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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED and Trazodone

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Efficacy and Safety of Risperidone and Trazodone Monotherapy and Combination Therapy in Critically Ill Patients With Delirium
Conditions: Delirium;   Agitation
Interventions: Drug: Risperidone;   Drug: Trazodone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: The number of days patients are without delirium during the study period (delirium-free days);   Daily prevalence of delirium as indicated by a positive Confusion Assessment Method in the ICU (CAM-ICU);   Resolution of delirium as indicated by a negative Confusion Assessment Method in the ICU (CAM-ICU) for more than 24 hours;   The number of patients who require rescue medications, the type of rescue medications utilized, and the amount of rescue medications per day;   The number of patients who receive sedative agents, amount of midazolam equivalents per day, and the number of days in which patients receive a sedative agent;   The number of patients who receive pain medications, amount of fentanyl equivalents per day, and the number of days in which patients receive a pain medication;   The number of hours spent agitated (RASS score between +4 and +2) as a percent of the time that the study drug was administered;   The number of hours spent excessively sedated or in a coma state (RASS score between -4 to -5) as a percent of the time that the study drug was administered;   The duration of mechanical ventilation from initial intubation to extubation as long as the patient remained extubated for more than 48 hours.;   The number of days that the patients were alive and breathing without assistance during the study period (ventilator-free days);   The number of episodes and number of patients who experience clinically significant QTc prolongation (≥ 500 msec or an increase of more than 60 msec from baseline);   The number of episodes and number of patients who experience clinically significant extrapyramidal effects (as evidenced by a positive Simpson-Angus Scale Score);   All-cause mortality and 28-day mortality
2 Unknown  A Clinical Study of Trazodone Hydrochloride Prolonged-Release Tablets for Treatment of Depression
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Drug: Trazodone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 score;   Changes in HAMA-14 score;   CGI-Severity of illness and CGI-Global improvement;   Changes in evaluation of sleep quality and sexual dysfunction;   Rate changes of responders/patients
3 Recruiting Study of Trazodone & Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Insomnia
Condition: Insomnia
Interventions: Drug: Trazodone;   Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Outcome Measures: Change from Baseline in objective sleep duration at 9 months;   Change from Baseline in Subjective Severity of Sleep Disturbance & Subjective Sleep Duration at 9 months
4 Recruiting The Effects of Trazodone on Sleep Apnea Severity
Condition: Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
Interventions: Drug: Placebo pill;   Drug: Trazodone
Outcome Measures: Apnea-Hypopnea Index;   Arousal threshold
5 Unknown  Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Three Generic Medications and Their Respective Brand Preparations
Condition: Healthy
Interventions: Drug: Trazodone;   Drug: Quetiapine;   Drug: Pindolol;   Procedure: Blood Collection
Outcome Measure: Plasma levels of Medication
6 Recruiting Algorithm Guided Treatment Strategies for Major Depressive Disorder
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram;   Drug: Mirtazapine;   Other: modified electroconvulsive therapy;   Other: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation;   Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Citalopram;   Drug: Paroxetine;   Drug: Sertraline;   Drug: Fluvoxamine;   Drug: Venlafaxine;   Drug: Duloxetine;   Drug: Bupropion;   Drug: Trazodone
Outcome Measures: Remission defined as endpoint 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) total score ≤ 7;   Remission defined as endpoint the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (16-item) (QIDS-SR16) total score ≤ 5;   Frequency and intensity of adverse events;   Quality of life
7 Recruiting Development of Pharmacogenomic Method to Predict Antidepressant Responsiveness
Conditions: Depression;   Antidepressant Drug Adverse Reaction
Interventions: Drug: SSRI class antidepressant;   Drug: non-SSRI class antidepressant
Outcome Measures: all pharmacogenetic and biological marker variables cause drug response;   all clinical cause drug response
8 Recruiting Sequenced Therapies for Comorbid and Primary Insomnias
Conditions: Insomnia Comorbid to Psychiatric Disorder;   Primary Insomnia
Interventions: Behavioral: Behavioral Insomnia Therapy;   Drug: Zolpidem;   Drug: Trazodone;   Behavioral: Cognitive Therapy
Outcome Measure: Insomnia Severity Index- Change from Baseline (Remission)
9 Recruiting Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Treatment Resistant Depression
Condition: Treatment Resistant Depression
Interventions: Other: IPT+ antidepressant drugs;   Drug: fluoxetine;   Drug: sertraline;   Drug: paroxetine;   Drug: Citalopram;   Drug: escitalopram;   Drug: fluvoxamine;   Drug: Venlafaxine;   Drug: Duloxetine;   Drug: Bupropion;   Drug: Lithium;   Drug: Risperidone;   Drug: tranylcypromine;   Drug: Imipramine;   Drug: amitriptyline;   Drug: Clomipramine;   Drug: nortriptyline;   Drug: Trazodone;   Drug: Mirtazapine;   Drug: sulpiride
Outcome Measures: Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) - continuous;   Beck depression Inventory (BDI)
10 Recruiting Study Comparing 3 Different Treatments for Arthritis of the Lower Back (Lumbar Spinal Stenosis)
Condition: Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
Interventions: Drug: NSAIDs; adjunctive analgesics; adjunctive anti-depressants;   Procedure: Lumbar epidural injection;   Other: Joint Mobilizations (spine, sacroiliac, hip);   Other: Individualized exercises: clinical setting;   Other: Group Exercise: community setting
Outcome Measures: Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire Score;   Self Paced Walking Test
11 Recruiting The Effects of Cannabinoid on Patients With Non-GERD Related Non Cardiac Chest Pain
Condition: Chest Pain
Interventions: Drug: Marinol;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Frequency of chest pain episodes;   Frequency of chest pain in treatment group vs baseline;   Intensity of chest pain episodes;   Sensory thresholds for first sensation;   Frequency of reactive esophageal contractions;   Amplitude of reactive esophageal contractions;   Area under the curve of reactive esophageal contractions;   Duration of chest pain episodes;   Sensory thresholds for discomfort;   Sensory thresholds for pain