to placebo.;   Change in six-minute walk distance from baseline to week 8 and week 16.;   Composite end-point
2 Recruiting Acetazolamide and Spironolactone to Increase Natriuresis in Congestive Heart Failure
Condition: Heart Failure
Interventions: Drug: Combination therapy with acetazolamide and low-dose loop diuretics;   Drug: High-dose loop diuretics;   Drug: Upfront therapy with oral Spironolactone
Outcome Measures: Acetazolamide arm: natriuresis 24 h;   Spironolactone arm: incidence of hypo- (serum potassium <3.5 mmol/L) or hyperkalemia (serum potassium >5.0 mmol/L);   NT-proBNP change after 72 h;   Worsening renal function;   Persistent renal impairment;   Peak plasma aldosterone concentration after 72 h;   Peak plasma renin activity after 72 h
3 Recruiting Determining the Effect of Spironolactone on Electrolyte Supplementation in Preterm Infants With Chronic Lung Disease
Conditions: Chronic Lung Disease;   Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
Interventions: Drug: Spironolactone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Dose of potassium chloride in milliequivalents/kg/day;   Requirement of electrolyte supplementation;   Analyze the use of furosemide rescue doses;   Number of furosemide doses utilized;   Escalation in respiratory support
4 Unknown  Effects of Spironolactone in Dialysis
Condition: Renal Failure
Intervention: Drug: Spironolactone
Outcome Measures: Reduction of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy;   To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the use of Spironolactone at a dose of 25mg in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.
5 Unknown  Spironolactone for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation
Condition: Atrial Fibrillation
Interventions: Drug: Spironolactone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: time to a first electrocardiographically confirmed AF;   1. Response rate: Improvement of any symptom scores and/or SF36 scores more than 50 % (compared with re-randomization scores) 2. Difference of mean episodes of documented AF between the Spironolactone and placebo groups.
6 Not yet recruiting L-Arginine and Spironolactone Trial in Dialysis-Dependent ESRD
Conditions: End Stage Renal Disease;   Hemodialysis
Interventions: Drug: Spironolactone;   Dietary Supplement: L-arginine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in coronary Flow Reserve (PET);   Change in left ventricular diastolic function;   Association between coronary flow reserve (CFR) and tissue doppler index (E');   Change in resting myocardial blood flow;   Change in left ventricular mass index;   Change in coronary vascular resistance;   Association between change in coronary flow reserve (CFR) and change in diastolic function-tissue doppler index (E');   Change in early diastolic function (E');   Combined cardiovascular safety;   Cardiovascular death;   Hyperkalemia;   Hypotension;   Change in early coronary flow reserve;   Change in hyperemic myocardial blood flow
7 Recruiting The Effect of Spironolactone on Pain in Older People With Osteoarthritis
Condition: Osteoarthritis, Knee
Intervention: Drug: Spironolactone
Outcome Measures: Between group difference in change in WOMAC pain subscale (5 items);   Between group difference in change in WOMAC stiffness subscale.
8 Unknown  Effect of Spironolactone on Adrenal or Ovarian Androgen Production in Overweight Pubertal Girls With Androgen Excess
Conditions: Obesity;   Hyperandrogenemia;   Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Interventions: Drug: Spironolactone;   Drug: Dexamethasone;   Drug: Cosyntropin;   Drug: r-hCG (Ovidrel)
Outcome Measures: Changes in free testosterone and 17 OH progesterone levels after ACTH and r-hCG administration respectively, before and after Spironolactone administration for 12 weeks;   Changes in adrenal and ovarian steroid precursors after ACTH and r-hCG; body composition via air displacement plethysmography, BMI, and glucose tolerance testing results; baseline and after 12 weeks of Spironolactone administration
9 Recruiting Use of Spironolactone for the Prevention of Electrolyte Abnormalities in Patients Treated With Amphotericin B
Condition: Patients With Indications for AmB Treatment
Interventions: Drug: Spironolactone 100mg;   Drug: Spironolactone 200mg;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Incidence of hypokalemia ≤3.5mEq/L;   Average potassium supplementation;   Incidence of hyperkalemia;   Acute kidney injury;   Incidence of renal tubular damage;   Incidence of hypomagnesemia
10 Unknown  Effect of Spironolactone in Treating Chronic Non-resolutive Central Serous Chorioretinitis
Condition: Central Serous Chorioretinitis
Interventions: Drug: Spironolactone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Change in Central macular thickness
11 Recruiting Spironolactone in Adult Congenital Heart Disease
Conditions: Congenital Heart Disease;   Heart Failure;   Endomyocardial Fibrosis
Interventions: Drug: Spironolactone;   Other: Placebo
Outcome Measures: "Fibrosis Index" or the volume of distribution of gadolinium in the myocardium measured by MRI.;   PCIIINP, PCINP, MMP-2, TIMP-1, 6-minute walk distance, ejection fraction, and degree of diastolic function
12 Unknown  Addition of Spironolactone in Patients With Resistant Arterial Hypertension
Condition: Hypertension
Intervention: Drug: Spironolactone
Outcome Measures: Average daytime systolic and diastolic blodd pressure evaluated by ABPM (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring);   changes of serum potassium, natrium, creatinine, body weight, casual blood pressure in office, treatment response for different baseline levels of aldosterone and aldosterone/PRA ratio
13 Recruiting Comparison of Effects of Eplerenone Versus Spironolactone in Heart Failure Patients With Glucose Intolerance or Type 2 Diabetes
Conditions: Heart Failure;   Type 2 Diabetes;   Glucose Intolerance
Interventions: Drug: Eplerenone;   Drug: Spironolactone
Outcome Measures: Glycated hemoglobin;   Fasting glucose and lipid profile;   Plasma insulin;   Cortisol;   Adiponectin;   NT-proBNP;   PIIINP
14 Unknown  Efficacy of Therapy With the Spironolactone Pills Compared to Minoxidil Lotion in Female Pattern Hair Loss
Condition: Female Pattern Hair Loss
Interventions: Drug: Spironolactone;   Drug: Minoxidil
Outcome Measures: hair density;   percentage of subjects who experience side effects;   subject assessment of treatment effect
15 Recruiting Spironolactone for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Condition: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Spironolactone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in placebo corrected 6-minute walk distance;   Clinical worsening;   Change in placebo corrected VO2 max;   Change in right ventricular function;   Biomarkers of vascular inflammation;   Rate of study drug discontinuation due to hyperkalemia, renal insufficiency, or other side effects such as breast pain and gynecomastia
16 Recruiting Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists in End Stage Renal Disease
Condition: End Stage Renal Disease / Hemodialysis
Intervention: Drug: Spironolactone
Outcome Measures: Left Ventricular Mass Index;   Cardiac function parameters;   Office and 24h blood pressure;   Clinical measures of heart failure severity;   Vascular function;   Biomarkers of heart failure, inflammation and fibrosis;   Quality of Life;   Cardiac death and/or hospitalization for heart failure;   Safety measures
17 Recruiting ALdosterone Antagonist Chronic HEModialysis Interventional Survival Trial
Condition: End Stage Renal Failure on Dialysis
Interventions: Drug: Spironolactone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: The time to onset of the first incident :non-fatal MI or hospitalization for heart failure or nonfatal stroke or cardiovascular (CV) death;   The cumulate rate of nonfatal MI, hospitalization for heart failure, nonfatal stroke or CV death;   The time to onset of death from i) any cause and ii) from a CV event and iii) from a non CV cause;   The time of survival without a major CV event (nonfatal MI, hospitalization for heart failure, non-fatal stroke, cardiac arrest resuscitation);   Incidence of procedures related to stenosis or vascular access thrombosis for hemodialysis (HD);   Incidence of coronary or peripheral revascularizations (including lower limb amputations);   Blood pressure and its inter visit variability;   The occurrence of atrial fibrillation;   Incidence of hyperkalemia> 6 mmol/l;   Estimation of the effect of treatment on quality of life.
18 Recruiting Proteomic Prediction and Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System Inhibition Prevention Of Early Diabetic nephRopathy In TYpe 2 Diabetic Patients With Normoalbuminuria
Conditions: Diabetic Nephropathy;   Diabetic Retinopathy
Interventions: Drug: Spironolactone;   Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Standard care
Outcome Measures: Albuminuria;   Cardiovascular disease and mortality;   Retinopathy;   Change in albuminuria;   Microalbuminuria;   Macroalbuminuria;   Change in CKD class;   Slope of estimated GFR
19 Unknown  Clinical and Therapeutic Implications of Fibrosis in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Conditions: Myocardial Fibrosis;   Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Intervention: Drug: Spironolactone
Outcome Measures: changes in serum markers of collagen turnover;   measures of diastolic function by echocardiography;   cardiac mass and fibrosis by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR);   exercise tolerance by exercise VO2max and Holter
20 Unknown  Cardiovascular Protective Effect of Spironolactone in Hemodialysis
Condition: Hemodialysis
Intervention: Drug: Spironolactone (drug)
Outcome Measure: