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DRUG INTOLERANCE and Loratadine

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DRUG INTOLERANCE Symptoms and Causes

What is diarrhea?

Diarrhea is loose, watery stools (bowel movements). You have diarrhea if you have loose stools three or more times in one day. Acute diarrhea is diarrhea that lasts a short time. It is a common problem. It usually lasts about one or two days, but it may last longer. Then it goes away on its own.

Diarrhea lasting more than a few days may be a sign of a more serious problem. Chronic diarrhea -- diarrhea that lasts at least four weeks -- can be a symptom of a chronic disease. Chronic diarrhea symptoms may be continual, or they may come and go.

Who gets diarrhea?

People of all ages can get diarrhea. On average, adults In the United States have acute diarrhea once a year. Young children have it an average of twice a year.

People who visit developing countries are at risk for traveler's diarrhea. It is caused by consuming contaminated food or water.

What causes diarrhea?

The most common causes of diarrhea include

  • Bacteria from contaminated food or water
  • Viruses such as the flu, norovirus, or rotavirus . Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in children.
  • Parasites, which are tiny organisms found in contaminated food or water
  • Medicines such as antibiotics, cancer drugs, and antacids that contain magnesium
  • Food intolerances and sensitivities, which are problems digesting certain ingredients or foods. An example is lactose intolerance.
  • Diseases that affect the stomach, small intestine, or colon, such as Crohn's disease
  • Problems with how the colon functions, such as irritable bowel syndrome

Some people also get diarrhea after stomach surgery, because sometimes the surgeries can cause food to move through your digestive system more quickly.

Sometimes no cause can be found. If your diarrhea goes away within a few days, finding the cause is usually not necessary.

What other symptoms might I have with diarrhea?

Other possible symptoms of diarrhea include

  • Cramps or pain in the abdomen
  • An urgent need to use the bathroom
  • Loss of bowel control

If a virus or bacteria is the cause of your diarrhea, you may also have a fever, chills, and bloody stools.

Diarrhea can cause dehydration, which means that your body does not have enough fluid to work properly. Dehydration can be serious, especially for children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

When should I see a doctor for diarrhea?

Although it is usually not harmful, diarrhea can become dangerous or signal a more serious problem. Contact your health care provider if you have

  • Signs of dehydration
  • Diarrhea for more than 2 days, if you are an adult. For children, contact the provider if it lasts more than 24 hours.
  • Severe pain in your abdomen or rectum (for adults)
  • A fever of 102 degrees or higher
  • Stools containing blood or pus
  • Stools that are black and tarry

If children have diarrhea, parents or caregivers should not hesitate to call a health care provider. Diarrhea can be especially dangerous in newborns and infants.

How is the cause of diarrhea diagnosed?

To find the cause of diarrhea, your health care provider may

  • Do a physical exam
  • Ask about any medicines you are taking
  • Test your stool or blood to look for bacteria, parasites, or other signs of disease or infection
  • Ask you to stop eating certain foods to see whether your diarrhea goes away

If you have chronic diarrhea, your health care provider may perform other tests to look for signs of disease.

What are the treatments for diarrhea?

Diarrhea is treated by replacing lost fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration. Depending on the cause of the problem, you may need medicines to stop the diarrhea or treat an infection.

Adults with diarrhea should drink water, fruit juices, sports drinks, sodas without caffeine, and salty broths. As your symptoms improve, you can eat soft, bland food.

Children with diarrhea should be given oral rehydration solutions to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.

Can diarrhea be prevented?

Two types of diarrhea can be prevented - rotavirus diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea. There are vaccines for rotavirus. They are given to babies in two or three doses.

You can help prevent traveler's diarrhea by being careful about what you eat and drink when you are in developing countries:

  • Use only bottled or purified water for drinking, making ice cubes, and brushing your teeth
  • If you do use tap water, boil it or use iodine tablets
  • Make sure that the cooked food you eat is fully cooked and served hot
  • Avoid unwashed or unpeeled raw fruits and vegetables

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

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Loss Of Consciousness (20)
Insomnia (19)
Death (19)
Syncope (19)
Palpitations (19)
Swelling Face (17)
Anxiety (17)
Blood Pressure Increased (16)
Abdominal Pain Upper (15)
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Rash (14)
Overdose (14)
Depression (14)
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Fall (13)
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Diarrhoea (12)
Vision Blurred (12)
Confusional State (12)
Cough (12)
Abortion Spontaneous (11)
Cerebrovascular Accident (11)
Torsade De Pointes (11)
Feeling Abnormal (11)
Heart Rate Increased (11)
Muscle Spasms (10)
Ventricular Tachycardia (10)
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DRUG INTOLERANCE Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Evaluation of Loratadine for Prevention of Pegfilgrastim-Induced Pain
Condition: Pegfilgrastim-induced Back and Leg Pain
Interventions: Drug: Loratadine;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measures: Prevention of pegfilgrastim-induced back and leg pain by administration of the antihistamine Loratadine;   Identification of adverse events when Loratadine is given to prevent pegfilgrastim-induced back and leg pain;   Incidence of pegfilgrastim-induced back and leg pain
2 Recruiting NOLAN: Naproxen or Loratadine and Neulasta
Condition: Bone Pain in Stage I - III Breast Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Naproxen;   Drug: Loratadine
Outcome Measures: Bone pain (all grade) in cycle 1;   Bone pain (all grade) by cycle (2-4) and across cycles;   Severe (grade 3/4) bone pain by cycle and across cycles;   Subject reported bone pain;   Maximum Subject Reported bone pain;   Area under the Curve for subject-reported bone pain;   Adverse Event and Serious Adverse Events;   Severity of Adverse Events
3 Recruiting Long-Term Efficacy and Safety Study of SCH 900237/MK-8237 in Children and Adults With House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Rhinitis/Rhinoconjunctivitis (P05607)
Conditions: Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial;   Rhinitis, Allergic, Nonseasonal
Interventions: Biological: MK-8237 tablets;   Biological: Placebo tablets;   Drug: Rescue Medication: Self-Injectable Epinephrine;   Drug: Rescue Medication: Loratadine tablets;   Drug: Rescue Medication: Olopatadine ophthalmic drops;   Drug: Rescue Medication: Mometasone furoate nasal spray
Outcome Measures: Average Total Combined Rhinitis Score (TCRS);   Number of Participants Who Experience At Least One Adverse Event;   Number of Participants Who Discontinue Study Drug Due to an Adverse Event;   Average Rhinitis Daily Symptom Score (Rhinitis DSS);   Average Total Combined Rhinoconjunctivitis Score (TCS);   Average Rhinitis Daily Medication Score (Rhinitis DMS);   Average Allergic Rhinitis/Rhinoconjunctivitis Symptoms Assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)
4 Unknown  Combination of Peripheral Nerve Block and DepoDur in Total Knee Joint Replacement
Condition: Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee
Interventions: Drug: Depodur;   Procedure: sciatic nerve block
Outcome Measures: Postoperative Pain;   Time Required for Placement of Block;   Time to first use of rescue analgesia and PCA;   Total opioid consumption;   Degree of knee flexion (Range of motion);   Day of first ambulation;   Number of days required to achieve a 110° knee flexion;   Number of days of hospitalization;   Need for manipulation of knee joint under general anesthesia;   Secondary effects: nausea and vomiting, pruritus, supplemental oxygen, urinary catheterization;   Satisfaction score