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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED and Tylenol

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Unknown  Analgesic Effect of Paracetamol, Paracetamol + Codeine, Ibuprofen and Their Combination
Condition: Pain, Postoperative
Interventions: Drug: Ibuprofen + Paracetamol;   Drug: Ibuprofen + Paracetamol + Codeine;   Drug: Paracetamol + Codeine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Sum pain intensity SPI (0-10 Numerical Rating Scale);   Sum pain intensity difference score (PID);   Overall assessment of efficacy (4-point Verbal Rating Scale);   Adverse effects AE (Specific reporting of AE - type, duration and severity)
2 Not yet recruiting Equality Study of Ofirmev vs Oral Acetaminophen
Condition: Pain, Postoperative
Interventions: Drug: IV acetaminophen;   Drug: oral acetaminophen
Outcome Measures: Primary outcome will measure total opioid consumption while the patient is in the PACU;   time from PACU admission to request for first opioid dose
3 Unknown  Acetaminophen for Cancer Pain
Conditions: Cancer;   Pain
Interventions: Drug: Acetaminophen;   Drug: acetaminophen;   Drug: placebo, sugar pill
Outcome Measures: Patient preference for the acetaminophen or the placebo arm as assessed by asking the patient whether he/she preferred treatment period 1 or treatment period 2;   Differences in the mean pain intensity score as assessed by the daily average Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) pain score during the week given acetaminophen compared with the daily average NRS pain score during the week given placebo;   Symptoms possibly associated with acetaminophen use for each period using an NRS: feeling sick (nausea and vomiting);   drowsiness;   constipation;   cold sweats;   overall sense of well being;   Total analgesic consumption in each treatment period;   Best and worst pain scores for each treatment period;   Pain relief obtained in each treatment period;   Effect of pain on functional ability;   Strength of preference for acetaminophen versus placebo on a 5-point scale;   Proportion of patients who had a preference for acetaminophen who perceived the improvement warranted taking the additional tablets;   Proportion of patients having a clinically significant improvement in pain (defined as an improvement in mean NRS of at least 33% during the week taking acetaminophen)
4 Recruiting Intraoperative and Post-operative Analgesic Effect of IV Acetaminophen for Sinus Surgery
Condition: Chronic Sinusitis
Interventions: Drug: IV Acetaminophen;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Assess the efficacy of IV acetaminophen in controlling postoperative pain;   Investigate the effect of IV acetaminophen on the use of postoperative opioid analgesics;   Analyze effects of IV acetaminophen on intraoperative analgesic use;   Identify potential correlation between vital signs and postoperative pain intensity;   Examine the effect of IV acetaminophen on post-operative quality of recovery
5 Recruiting Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) for Closure of PDA in Preterm Infants
Condition: PDA
Interventions: Drug: Paracetamol;   Drug: Ibuprofen;   Procedure: Closure of PDA
Outcome Measures: Closure of arterial duct - yes / No;   Need for surgical closure of arterial duct
6 Recruiting Paracetamol Effect on Oxidative Stress and Renal Function in Severe Malaria
Condition: Malaria
Interventions: Drug: Paracetamol;   Drug: No Paracetamol
Outcome Measures: Effect of paracetamol concentrations;   Compare treatment arm with control arm with respect to duration of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and development of AKI.;   Oxidative stress assessed by measuring F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs);   Assessment of Blackwater fever;   Mortality trends;   Intravascular Haemolysis;   Fever clearance time;   Parasite clearance time;   Parasite sequestration;   Assessment of Acute Kidney Injury;   Creatinine clearance;   Safety assessment
7 Recruiting Slow Initial β-lactam Infusion With High-dose Paracetamol to Improve the Outcomes of Childhood Bacterial Meningitis
Condition: Bacterial Meningitis
Interventions: Drug: Infusion with paracetamol;   Drug: Bolus without paracetamol
Outcome Measures: Mortality;   Status on the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale;   Death or any sequelae;   A change in hearing threshold compared to the first test result;   Death or severe neurological sequelae;   Deafness
8 Unknown  Paracetamol for Cancer Pain
Conditions: Advanced Cancer;   Opioid Use, Unspecified
Interventions: Drug: paracetamol;   Drug: placebo tablets
Outcome Measures: Pain reduction caused by paracetamol 4g/d;   Overall satisfaction with the pain treatment
9 Recruiting Clinical Study Comparing the Efficacy of Transbuccal Paracetamol 125 mg Versus Paracetamol Injection 1g in Slow Infusion IV in Patients With Acute Pain
Condition: Acute Pain
Interventions: Drug: paracetamol;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Pain score measured by visual analogue scale
10 Unknown  The Effect of Single Dose Paracetamol on the Lower Airways of Asthmatic and Healthy Children
Condition: Asthma
Intervention: Drug: paracetamol
Outcome Measure: A measurable change in lung functions in response to paracetamol exposure.
11 Recruiting Prospective, Randomized, Double Blind Study Comparing IV vs PO Acetaminophen in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Discectomy
Condition: Pain
Interventions: Drug: oral acetaminophen;   Drug: intravenous acetaminophen
Outcome Measures: Postoperative pain scores;   Quantity of intraoperative and postoperative opioids administered.
12 Recruiting Can Acetaminophen Given 1-2 Hours to Children Before Ear Tube Surgery Reduce Agitation After Anesthesia?
Conditions: Emergence Agitation;   Pain
Intervention: Drug: Acetaminophen
Outcome Measures: Emergence Agitation;   Pain
13 Recruiting Analgesic Efficacy of Intravenous Acetaminophen After Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery
Condition: Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery
Interventions: Drug: IV Acetaminophen;   Drug: Saline Placebo
Outcome Measures: Total morphine consumption;   Number of PCA morphine bolus requests;   Pain Scores;   Vital signs
14 Recruiting A Prospective, Randomized, Double Blind, Comparative-effectiveness Study Comparing Perioperative Administration of Oral Versus Intravenous Acetaminophen for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Condition: Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Interventions: Drug: 2 capsules Oral Tylenol 2000 mg and IV "salt water";   Drug: IV Tylenol 1000mg and 2 oral capsule "sugar pills"
Outcome Measures: Pain;   Opioid Use
15 Not yet recruiting Adding Paracetamol to Ibuprofen for Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants
Condition: Hemodynamically Significant Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants
Interventions: Drug: Paracetamol;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus closure;   The need for surgical ligation for PDA;   Adverse effects
16 Recruiting Intravenous Acetaminophen for Non-Narcotic Postoperative Pain Management Following Knee Arthroscopy
Condition: Pain, Postoperative
Intervention: Drug: Intravenous Acetaminophen
Outcome Measures: Postoperative pain levels;   Postoperative opioid consumption
17 Recruiting Intravenous Acetaminophen in Craniotomy
Condition: Postoperative Pain
Interventions: Drug: Acetaminophen;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Post-Operative Opioid Requirement;   Intra-Operative Opioid Requirement;   Post-Operative Pain;   Post-Operative Side Effects
18 Recruiting Efficacy of IV Acetaminophen for Pain Management
Condition: Post-operative Pain
Interventions: Drug: Placebo (normal saline);   Drug: IV acetaminophen
Outcome Measures: Amount of opioid rescue needed;   Time to return of bowel function (passage of flatus);   Patient Satisfaction;   Cost Effectiveness
19 Recruiting Acetaminophen Versus Ibuprofen in Children With Asthma
Conditions: Asthma;   Wheezing
Interventions: Drug: Acetaminophen;   Drug: Ibuprofen
Outcome Measure: exacerbation frequency
20 Recruiting The Efficacy of Intravenous Acetaminophen During The Perioperative Period Of Neurosurgical Patients Undergoing Craniotomies
Conditions: Craniotomy;   Brain Surgery
Interventions: Drug: Acetaminophen;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Opioid requirement after surgery;   Time to rescue medication in both groups;   Amount of rescue medication in PACU in both groups;   Median difference in ICU length of stay/hospital length of stay between both groups;   Number of successful neurologic exams between intervention and placebo group as determined by a neurosurgical provider by answering either Yes or No;   Median difference in temperature between intervention and placebo groups;   Sedation scores measured by RASS every 8 hours for 24 hours in both groups;   Pain VAS scores (1-10) every 8 hours for 24 hours in both groups;   Delirium measured by CAM-ICU every 8 hours for 24 hours in both groups