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DIARRHOEA and Fluoxetine

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DIARRHOEA Symptoms and Causes

What is diarrhea?

Diarrhea is loose, watery stools (bowel movements). You have diarrhea if you have loose stools three or more times in one day. Acute diarrhea is diarrhea that lasts a short time. It is a common problem. It usually lasts about one or two days, but it may last longer. Then it goes away on its own.

Diarrhea lasting more than a few days may be a sign of a more serious problem. Chronic diarrhea -- diarrhea that lasts at least four weeks -- can be a symptom of a chronic disease. Chronic diarrhea symptoms may be continual, or they may come and go.

Who gets diarrhea?

People of all ages can get diarrhea. On average, adults In the United States have acute diarrhea once a year. Young children have it an average of twice a year.

People who visit developing countries are at risk for traveler's diarrhea. It is caused by consuming contaminated food or water.

What causes diarrhea?

The most common causes of diarrhea include

  • Bacteria from contaminated food or water
  • Viruses such as the flu, norovirus, or rotavirus . Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in children.
  • Parasites, which are tiny organisms found in contaminated food or water
  • Medicines such as antibiotics, cancer drugs, and antacids that contain magnesium
  • Food intolerances and sensitivities, which are problems digesting certain ingredients or foods. An example is lactose intolerance.
  • Diseases that affect the stomach, small intestine, or colon, such as Crohn's disease
  • Problems with how the colon functions, such as irritable bowel syndrome

Some people also get diarrhea after stomach surgery, because sometimes the surgeries can cause food to move through your digestive system more quickly.

Sometimes no cause can be found. If your diarrhea goes away within a few days, finding the cause is usually not necessary.

What other symptoms might I have with diarrhea?

Other possible symptoms of diarrhea include

  • Cramps or pain in the abdomen
  • An urgent need to use the bathroom
  • Loss of bowel control

If a virus or bacteria is the cause of your diarrhea, you may also have a fever, chills, and bloody stools.

Diarrhea can cause dehydration, which means that your body does not have enough fluid to work properly. Dehydration can be serious, especially for children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

When should I see a doctor for diarrhea?

Although it is usually not harmful, diarrhea can become dangerous or signal a more serious problem. Contact your health care provider if you have

  • Signs of dehydration
  • Diarrhea for more than 2 days, if you are an adult. For children, contact the provider if it lasts more than 24 hours.
  • Severe pain in your abdomen or rectum (for adults)
  • A fever of 102 degrees or higher
  • Stools containing blood or pus
  • Stools that are black and tarry

If children have diarrhea, parents or caregivers should not hesitate to call a health care provider. Diarrhea can be especially dangerous in newborns and infants.

How is the cause of diarrhea diagnosed?

To find the cause of diarrhea, your health care provider may

  • Do a physical exam
  • Ask about any medicines you are taking
  • Test your stool or blood to look for bacteria, parasites, or other signs of disease or infection
  • Ask you to stop eating certain foods to see whether your diarrhea goes away

If you have chronic diarrhea, your health care provider may perform other tests to look for signs of disease.

What are the treatments for diarrhea?

Diarrhea is treated by replacing lost fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration. Depending on the cause of the problem, you may need medicines to stop the diarrhea or treat an infection.

Adults with diarrhea should drink water, fruit juices, sports drinks, sodas without caffeine, and salty broths. As your symptoms improve, you can eat soft, bland food.

Children with diarrhea should be given oral rehydration solutions to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.

Can diarrhea be prevented?

Two types of diarrhea can be prevented - rotavirus diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea. There are vaccines for rotavirus. They are given to babies in two or three doses.

You can help prevent traveler's diarrhea by being careful about what you eat and drink when you are in developing countries:

  • Use only bottled or purified water for drinking, making ice cubes, and brushing your teeth
  • If you do use tap water, boil it or use iodine tablets
  • Make sure that the cooked food you eat is fully cooked and served hot
  • Avoid unwashed or unpeeled raw fruits and vegetables

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

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Fluoxetine Side Effects

Completed Suicide (381)
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Confusional State (197)
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Insomnia (154)
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Intentional Overdose (78)
Pain (75)
Electrocardiogram Qt Prolonged (74)
Loss Of Consciousness (74)
Abnormal Behaviour (74)
Hypotension (73)
Abdominal Pain (70)
Diarrhoea (69)
Dyskinesia (64)
Decreased Appetite (64)
Syncope (63)
Hyponatraemia (62)
Rash (61)
Depressed Mood (59)
Pyrexia (54)
Irritability (53)
Blood Pressure Increased (50)
Asthenia (50)

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DIARRHOEA Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Not yet recruiting "Evaluation by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Benefit of Fluoxetine on Motor Recovery After Stroke"
Condition: Cerebral Infarction
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo of Fluoxetine
Outcome Measures: Slope of the curve of recruitment of the PEMs;   Slope of recruitment of the PEMs;   Index finger force control in paretic hand under time-course of treatment of Fluoxetine;   in index finger force control in non-paretic hand under time-course of treatment of Fluoxetine
2 Not yet recruiting Fluoxetine Prevention Trial
Condition: Cognitive Dysfunction
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change from baseline in regional cerebral metabolism;   Durability of the protective effect of Fluoxetine;   Change from baseline in neuropsychological (cognitive, functional) test results;   Correlation between cognitive functioning and cerebral metabolism by correlating neuropsychological testing results with PET imaging;   Correlation between inflammatory cytokines and cerebral metabolism by correlating blood cytokine marker levels with PET imaging
3 Unknown  Predictors of Treatment Response to Fluoxetine in PTSD Following a Recent History of War Zone Stress Exposure
Condition: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Combat-related
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Clinician Administered PTSD Scale;   PTSD Symptom Checklist
4 Recruiting A Study of Olanzapine and Fluoxetine for Treatment-resistant Depression
Condition: Treatment Resistant Depression
Interventions: Drug: Olanzapine;   Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in Montgomery-Äsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS);   Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Depression (CGI-S) Scale;   Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS);   Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36);   Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS);   Percentage of Participants who Achieve a Response Based on a ≥50% Reduction from Baseline in MADRS Total Score;   Percentage of Participants who Achieve Remission Based on MADRS Total Score ≤10 at 8 Weeks;   Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in the Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS);   Mean Change from Baseline to 8 Week Endpoint in the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS)
5 Recruiting Fluoxetine for Motor, Aphasia, and Neglect Recovery After Ischemic Stroke
Condition: Stroke
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measures: Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale (FMMS);   Western Aphasia Battery;   Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT);   Functional Independence Measure
6 Recruiting Effectiveness Study to Compare Venlafaxine With Fluoxetine in the Treatment of Postmenopausal Women With Major Depression
Condition: Major Depression
Intervention: Drug: venlafaxine,Fluoxetine
Outcome Measures: change of 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score;   the mean change of HAMD-24 subscale score in items 10, 11, 12, 13 (anxiety and somatizations) at endpoint
7 Recruiting Role of Inflammation Factors and Insulin Resistance in Major Depressive Disorder
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine + Valsartan;   Drug: Fluoxetine + Placebo
Outcome Measures: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS);   fasting plasma glucose;   fasting serum insulin;   C-reactive Protein, and IL-6
8 Recruiting Fluoxetine for Motor Recovery After Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Conditions: Intracerebral Hemorrhage;   Motor Impairment
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Fugl Meyer Motor Scale score;   Barthel Index;   modified Rankin Scale;   NIH Stroke Scale
9 Unknown  Safety and Efficacy of Fluoxetine in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Condition: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Intervention: Drug: Fluoxetine
Outcome Measures: The primary endpoint will be change in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) measured by right heart catheterization after three months of therapy.;   Efficacy, Safety and tolerability endpoints will include change between baseline and three month QIDS-SR depression scale, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (systemic) and tabulation of adverse events
10 Unknown  Pharmacogenomics Studies of Antidepressants
Conditions: Major Depressive Disorder;   Antidepressive Agents;   Pharmacogenetics;   Venlafaxine;   Fluoxetine
Interventions: Drug: Venlafaxine;   Drug: Fluoxetine
Outcome Measures: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS);   C-reactive Protein and IL-6;   fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles
11 Recruiting Characterization and Sequential Pharmacotherapy of Severe Mood Dysregulation
Condition: Severe Mood Dysregulation
Interventions: Drug: lisdexamfetamine;   Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Fluoxetine
Outcome Measures: Clinical Global Impression-Improvement-Severe Mood Dysregulation;   Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS);   Children's Depression Rating Scale;   ADHD-IV Rating Scale;   ADHD IV Rating Scale;   Columbia Suicide Severity Scales;   Barnes Akathisia Scale;   Children's Affective Lability Scale;   Physical Symptom Checklist;   Revised Modified Overt Aggression Scale;   Screen for Children's Affective Reactivity;   Affective Reactivity Index
12 Not yet recruiting RCT of a Neuroplasticity Agent and CI Therapy for Severe Arm Paresis After Stroke
Condition: Severe Stroke With Affected Arm Motor Function
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo;   Procedure: eCMIT;   Procedure: Usual Care
Outcome Measures: Grade 4/5 Motor Activity Log (MAL) Arm Use Scale;   Grade 4/5 MAL Arm Use scale;   Grade 4/5 Wolf Motor Function Test Performance Rate score
13 Recruiting Developing Adaptive Treatment Strategies for Children and Adolescents With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder.
Condition: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Behavioral: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy
Outcome Measures: Treatment response status at week 28;   Treatment response status at week 14;   Predictors of treatment response at week 28
14 Recruiting Clinical Trial of Fluoxetine in Anxiety and Depression in Children, and Associated Brain Changes
Conditions: Depression;   Mood Disorder;   Anxiety Disorder;   Healthy
Intervention:
Outcome Measure:
15 Recruiting A Study Of DVS SR In Treatment Of Children And Adolescent Outpatients With MDD
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder
Interventions: Drug: desvenlafaxine succinate sustained release;   Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measures: Change from baseline to Week 8 visit in the Children's depression rating scale, revised (CDRS-R) total score;   Clinical Global Impression Improvement (CGI-I) score at the Week 8 visit;   CGI-S score change from baseline at the Week 8 visit;   CGI-I response (1 or 2)
16 Recruiting Hypoglycemia Associated Autonomic Failure in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
Conditions: Type 1 Diabetes;   Hypoglycemia Associated Autonomic Failure
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Placebo control
Outcome Measure: Change in Catecholamines
17 Recruiting A Positron Emission Topographic (PET) Study on Depression Patient With Electroacupuncture
Conditions: Major Depressive Disorder;   Depression
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Procedure: DCEAS (Hwato®/ Dongbang®);   Procedure: n-CEA (Strietberger®)
Outcome Measures: HAMD-17;   SDS;   PET scanning;   Clinical response;   Remission;   Latency;   Adverse events
18 Recruiting Efficacy of Exposure and Response Prevention(ERP) and SSRIs in Chinese OCD Patients
Conditions: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder;   Anxiety Disorders;   Mental Disorders
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Sertraline;   Drug: Paroxetine;   Drug: Citalopram;   Drug: Fluvoxamine;   Behavioral: Exposure and Response Prevention
Outcome Measures: The change of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale score;   The change of Beck Depression Inventory(BDI-II) score;   The change of Beck Anxiety Inventory(BAI) score;   The change of Stress Perceived Questionnaire (PSS-10) score;   The change of Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation System Scales score;   The change of Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11) score;   The change of Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire-44(OBQ-44) score;   The NEO-Five Factor Inventory-Revised (NEO-FFI-R);   The Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form(ETISR-SF)
19 Recruiting Comparing Treatments for Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in People With Borderline Personality Disorder
Conditions: Borderline Personality Disorder;   Suicide
Interventions: Drug: Fluoxetine;   Behavioral: DBT;   Drug: Citalopram
Outcome Measure: Suicidal and self-injurious behavior
20 Recruiting Investigation of the Serotoninergic System in Multiple System Atrophy: a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Study
Condition: Multiple System Atrophy
Interventions: Radiation: PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Study;   Other: Brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging);   Drug: Fluoxétine / Placebo
Outcome Measures: 18F-MPPF binding potential - Biding potential (BP) under placebo in the raphe nucleus;   18F-MPPF binding potential - Biding potential (BP) in other brain areas;   Clinical parameters (motor handicap, orthostatic hypotension, quality of life, sleep, pain, tiredness);   18F-MPPF binding potential - Biding potential (BP) under placebo in other brain areas;   18F-MPPF binding potential - BP under Fluoxetine in all brain areas