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DIARRHOEA and Tylenol

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DIARRHOEA Symptoms and Causes

What is diarrhea?

Diarrhea is loose, watery stools (bowel movements). You have diarrhea if you have loose stools three or more times in one day. Acute diarrhea is diarrhea that lasts a short time. It is a common problem. It usually lasts about one or two days, but it may last longer. Then it goes away on its own.

Diarrhea lasting more than a few days may be a sign of a more serious problem. Chronic diarrhea -- diarrhea that lasts at least four weeks -- can be a symptom of a chronic disease. Chronic diarrhea symptoms may be continual, or they may come and go.

Who gets diarrhea?

People of all ages can get diarrhea. On average, adults In the United States have acute diarrhea once a year. Young children have it an average of twice a year.

People who visit developing countries are at risk for traveler's diarrhea. It is caused by consuming contaminated food or water.

What causes diarrhea?

The most common causes of diarrhea include

  • Bacteria from contaminated food or water
  • Viruses such as the flu, norovirus, or rotavirus . Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in children.
  • Parasites, which are tiny organisms found in contaminated food or water
  • Medicines such as antibiotics, cancer drugs, and antacids that contain magnesium
  • Food intolerances and sensitivities, which are problems digesting certain ingredients or foods. An example is lactose intolerance.
  • Diseases that affect the stomach, small intestine, or colon, such as Crohn's disease
  • Problems with how the colon functions, such as irritable bowel syndrome

Some people also get diarrhea after stomach surgery, because sometimes the surgeries can cause food to move through your digestive system more quickly.

Sometimes no cause can be found. If your diarrhea goes away within a few days, finding the cause is usually not necessary.

What other symptoms might I have with diarrhea?

Other possible symptoms of diarrhea include

  • Cramps or pain in the abdomen
  • An urgent need to use the bathroom
  • Loss of bowel control

If a virus or bacteria is the cause of your diarrhea, you may also have a fever, chills, and bloody stools.

Diarrhea can cause dehydration, which means that your body does not have enough fluid to work properly. Dehydration can be serious, especially for children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

When should I see a doctor for diarrhea?

Although it is usually not harmful, diarrhea can become dangerous or signal a more serious problem. Contact your health care provider if you have

  • Signs of dehydration
  • Diarrhea for more than 2 days, if you are an adult. For children, contact the provider if it lasts more than 24 hours.
  • Severe pain in your abdomen or rectum (for adults)
  • A fever of 102 degrees or higher
  • Stools containing blood or pus
  • Stools that are black and tarry

If children have diarrhea, parents or caregivers should not hesitate to call a health care provider. Diarrhea can be especially dangerous in newborns and infants.

How is the cause of diarrhea diagnosed?

To find the cause of diarrhea, your health care provider may

  • Do a physical exam
  • Ask about any medicines you are taking
  • Test your stool or blood to look for bacteria, parasites, or other signs of disease or infection
  • Ask you to stop eating certain foods to see whether your diarrhea goes away

If you have chronic diarrhea, your health care provider may perform other tests to look for signs of disease.

What are the treatments for diarrhea?

Diarrhea is treated by replacing lost fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration. Depending on the cause of the problem, you may need medicines to stop the diarrhea or treat an infection.

Adults with diarrhea should drink water, fruit juices, sports drinks, sodas without caffeine, and salty broths. As your symptoms improve, you can eat soft, bland food.

Children with diarrhea should be given oral rehydration solutions to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.

Can diarrhea be prevented?

Two types of diarrhea can be prevented - rotavirus diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea. There are vaccines for rotavirus. They are given to babies in two or three doses.

You can help prevent traveler's diarrhea by being careful about what you eat and drink when you are in developing countries:

  • Use only bottled or purified water for drinking, making ice cubes, and brushing your teeth
  • If you do use tap water, boil it or use iodine tablets
  • Make sure that the cooked food you eat is fully cooked and served hot
  • Avoid unwashed or unpeeled raw fruits and vegetables

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

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Tylenol Side Effects

Product Quality Issue (465)
Diarrhoea (330)
Vomiting (328)
Transmission Of An Infectious Agent Via A Medicina (315)
Nausea (286)
Abdominal Pain Upper (217)
Dizziness (142)
Dyspnoea (139)
Pyrexia (123)
Overdose (120)
Pain (119)
Headache (116)
Malaise (109)
Abdominal Pain (94)
Accidental Overdose (93)
Convulsion (85)
Rash (81)
Fatigue (77)
Loss Of Consciousness (77)
Intentional Overdose (74)
Asthenia (72)
Hypersensitivity (68)
Hallucination (64)
Acute Hepatic Failure (63)
Weight Decreased (63)
Pulmonary Embolism (62)
Pruritus (60)
Chest Pain (60)
Pneumonia (60)
Incorrect Dose Administered (56)
Urticaria (55)
Somnolence (54)
Dehydration (50)
Haematochezia (49)
Hepatic Failure (49)
Cough (48)
Depression (47)
Anxiety (46)
Insomnia (46)
Cerebrovascular Accident (45)
Blood Pressure Increased (45)
Back Pain (43)
Fall (42)
Rectal Haemorrhage (42)
Suicide Attempt (42)
Renal Failure Acute (41)
Hyperhidrosis (40)
Hypertension (39)
Abdominal Discomfort (38)
Death (38)

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DIARRHOEA Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Unknown  Analgesic Effect of Paracetamol, Paracetamol + Codeine, Ibuprofen and Their Combination
Condition: Pain, Postoperative
Interventions: Drug: Ibuprofen + Paracetamol;   Drug: Ibuprofen + Paracetamol + Codeine;   Drug: Paracetamol + Codeine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Sum pain intensity SPI (0-10 Numerical Rating Scale);   Sum pain intensity difference score (PID);   Overall assessment of efficacy (4-point Verbal Rating Scale);   Adverse effects AE (Specific reporting of AE - type, duration and severity)
2 Not yet recruiting Equality Study of Ofirmev vs Oral Acetaminophen
Condition: Pain, Postoperative
Interventions: Drug: IV acetaminophen;   Drug: oral acetaminophen
Outcome Measures: Primary outcome will measure total opioid consumption while the patient is in the PACU;   time from PACU admission to request for first opioid dose
3 Unknown  Acetaminophen for Cancer Pain
Conditions: Cancer;   Pain
Interventions: Drug: Acetaminophen;   Drug: acetaminophen;   Drug: placebo, sugar pill
Outcome Measures: Patient preference for the acetaminophen or the placebo arm as assessed by asking the patient whether he/she preferred treatment period 1 or treatment period 2;   Differences in the mean pain intensity score as assessed by the daily average Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) pain score during the week given acetaminophen compared with the daily average NRS pain score during the week given placebo;   Symptoms possibly associated with acetaminophen use for each period using an NRS: feeling sick (nausea and vomiting);   drowsiness;   constipation;   cold sweats;   overall sense of well being;   Total analgesic consumption in each treatment period;   Best and worst pain scores for each treatment period;   Pain relief obtained in each treatment period;   Effect of pain on functional ability;   Strength of preference for acetaminophen versus placebo on a 5-point scale;   Proportion of patients who had a preference for acetaminophen who perceived the improvement warranted taking the additional tablets;   Proportion of patients having a clinically significant improvement in pain (defined as an improvement in mean NRS of at least 33% during the week taking acetaminophen)
4 Recruiting Intraoperative and Post-operative Analgesic Effect of IV Acetaminophen for Sinus Surgery
Condition: Chronic Sinusitis
Interventions: Drug: IV Acetaminophen;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Assess the efficacy of IV acetaminophen in controlling postoperative pain;   Investigate the effect of IV acetaminophen on the use of postoperative opioid analgesics;   Analyze effects of IV acetaminophen on intraoperative analgesic use;   Identify potential correlation between vital signs and postoperative pain intensity;   Examine the effect of IV acetaminophen on post-operative quality of recovery
5 Recruiting Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) for Closure of PDA in Preterm Infants
Condition: PDA
Interventions: Drug: Paracetamol;   Drug: Ibuprofen;   Procedure: Closure of PDA
Outcome Measures: Closure of arterial duct - yes / No;   Need for surgical closure of arterial duct
6 Recruiting Paracetamol Effect on Oxidative Stress and Renal Function in Severe Malaria
Condition: Malaria
Interventions: Drug: Paracetamol;   Drug: No Paracetamol
Outcome Measures: Effect of paracetamol concentrations;   Compare treatment arm with control arm with respect to duration of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and development of AKI.;   Oxidative stress assessed by measuring F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs);   Assessment of Blackwater fever;   Mortality trends;   Intravascular Haemolysis;   Fever clearance time;   Parasite clearance time;   Parasite sequestration;   Assessment of Acute Kidney Injury;   Creatinine clearance;   Safety assessment
7 Recruiting Slow Initial β-lactam Infusion With High-dose Paracetamol to Improve the Outcomes of Childhood Bacterial Meningitis
Condition: Bacterial Meningitis
Interventions: Drug: Infusion with paracetamol;   Drug: Bolus without paracetamol
Outcome Measures: Mortality;   Status on the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale;   Death or any sequelae;   A change in hearing threshold compared to the first test result;   Death or severe neurological sequelae;   Deafness
8 Unknown  Paracetamol for Cancer Pain
Conditions: Advanced Cancer;   Opioid Use, Unspecified
Interventions: Drug: paracetamol;   Drug: placebo tablets
Outcome Measures: Pain reduction caused by paracetamol 4g/d;   Overall satisfaction with the pain treatment
9 Recruiting Clinical Study Comparing the Efficacy of Transbuccal Paracetamol 125 mg Versus Paracetamol Injection 1g in Slow Infusion IV in Patients With Acute Pain
Condition: Acute Pain
Interventions: Drug: paracetamol;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Pain score measured by visual analogue scale
10 Unknown  The Effect of Single Dose Paracetamol on the Lower Airways of Asthmatic and Healthy Children
Condition: Asthma
Intervention: Drug: paracetamol
Outcome Measure: A measurable change in lung functions in response to paracetamol exposure.
11 Recruiting Prospective, Randomized, Double Blind Study Comparing IV vs PO Acetaminophen in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Discectomy
Condition: Pain
Interventions: Drug: oral acetaminophen;   Drug: intravenous acetaminophen
Outcome Measures: Postoperative pain scores;   Quantity of intraoperative and postoperative opioids administered.
12 Recruiting Can Acetaminophen Given 1-2 Hours to Children Before Ear Tube Surgery Reduce Agitation After Anesthesia?
Conditions: Emergence Agitation;   Pain
Intervention: Drug: Acetaminophen
Outcome Measures: Emergence Agitation;   Pain
13 Recruiting Analgesic Efficacy of Intravenous Acetaminophen After Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery
Condition: Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery
Interventions: Drug: IV Acetaminophen;   Drug: Saline Placebo
Outcome Measures: Total morphine consumption;   Number of PCA morphine bolus requests;   Pain Scores;   Vital signs
14 Recruiting A Prospective, Randomized, Double Blind, Comparative-effectiveness Study Comparing Perioperative Administration of Oral Versus Intravenous Acetaminophen for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Condition: Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Interventions: Drug: 2 capsules Oral Tylenol 2000 mg and IV "salt water";   Drug: IV Tylenol 1000mg and 2 oral capsule "sugar pills"
Outcome Measures: Pain;   Opioid Use
15 Not yet recruiting Adding Paracetamol to Ibuprofen for Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants
Condition: Hemodynamically Significant Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants
Interventions: Drug: Paracetamol;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus closure;   The need for surgical ligation for PDA;   Adverse effects
16 Recruiting Intravenous Acetaminophen for Non-Narcotic Postoperative Pain Management Following Knee Arthroscopy
Condition: Pain, Postoperative
Intervention: Drug: Intravenous Acetaminophen
Outcome Measures: Postoperative pain levels;   Postoperative opioid consumption
17 Recruiting Intravenous Acetaminophen in Craniotomy
Condition: Postoperative Pain
Interventions: Drug: Acetaminophen;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Post-Operative Opioid Requirement;   Intra-Operative Opioid Requirement;   Post-Operative Pain;   Post-Operative Side Effects
18 Recruiting Efficacy of IV Acetaminophen for Pain Management
Condition: Post-operative Pain
Interventions: Drug: Placebo (normal saline);   Drug: IV acetaminophen
Outcome Measures: Amount of opioid rescue needed;   Time to return of bowel function (passage of flatus);   Patient Satisfaction;   Cost Effectiveness
19 Recruiting Acetaminophen Versus Ibuprofen in Children With Asthma
Conditions: Asthma;   Wheezing
Interventions: Drug: Acetaminophen;   Drug: Ibuprofen
Outcome Measure: exacerbation frequency
20 Recruiting The Efficacy of Intravenous Acetaminophen During The Perioperative Period Of Neurosurgical Patients Undergoing Craniotomies
Conditions: Craniotomy;   Brain Surgery
Interventions: Drug: Acetaminophen;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Opioid requirement after surgery;   Time to rescue medication in both groups;   Amount of rescue medication in PACU in both groups;   Median difference in ICU length of stay/hospital length of stay between both groups;   Number of successful neurologic exams between intervention and placebo group as determined by a neurosurgical provider by answering either Yes or No;   Median difference in temperature between intervention and placebo groups;   Sedation scores measured by RASS every 8 hours for 24 hours in both groups;   Pain VAS scores (1-10) every 8 hours for 24 hours in both groups;   Delirium measured by CAM-ICU every 8 hours for 24 hours in both groups