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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED and Viagra

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much cholesterol in your blood, you have a higher risk of coronary artery disease.

How do you measure cholesterol levels?

A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the test, you'll need to fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The test gives information about your

  • Total cholesterol - a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes the two types - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol - HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL - this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides - another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease, especially in women
What do my cholesterol numbers mean?

Cholesterol numbers are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Here are the healthy levels of cholesterol, based on your age and gender:

Anyone age 19 or younger:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal CholesterolLess than 170mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 120mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDLMore than 45mg/dL

Men age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL40mg/dL or higher

Women age 20 or older:

Type of CholesterolHealthy LevelTotal Cholesterol125 to 200mg/dLNon-HDLLess than 130mg/dLLDLLess than 100mg/dLHDL50mg/dL or higher

Triglycerides are not a type of cholesterol, but they are part of a lipoprotein panel (the test that measures cholesterol levels). A normal triglyceride level is below 150 mg/dL. You might need treatment if you have triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more).

How often should I get a cholesterol test?

When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
What affects my cholesterol levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are some things you can do to lower your cholesterol levels:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level rise. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Foods that have high levels of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. It also raises your HDL (good) cholesterol level.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.
  • Smoking.Cigarette smoking lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol. HDL helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries. So a lower HDL can contribute to a higher level of bad cholesterol.

Things outside of your control that can also affect cholesterol levels include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL (bad) cholesterol levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
How can I lower my cholesterol?

There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes, which include:
    • Heart-healthy eating. A heart-healthy eating plan limits the amount of saturated and trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan.
    • Weight Management. If you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
    • Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days).
    • Managing stress. Research has shown that chronic stress can sometimes raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your HDL cholesterol.
    • Quitting smoking.Quitting smoking can raise your HDL cholesterol. Since HDL helps to remove LDL cholesterol from your arteries, having more HDL can help to lower your LDL cholesterol.
  • Drug Treatment. If lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol medicines available, including statins. The medicines work in different ways and can have different side effects. Talk to your health care provider about which one is right for you. While you are taking medicines to lower your cholesterol, you should continue with the lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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BLOOD CHOLESTEROL INCREASED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Unknown  Does Oral Sildenafil (Viagra) Decrease Mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure After Cardiac Surgery?
Condition: Pulmonary Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Sildenafil (Viagra);   Drug: Sildenafil;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: To determine the efficacy of 12.5mg oral sildenafil to decrease the mPAP in patients presenting with a mPAP >/= 25mmHg after cardiopulmonary bypass.;   To determine the efficacy of a second dose of oral sildenafil 12.5mg to decrease the mPAP in those patients who do not respond with a 20% decrease in mPAP after the initial administration of study medication.;   To determine the safety of oral sildenafil to treat increased mPAP after cardiac surgery.
2 Unknown  Sildenafil for Prevention of Cerebral Vasospasm
Conditions: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage;   Cerebral Vasospasm;   Rupture of Intracranial Aneurysm
Interventions: Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Sildenafil Citrate, 25 mg, 3 times a day.;   Drug: Sildenafil Citrate 50 mg, 3 times a day
Outcome Measures: New neurological Deficit;   Transcranial Ecodoppler;   Mortality;   Side effects;   Time to discharge;   Rankin Scale
3 Unknown  A Study to Evaluate a Possible Superiority Expressed by the Faster Onset of Action and the Efficacy and Safety of Sildenafil Citrate 20mg Sublingual Tablet in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction of Different Etiologies
Condition: Erectile Dysfunction
Interventions: Drug: Sildenafil Citrate 20mg Tablet Sublingual;   Drug: Viagra ® 50mg tablet Coated
Outcome Measures: Evaluate a possible superiority expressed by the faster onset of action.;   Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Sildenafil Citrate 20mg Sublingual tablet, compared to Viagra ® 50mg tablet Coated in control of Erectile Dysfunction.
4 Recruiting Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil in Premature Infants
Condition: Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn
Intervention: Drug: 1 dose of sildenafil
Outcome Measures: Area under the plasma concentration versus time curve 0-24 hours for sildenafil;   Peak plasma concentration of sildenafil;   Clearance of sildenafil;   Volume of distribution at steady state;   Half life of sildenafil;   Number of subjects with adverse events as a measure of safety and tolerability.;   Correlation between serum and dried blood spot samples;   Evaluate P450 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
5 Unknown  Use of Sildenafil (Viagra) to Alter Fatigue, Functional Status and Impaired Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients With CFS
Condition: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Interventions: Drug: Sildenafil (Viagra);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: The principal aim of this study is to determine whether chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is due to inadequate blood flow to the brain and to test a medication, Viagra, which should help increase blood flow to the brain and improve the symptoms of CFS.
6 Unknown  Effects of Viagra on Heart Function in Patients With Heart Failure
Conditions: Heart Failure;   Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Intervention: Drug: sildenafil
Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure is a fall in the left ventricular filling pressure in association with administration of sildenafil;   A secondary outcome is the distance walked with the 6-minute walk test after the administration of sildenafil
7 Not yet recruiting Effects of Oral Sildenafil on Mortality in Adults With PAH
Condition: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Intervention: Drug: sildenafil citrate
Outcome Measures: Overall Survival (OS);   Time to first clinical worsening (TTCW) event;   6 Minute Walk Distance (6MWD) at Months 6 & 12
8 Recruiting VasoREACTivity Testing With Intravenous SILdenafil in Patients With Precapillary Pulmonary Hypertension
Condition: Pulmonary Hypertension Associated With Connective Tissue Disease
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil
Outcome Measures: efficacy of Sildenafil I.V. for vasoreactivity testing;   clinical efficacy of sildenafil per os predicted by testing it intravenously in the course of oral therapy
9 Unknown  Early Start of Oral Sildenafil 100mg for Erectile Dysfunction After Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy
Condition: Prostate Cancer
Intervention: Drug: sildenafil 100mg
Outcome Measures: patterns of recovery of erectile functions after nerve sparing RALP in men with on- demand sildenafil 100mg dosing from the early postoperative period (using IIEF-5);   comparison of the potency rates in men with on- demand sildenafil 100mg dosing from the early postoperative period with from the delayed postoperative period
10 Unknown  Evaluation of Sildenafil for the Treatment of Moderate Congestive Heart Failure
Condition: Heart Failure
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil
Outcome Measures: Change in 6-minute walk distance;   Changes in peak oxygen consumption (measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing);   Change in the level of neurohormones (b-type natriuretic peptide, catecholamines, ET-1),;   Change in quality of life
11 Unknown  The Effects of Sildenafil on Exercise Function and Capacity in Patients With Fontan Circulation
Condition: Fontan Circulation
Interventions: Drug: sildenafil;   Other: placebo
Outcome Measure: An increase in exercise capacity for patients administered sildenafil
12 Recruiting The Revaki-001. A Study to Determine the Pharmacokinetic Profile, Safety and Tolerability of Sildenafil (REVATIO®) in Cardiac Surgery
Condition: Acute Kidney Injury
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil
Outcome Measures: Area under the plasma concentration versus time curve and Plasma Concentration of Sildenafil;   Serum creatinine and Biochemical markers of AKI
13 Recruiting Effects of Sildenafil on Choroidal Thickness in AMD
Condition: Age-related Macular Degeneration
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil citrate
Outcome Measures: Change in Choroidal Thickness as Assessed on Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography (EDI-OCT);   Change in Central Foveal Thickness as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT)
14 Unknown  Viagra for the Treatment of IUGR
Condition: IUGR
Intervention: Drug: Viagra administration in IUGR/PET pregnancies
Outcome Measures: Uteroplacental perfusion;   Fetal growth;   Maternal and fetal safety
15 Not yet recruiting Blood Flow and Vascular Function in Cystic Fibrosis
Condition: Cystic Fibrosis
Interventions: Drug: Acute (1 hour) Sildenafil;   Drug: Sub-Chronic (4 weeks) Sildenafil;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Exercise Capacity;   Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD);   Arterial Stiffness Evaluation (PWV);   Physio Flow
16 Recruiting "As Required" Oral Sildenafil in Raynaud's Phenomenon
Condition: Raynaud's Phenomenon
Interventions: Drug: Sildenafil 40 mg;   Drug: Sildenafil 80 mg;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Mean change in the Raynaud's Condition Score (RCS) during treatment, as compared to placebo.;   Frequency of RP: number of RP attacks during treatment, as compared to placebo.;   Patients' preference: comparison between the number of patients favoring a treatment to another.;   Pain associated with RP: Mean change in the Raynaud's pain score during treatment, as compared to placebo.;   Frequency and severity of adverse drug events during treatment, as compared to placebo;   Microvascular reactivity: index of skin perfusion in response to local/regional cooling after a single dose of sildenafil, as compared to placebo (laboratory experiments)
17 Recruiting Effectiveness of the Vasodilator Test With Revatio, Made in Patients With Acute Pulmonary Hypertension
Condition: Pulmonary Hypertension
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil 20mg oral vs Sildenafil 10mg intravenous
Outcome Measure: Effectiveness
18 Recruiting Sildenafil Citrate Before Surgery in Improving Kidney Function in Patients With Kidney Cancer
Condition: Kidney Tumor
Interventions: Drug: sildenafil citrate;   Other: placebo;   Procedure: therapeutic conventional surgery
Outcome Measures: Accrual rate;   Retention rate;   Participation rate;   Change in GFR;   Change in proteinuria;   Estimated blood loss;   Hemoglobin concentration;   Changes in blood pressure measurements;   Vasopressor support requirements during the operative procedure;   Intravenous fluid requirements during the operative procedure;   Overall complication rates;   Preliminary effect size of sildenafil citrate on change in GFR
19 Unknown  On Demand Versus Daily Sildenafil for Patients Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy
Condition: Erectile Dysfunction
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil
Outcome Measures: Proportion of patients with an Erectile Function domain score of International Index of Erectile Function ( IIEF) => 22 at the end of the wash-out period (44 wks after surgery);   Proportion of patients with an Erectile Function domain score of IIEF => 22 at the end of the study (52 wks after surgery);   IIEF - Domain Scores for: Erection Hardness Score (1-4) Intercourse success rates defined by the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) questionnaire (questions 2 and 3) Safety Endpoints: Adverse event summarized Global assessment questions
20 Not yet recruiting Growth Hormone or Sildenafil as Therapies for Fatigue in Mild-​Traumatic-brain-injury (MTBI)
Condition: Traumatic Brain Injury
Interventions: Drug: Growth Hormone;   Drug: Sildenafil;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Perceptual fatigue as measured weekly using the Brief Fatigue Inventory;   Performance fatigue as measured by using hand and leg dynamometry.