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DRUG INTOLERANCE and Ambien

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DRUG INTOLERANCE Symptoms and Causes

What is diarrhea?

Diarrhea is loose, watery stools (bowel movements). You have diarrhea if you have loose stools three or more times in one day. Acute diarrhea is diarrhea that lasts a short time. It is a common problem. It usually lasts about one or two days, but it may last longer. Then it goes away on its own.

Diarrhea lasting more than a few days may be a sign of a more serious problem. Chronic diarrhea -- diarrhea that lasts at least four weeks -- can be a symptom of a chronic disease. Chronic diarrhea symptoms may be continual, or they may come and go.

Who gets diarrhea?

People of all ages can get diarrhea. On average, adults In the United States have acute diarrhea once a year. Young children have it an average of twice a year.

People who visit developing countries are at risk for traveler's diarrhea. It is caused by consuming contaminated food or water.

What causes diarrhea?

The most common causes of diarrhea include

  • Bacteria from contaminated food or water
  • Viruses such as the flu, norovirus, or rotavirus . Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in children.
  • Parasites, which are tiny organisms found in contaminated food or water
  • Medicines such as antibiotics, cancer drugs, and antacids that contain magnesium
  • Food intolerances and sensitivities, which are problems digesting certain ingredients or foods. An example is lactose intolerance.
  • Diseases that affect the stomach, small intestine, or colon, such as Crohn's disease
  • Problems with how the colon functions, such as irritable bowel syndrome

Some people also get diarrhea after stomach surgery, because sometimes the surgeries can cause food to move through your digestive system more quickly.

Sometimes no cause can be found. If your diarrhea goes away within a few days, finding the cause is usually not necessary.

What other symptoms might I have with diarrhea?

Other possible symptoms of diarrhea include

  • Cramps or pain in the abdomen
  • An urgent need to use the bathroom
  • Loss of bowel control

If a virus or bacteria is the cause of your diarrhea, you may also have a fever, chills, and bloody stools.

Diarrhea can cause dehydration, which means that your body does not have enough fluid to work properly. Dehydration can be serious, especially for children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

When should I see a doctor for diarrhea?

Although it is usually not harmful, diarrhea can become dangerous or signal a more serious problem. Contact your health care provider if you have

  • Signs of dehydration
  • Diarrhea for more than 2 days, if you are an adult. For children, contact the provider if it lasts more than 24 hours.
  • Severe pain in your abdomen or rectum (for adults)
  • A fever of 102 degrees or higher
  • Stools containing blood or pus
  • Stools that are black and tarry

If children have diarrhea, parents or caregivers should not hesitate to call a health care provider. Diarrhea can be especially dangerous in newborns and infants.

How is the cause of diarrhea diagnosed?

To find the cause of diarrhea, your health care provider may

  • Do a physical exam
  • Ask about any medicines you are taking
  • Test your stool or blood to look for bacteria, parasites, or other signs of disease or infection
  • Ask you to stop eating certain foods to see whether your diarrhea goes away

If you have chronic diarrhea, your health care provider may perform other tests to look for signs of disease.

What are the treatments for diarrhea?

Diarrhea is treated by replacing lost fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration. Depending on the cause of the problem, you may need medicines to stop the diarrhea or treat an infection.

Adults with diarrhea should drink water, fruit juices, sports drinks, sodas without caffeine, and salty broths. As your symptoms improve, you can eat soft, bland food.

Children with diarrhea should be given oral rehydration solutions to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.

Can diarrhea be prevented?

Two types of diarrhea can be prevented - rotavirus diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea. There are vaccines for rotavirus. They are given to babies in two or three doses.

You can help prevent traveler's diarrhea by being careful about what you eat and drink when you are in developing countries:

  • Use only bottled or purified water for drinking, making ice cubes, and brushing your teeth
  • If you do use tap water, boil it or use iodine tablets
  • Make sure that the cooked food you eat is fully cooked and served hot
  • Avoid unwashed or unpeeled raw fruits and vegetables

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

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DRUG INTOLERANCE Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Not yet recruiting A Comparison of Midazolam and Zolpidem as Oral Premedication in Children
Conditions: Parental/Caregiver Anxiety;   Child's Anxiety
Interventions: Drug: zolpidem;   Drug: Midazolam
Outcome Measures: Patient anxiety at the time of separation;   Other comparison measures will include preoperative parent/caregiver anxiety, anesthesia mask acceptance characteristics at the time of induction, and time to full recovery in the post operative period.
2 Recruiting Imaging the Effects of Zolpidem and Alprazolam in Healthy Volunteers at 3T
Condition: Psychotropic Drugs Effects
Interventions: Drug: Zolpidem;   Drug: Alprazolam;   Drug: Caffeine;   Other: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal as measured with fMRI;   Change in subjective drug effects as measured by self-report questionnaires
3 Recruiting Effects of Zolpidem CR® in Sleep and Heart Recovery in Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Patients
Conditions: Acute Coronary Syndrome;   Sleep Deprivation
Interventions: Drug: Zolpidem CR 12.5mg;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Sleep efficiency;   Troponin T;   Creatine-kinase MB
4 Unknown  The Role of Partial Reinforcement in the Long Term Management of Insomnia
Condition: Primary Insomnia
Intervention: Drug: Zolpidem
Outcome Measures: sleep diary;   Sleep Diary
5 Recruiting The Role of Sleep in the Treatment of Cannabis Use Disorders
Condition: Drug Addiction
Interventions: Drug: Zolpidem extended-release;   Behavioral: MET/CBT
Outcome Measures: Sleep Efficiency;   Cannabis Abstinence
6 Recruiting Reducing Suicidal Ideation Through Insomnia Treatment
Conditions: Insomnia;   Depression;   Suicidal Ideation
Interventions: Drug: Zolpidem-CR;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Suicide Severity Index (SSI);   Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep;   Disturbing Dreams and Nightmares Severity Index (DDNSI);   Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS);   Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D);   Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)
7 Not yet recruiting Polysomnographic Study Comparing the Use of Dexmedetomidine and Zolpidem to Induce Natural Sleep
Condition: Insomnia
Interventions: Drug: Dexmedetomidine;   Drug: Zolpidem;   Drug: Oral Placebo;   Drug: Normal Saline placebo.
Outcome Measures: Subjective and objective measures of sleep quality;   Performance on a word-pair cognitive task after waking up from sleep
8 Recruiting Effect of a Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist on Neurocognitive Performance
Condition: Healthy Volunteers
Interventions: Drug: Almorexant;   Drug: Zolpidem 10mg;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: A comparison between dosing groups on performance on neurocognitive measures
9 Recruiting Alternative Dosing Regimens in the Pharmacotherapy of Insomnia
Condition: Insomnia
Interventions: Drug: Amitriptyline;   Drug: Zolpidem;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Objective Total Sleep Time;   Objective Sleep Onset Latency;   Self-reported Total Sleep Time;   Self-Reported Sleep Onset Latency;   Percentage of REM sleep;   REM onset latency;   Objective Sleep Efficiency;   Self-Reported Total Sleep Time;   Self-reported Sleep Onset Latency (min);   Self-reported Sleep Onset Latency (evaluation)
10 Unknown  Risperidone and Zotepine in the Treatment of Delirium
Condition: Delirium
Intervention: Drug: Risperidone and Zolpidem for delirium
Outcome Measures: Delirium rating scale;   MMSE, CGI, side effect profile, HRV
11 Unknown  Memory Consolidation in Pharmacologically Enhanced Naps
Condition: Sleep
Interventions: Drug: Low-dose sodium oxybate;   Drug: High-dose sodium oxybate;   Drug: Low-dose zolpidem;   Drug: High-dose zolpidem;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Pharmacological enhancement of specific sleep parameters in a dose-dependent manner;   Correlation of pharmacological interventions with changes in sleep-stage-specific memory tasks
12 Unknown  Age-Dependent Memory Benefits From Pharmacologically Enhanced Naps?
Condition: Older Adults
Interventions: Drug: Sodium Oxybate;   Drug: Zolpidem;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measure:
13 Recruiting Sequenced Therapies for Comorbid and Primary Insomnias
Conditions: Insomnia Comorbid to Psychiatric Disorder;   Primary Insomnia
Interventions: Behavioral: Behavioral Insomnia Therapy;   Drug: Zolpidem;   Drug: Trazodone;   Behavioral: Cognitive Therapy
Outcome Measure: Insomnia Severity Index- Change from Baseline (Remission)
14 Recruiting Use of Benzodiazepines and Z Drugs in the Elderly
Condition: Chronic Benzodiazepines and Related Drugs Users
Intervention:
Outcome Measures: Dependence according to DSM IV criteria;   withdrawal syndrome;   psychiatric comorbidities;   Dependence scores
15 Not yet recruiting Effects of GABA Modulator AZD7325 on Cortical Excitability
Condition: Healthy
Interventions: Drug: 2 mg AZD7325;   Drug: 10 mg AZD7325;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in conventional measure of percentage short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 2.5 ms and conditioning stimulus intensity of 70 percent of resting motor threshold;   Change in the variables of kinematic analysis of circle drawing;   Change in the rating on a 0-100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of degree of sedation and the score of Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT);   Safety and tolerability of a single dose of AZD7325 by assessment of adverse events, vital signs, physical examination, ECG, and laboratory variables
16 Recruiting Effects of Hallucinogens and Other Drugs on Mood and Performance
Condition: Healthy
Intervention: Drug: Hallucinogens and psychoactive substances
Outcome Measures: Rating of "Drug Liking" on the End of Day Questionnaire;   Hallucinogen Rating Scale