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DENTAL CARIES and FOSAMAX

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DENTAL CARIES Symptoms and Causes

What is tooth decay?

Tooth decay is damage to a tooth's surface, or enamel. It happens when bacteria in your mouth make acids that attack the enamel. Tooth decay can lead to cavities (dental caries), which are holes in your teeth. If tooth decay is not treated, it can cause pain, infection, and even tooth loss.

What causes tooth decay?

Our mouths are full of bacteria. Some bacteria are helpful. But some can be harmful, including the ones that play a role in tooth decay. These bacteria combine with food to form a soft, sticky film called plaque. The bacteria in plaque use the sugar and starch in what you eat and drink to make acids. The acids begin to eat away at the minerals on your enamel. Over time, the plaque can harden into tartar. Besides damaging your teeth, plaque and tartar can also irritate your gums and cause gum disease.

You get fluoride from toothpaste, water, and other sources. This fluoride, along with your salvia, helps the enamel repair itself by replacing the minerals. Your teeth go through this natural process of losing minerals and regaining minerals all day long. But if you don't take care of your teeth and/or you eat and drink lots of sugary or starchy things, your enamel will keep losing minerals. This leads to tooth decay.

A white spot may appear where minerals have been lost. This is an early sign of tooth decay. You may be able to stop or reverse the decay at this point. Your enamel can still repair itself, if you take better care of your teeth and limit sugary/starchy foods and drinks.

But if the tooth decay process continues, more minerals are lost. Over time, the enamel is weakened and destroyed, forming a cavity. A cavity is a hole in your tooth. It is permanent damage that a dentist has to repair with a filling.

Who is at risk for tooth decay?

The main risk factors for tooth decay are not taking care of your teeth and having too many sugary or starchy foods and drinks.

Some people have a higher risk of tooth decay, including people who

  • Don't have enough saliva, because of medicines, certain diseases, or some cancer treatments
  • Don't get enough fluoride
  • Are very young. Babies and toddlers who drink from bottles are at risk, especially if they are given juice or get bottles at bedtime. This exposes their teeth to sugars for long periods of time.
  • Are older. Many older adults have receding gums and more wear on their teeth. These raise the risk of decay on the exposed root surfaces of their teeth.
What are the symptoms of tooth decay and cavities?

In early tooth decay, you usually don't have symptoms. As tooth decay gets worse, it can cause

  • A toothache (tooth pain)
  • Tooth sensitivity to sweets, hot, or cold
  • White or brown stains on the surface of a tooth
  • A cavity
  • An infection, which can lead to an abscess (pocket of pus) forming. The abscess can cause pain, facial swelling, and fever.
How are tooth decay and cavities diagnosed?

Dentists usually find tooth decay and cavities by looking at your teeth and probing them with dental instruments. Your dentist will also ask if you have any symptoms. Sometimes you may need a dental x-ray.

What are the treatments for tooth decay and cavities?

There are several treatments for tooth decay and cavities. Which treatment you get depends on how bad the problem is:

  • Fluoride treatments. If you have early tooth decay, a fluoride treatment can help the enamel to repair itself.
  • Fillings. If you have a typical cavity, your dentist will remove the decayed tooth tissue and then restore the tooth by filling it with a filling material.
  • Root canal. If the damage to the tooth and/or an infection spreads to the pulp (inside of the tooth), you might need a root canal. Your dentist will remove the decayed pulp and clean inside the tooth and root. The next step is to fill the tooth with a temporary filling. Then you will need to come back to get a permanent filling or a crown (a cover on the tooth).
  • Extraction (pulling the tooth). In the most severe cases, when the damage to the pulp cannot be fixed, your dentist may pull the tooth. Your dentist will suggest that you get a bridge or implant to replace the missing tooth. Otherwise, the teeth next to the gap may move over and change your bite.
Can tooth decay be prevented?

There are steps that you can take to prevent tooth decay:

  • Make sure that you get enough fluoride by
    • Brushing with a fluoride toothpaste
    • Drinking tap water with fluoride. Most bottled water does not contain fluoride.
    • Using fluoride mouth rinse
  • Practice good oral health by brushing your teeth twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste and regularly flossing your teeth
  • Make smart food choices by limiting foods and drinks that are high in sugars and starches. Eat nutritious, balanced meals and limit snacking.
  • Do not use tobacco products, including smokeless tobacco. If you currently use tobacco, consider quitting.
  • See a dentist for regular check-ups and professional cleanings
  • Make sure that your children get sealants on their teeth. Dental sealants are thin plastic coatings that protect the chewing surfaces of the back teeth. Children should get sealants on their back teeth as soon as they come in, before decay can attack the teeth.

NIH: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research

Check out the latest treatments for DENTAL CARIES

DENTAL CARIES treatment research studies

FOSAMAX clinical trials, surveys and public health registries


Find Drug Side Effect reports



FOSAMAX Side Effects

Femur Fracture (5674)
Anxiety (3177)
Osteonecrosis (2820)
Fall (2638)
Depression (2384)
Arthralgia (1887)
Dental Caries (1636)
Arthropathy (1621)
Back Pain (1566)
Low Turnover Osteopathy (1355)
Anaemia (1283)
Osteomyelitis (1270)
Hypertension (1242)
Blood Cholesterol Increased (1236)
Impaired Healing (1123)
Abscess (1121)
Adverse Event (1103)
Bone Density Decreased (1051)
Bone Disorder (1050)
Chest Pain (1022)
Bronchitis (915)
Tooth Disorder (890)
Arthritis (849)
Gastrooesophageal Reflux Disease (838)
Intramedullary Rod Insertion (835)
Osteonecrosis Of Jaw (834)
Cataract (805)
Osteoarthritis (784)
Osteoporosis (749)
Pain In Extremity (719)
Stress Fracture (715)
Jaw Disorder (708)
Asthma (706)
Cellulitis (697)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (679)
Abdominal Pain (632)
Diarrhoea (584)
Asthenia (582)
Constipation (557)
Bursitis (552)
Atrial Fibrillation (550)
Pain (544)
Exostosis (531)
Fatigue (522)
Oral Infection (505)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (503)
Dizziness (502)
Foot Fracture (501)
Hip Fracture (497)
Headache (477)

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Common Meds

Abilify (10132)
Adderall (1304)
Amlodipine (6664)
Amoxicillin (4387)
Benadryl (1568)
Celebrex (12876 )
Celexa (1342)
Cialis (2975)
Cipro (8580)
Citalopram (7792)
Crestor (18839)
Cymbalta (14373)
Doxycycline (1757)
Effexor (7289)
Flexeril (435)
Flomax (2177)
Fluoxetine (4261)
Gabapentin (4593)
Hydrocodone (2469)
Ibuprofen (8222)
Lantus (10968)
Lexapro (3499)
Lipitor (17769)
Lisinopril (8919)
Lyrica (27148)
Medrol (650)
Mirena (41254)
Mobic (957)
Morphine (5356)
Naproxen (538)
Neurontin (6501)
Oxycodone (4438)
Pradaxa (13372)
Prednisone (5926)
Prilosec (2631)
Prozac (1954)
Seroquel (27216)
Simvastatin (8348)
Synthroid (4452)
Tamiflu (5585)
Topamax (3748)
Tramadol (5054)
Trazodone (1458)
Viagra (5394)
Vicodin (1153)
Wellbutrin (6324)
Xanax (2847)
Zocor (5718)
Zoloft(6792)
Zyrtec(1669)

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Dear Sir/Madam, We are 'Alispo International' from Sialkot Pakistan. As a manufacturer, we supply 'SURGICAL DENTAL HAND INSTRUMENTS' in high quality, including Gynecology, ENT, Ophthalmic, Cardiac, Orthodontic and endodontic instruments. O

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DENTAL CARIES Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Not yet recruiting The Effect of Alendronate on the Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Healthy Adults
Condition: Healthy Volunteers
Interventions: Drug: Alendronate;   Drug: Hepatitis B Vaccine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Safety/Adverse events;   Efficacy
2 Recruiting Testosterone and Alendronate in Hypogonadal Men
Conditions: Hypogonadism;   Osteopenia;   Osteoporosis
Interventions: Drug: Testosterone;   Drug: Alendronate;   Drug: Placebo Alendronate;   Drug: Placebo Testosterone
Outcome Measure: Spine Bone Mineral Density by DXA
3 Unknown  Alendronate for Vascular Calcification in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients?
Condition: Peritoneal Dialysis
Intervention: Drug: alendronate (Fosamax)
Outcome Measures: 1.Changes of calcification score of coronary arteries and aorta;   2.Changes of bone density;   changes of parathyroid hormone;   changes of serum calcium and phosphate level;   changes of C reactive protein;   changes of lipid profile;   adverse reactions
4 Unknown  Fosamax for Childhood Cancer Survivors
Condition: Osteoporosis
Interventions: Drug: Alendronate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: The percent change in bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine at 36-weeks in subjects who receive active and control treatments;   Changes in BMD at femoral neck;   Changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover;   Occurrence of clinical bone-related symptoms at 12-weeks and end of this study
5 Not yet recruiting RA Denosumab on Bone Microstructure Study
Condition: Rheumatoid Arthritis
Interventions: Drug: Denosumab;   Drug: Alendronate
Outcome Measures: Changes from baseline in bone volumetric density at distal radius at 6th month;   Changes from baseline in trabecular bone microarchitecture at distal radius at 6th month;   Changes from baseline in bone volumetric density at the 2nd metacarpal bone at 6th month;   Changes from baseline in trabecular bone microarchitecture at 2nd metacarpal bone at 6th month;   Changes from baseline in areal bone density at total hip at 6th month;   Changes from baseline in areal bone density at lumbar spine at 6th month;   Changes in areal bone density at distal radius at 6th month;   Changes from baseline in bone volumetric density at distal radius at 3rd month;   Changes from baseline in trabecular bone microarchitecture at distal radius at 3rd month;   Changes from baseline in bone volumetric density at the 2nd metacarpal bone at 3rd month;   Changes from baseline in trabecular bone microarchitecture at 2nd metacarpal bone at 3rd month;   Changes from baseline in areal bone density at total hip at 3rd month;   Changes from baseline in areal bone density at lumbar spine at 3rd month;   Changes in areal bone density at distal radius at 3rd month
6 Recruiting Study to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of Romosozumab in the Treatment of Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis
Condition: Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis
Interventions: Drug: Romosozumab;   Drug: Alendronate
Outcome Measures: Incidence of clinical fracture;   Incidence of new vertebral fracture;   Incidence of fracture;   Percent changes in DXA Bone Mineral Density from baseline to 12 months;   Percent changes in DXA Bone Mineral Density from baseline to 24 months;   Percent changes in DXA Bone Mineral Density from baseline to 36 months
7 Not yet recruiting Bone Antiresorptive Therapy With Antiretroviral Initiation (BATARI) Pilot Trial
Condition: HIV
Intervention: Drug: alendronate/vitamin D
Outcome Measures: Percentage changes in BMD at a) the lumbar spine and b) proximal femur;   Feasibility;   Acceptability;   Safety/Tolerability;   Adherence;   Bone Biomarkers
8 Not yet recruiting Study Investigating the Effect of Drugs Used to Treat Osteoporosis on the Progression of Calcific Aortic Stenosis.
Condition: Calcific Aortic Stenosis
Interventions: Drug: Denosumab;   Drug: Alendronic Acid;   Drug: Denosumab Placebo;   Drug: Alendronic Acid Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in aortic valve calcium score;   Change in aortic valve 18F-NaF uptake;   Change in aortic-jet velocity;   Change in thoracic aortic and coronary artery calcium score;   Change in thoracic spine bone mineral density;   Change in quality of life determined by Short Form 36 Questionnaire
9 Recruiting Comparison of the Effect of an Ongoing Treatment With Alendronate or a Drug Holiday on the Fracture Risk in Osteoporotic Patients With Bisphosphonate Long Term Therapy
Condition: Osteoporosis
Interventions: Drug: Alendronate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Incidence of new osteoporotic fractures;   Equivalence of deaths with and without continued bisphosphonate therapy;   Incidence of the combination of fractures and deaths
10 Recruiting Bone Healing After Dental Extraction in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women Treated With Alendronate Per os Weekly
Condition: Alveolar Bone Healing After Dental Extraction
Intervention: Procedure: Dental extraction
Outcome Measures: Alveolar socket filled by new bone;   Mucosal injury
11 Unknown  The Study of the Early Administration of Alendronate on Prevention of Bone Loss After Hip Fracture.
Condition: Osteoporosis
Intervention: Drug: Alendronate
Outcome Measure:
12 Unknown  Osteoporosis and Dental Implant
Condition: Osteoporosis
Interventions: Drug: alendronate once weekly 70mg;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measure: Dental CT
13 Unknown  Randomized Study of Alendronate in Adult Patients With Cystic Fibrosis Related Osteoporosis
Conditions: Osteoporosis;   Cystic Fibrosis
Interventions: Drug: alendronate sodium;   Drug: calcium carbonate;   Drug: cholecalciferol
Outcome Measure:
14 Unknown  Phase II Randomized Study of Alendronate Sodium for Osteopenia in Patients With Gaucher's Disease
Conditions: Gaucher's Disease;   Osteopenia
Interventions: Drug: alendronate sodium;   Drug: calcium carbonate;   Drug: cholecalciferol
Outcome Measure:
15 Unknown  Pharmacokinetics of Maxmarvil® in Healthy Postmenopausal Women
Condition: Osteoporosis
Intervention: Drug: Maxmarvil®
Outcome Measure: analysis of Alendronate concentrate
16 Recruiting Stem Cell Recruitment in Osteoporosis Therapy
Condition: Low Bone Density
Interventions: Drug: Teriparatide;   Drug: Alendronate;   Dietary Supplement: calcium and vitamin D
Outcome Measures: Number of Stro-1+ MSCs at bone resorption sites in bone biopsies of subjects treated with PTH or ALN.;   Number of p-Smad 2/3+ cells/mm2 at active resorption sites on bone biopsy specimens of subjects treated with PTH or ALN.;   The percent increase in Stro-1+/CD146+ cells in the blood before and after treatment with PTH or ALN.;   Number of human Stro-1+ MSCs at bone resorption sites in bone of Rag2-/- mice reconstituted with human bone marrow derived from subjects treated with PTH or ALN.
17 Recruiting Twenty Four Month Extension Study of BA058-05-003
Condition: Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Intervention: Drug: Alendronate
Outcome Measures: Safety;   Vertebral Fracture Incidence;   Non-vertebral Fracture Incidence
18 Recruiting Bisphosphonate Biomarker Study
Conditions: Osteoporosis, With or Without Treatment;   Bisphosphonate Treatment;   Atypical Femur Fracture;   Bisphosphonate Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (BRONJ);   Healthy Volunteers
Intervention:
Outcome Measures: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion (ADME) Profiling of DNA from all sample types vs. normative data for the ADME panel and across study groups;   Differential expression of miRNA biomarkers across participant groups within the study
19 Recruiting Effectiveness of DiscontinuinG bisphosphonatEs Study: R21 Pilot Study
Condition: Osteoporosis
Intervention: Drug: Alendronate
Outcome Measures: Clinical site recruitment rate;   Participant recruitment rate;   Contracting and procedures;   Administrative procedures;   Osteonecrosis of the jaw;   Atypical femoral fracture;   Clinical fracture rate
20 Recruiting Acute Effect of Teriparatide With Bisphosphonate or Denosumab on Bone Resorption
Condition: Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Intervention: Drug: Teriparatide 40-mcg subcutaneous injection
Outcome Measure: Bone turnover marker (blood sample)