Opioids, sometimes called narcotics, are a type of drug. They include strong prescription pain relievers, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid. Some opioids are made from the opium plant, and others are synthetic (man-made).

A doctor may give you a prescription opioid to reduce pain after you have had a major injury or surgery. You may get them if you have severe pain from health conditions like cancer. Some doctors prescribe them for chronic pain.

Opioids can cause side effects such as drowsiness, mental fog, nausea, and constipation. They may also cause slowed breathing, which can lead to overdose deaths. If someone has signs of an overdose, call 9-1-1:

  • The person's face is extremely pale and/or feels clammy to the touch
  • Their body goes limp
  • Their fingernails or lips have a purple or blue color
  • They start vomiting or making gurgling noises
  • They cannot be awakened or are unable to speak
  • Their breathing or heartbeat slows or stops

Other risks of using prescription opioids include dependence and addiction. Dependence means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse can include taking too much medicine, taking someone else's medicine, taking it in a different way than you are supposed to, or taking the medicine to get high.

Opioid abuse, addiction, and overdoses are serious public health problems in the United States. Another problem is that more women are abusing opioids during pregnancy. This can lead to babies being addicted and going through withdrawal, known as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Opioid abuse may sometimes also lead to heroin use, because some people switch from prescription opioids to heroin.

The main treatment for prescription opioid addiction is medication-assisted treatment (MAT). It includes medicines, counseling, and support from family and friends. MAT can help you stop using the drug, get through withdrawal, and cope with cravings. There is also a medicine called naloxone which can reverse the effects of an opioid overdose and prevent death, if it is given in time.

To prevent problems with prescription opioids, be sure to follow your doctor's instructions when taking them. Do not share your medicines with anyone else. Contact your doctor if you have any concerns about taking the medicines.

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

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<!--StartFragment--> I have advanced Rheumatoid Arthritis. My Left wrist swelled painfully. Had a negative X-ray so Dr (fully informed for current drug regimens and allergies--Aspirin, Penicillin, Thoradamides, Ornate, Iodine, Latex)

DRUG WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Unknown  The Effect of Amoxicillin Versus Placebo on Gastrointestinal Motility in Children
Condition: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
Interventions: Drug: Amoxicillin;   Other: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Induction of phase III of the migrating motor complex;   Characteristics of the induced phase III of the migrating motor complex;   Patient demographics;   Adverse events after study drug administration
2 Recruiting Antibiotic Prophylaxis - Amoxicillin
Condition: Healthy
Intervention: Drug: Amoxicillin
Outcome Measures: Quantitative and qualitative changes in the oral microflora will be determined as well as changes is susceptibility to Amoxicillin among these commensals.;   Concentration of Amoxicillin in saliva after one dose administration of Amoxicillin
3 Recruiting Concentration of Ampicillin / Sulbactam and Amoxicillin / Clavulanic Acid in the Blood During Renal Replacement Therapy in Longterm Renal Replacement Therapy Patients
Condition: Infection During Hemodialysis
Interventions: Drug: Administration of Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid;   Drug: Ampicillin / sulbactam;   Procedure: Blooddraws for pharmacokinetic profiling
Outcome Measure: Influence of hemodialysis on the area under concentration curve of ampicillin/sulbactam and Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid plasma concentration levels.
4 Unknown  Study to Proof the Clinical and Bacteriological Non-inferiority of Ampicillin/Amoxicillin Versus Moxifloxacin in Hospitalized Patients With Non-severe Community-acquired Pneumonia
Condition: Community Acquired Pneumonia
Interventions: Drug: Moxifloxacin;   Drug: Ampicillin;Amoxicillin
Outcome Measures: Proof of the clinical non inferiority by the cure rate at the treatment of a Pneumonia at the therapy end (round 3: Day 7 to 10) with a standard penicillin in a high dosage;   clinical cure rate;   bacteriological effectiveness on patients and seed level;   bacteriological sensitivity into-vitro;   time up to the drug-switch;   time until the dismissal of the patients necessity of the gift of additional antibacterial drug;   cost reduction of the antibiotic-therapy and the complete treatment;   assessment of the effectiveness by the investigator
5 Recruiting A New Antibiotic Prophylaxis Regimen to Prevent Bacteremia Following Dental Procedures
Condition: Bacteremia
Interventions: Drug: Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate;   Drug: Amoxicillin;   Drug: Chlorhexidine
Outcome Measures: Number of participants receiving a prophylactic dosage with Amoxicillin-clavulanate i.v. with bacteremia following dental extractions;   Number of participants receiving a prophylactic dosage with Amoxicillin i.v. (following the American Heart Association´s guidelines) with bacteremia after dental extractions
6 Recruiting Pharmacokinetics of Small Spectrum Beta-lactam Antibiotics (Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid and Cefuroxime) in Patients on Intensive Care Units
Condition: Infection
Outcome Measures: Area under the serum concentration versus time curve (AUC) of Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid.;   Area under the serum concentration versus time curve (AUC) of Cefuroxime.;   Severity of disease classification.;   Rate of organ failure.;   Concentration serum creatinin;   24 hour urine creatinine clearance;   Change in fluid balance;   Concentration serum albumin
7 Unknown  Effects of the Variation in the Time of Systemic Administration of Metronidazole and Amoxicillin Associated to the Non-surgical Therapy of Chronic Periodontitis.
Conditions: Chronic Periodontitis;   Clinical and Microbiological Effects
Intervention: Drug: Administration of Metronidazole plus Amoxicillin
Outcome Measures: - Mean change in clinical attachment level (CAL);   - Mean change in probing pocket depths (PD)
8 Recruiting Comparison of the Eradications Rates of Sequential Therapy Versus Concomitant Therapy
Condition: Helicobacter Pylori Infection
Interventions: Drug: pantoprazole, Amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole;   Drug: pantoprazole, Amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidzole
Outcome Measure: Comparison of the eradications rates of sequential therapy versus concomitant therapy of treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in Korea.
9 Recruiting Concomitant Therapy of H. Pylori
Condition: Gastritis, Gastric Ulcer, and Duodenal Ulcer
Intervention: Drug: Amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, rabeprazole
Outcome Measure: Evaluation of the efficacy of concomitant therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori
10 Not yet recruiting Necessity of Antibiotics for Prevention of Delivery-associated Infections After Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery at Term
Condition: Perineal Wound Infection
Interventions: Drug: Amoxicillin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Incidence of perineal wound infection
11 Recruiting Efficacy of Amoxicilline/Clavulanic Acid in Patients Affected by Tic Disorder Colonized by Group A Streptococcus
Condition: Tic Disorders
Interventions: Drug: Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measure: Severity of tic disorder
12 Recruiting Concomitant, Sequential, and Standard Triple Therapy for H. Pylori Infection
Condition: Helicobacter Pylori Infection
Interventions: Drug: 7-day quadruple therapy;   Drug: 10-day sequential therapy;   Drug: 7-day standard triple therapy
Outcome Measure: eradication rate
13 Unknown  Esomeprazole, Moxifloxacin and Amoxicilin for Rescue Therapy of Helicobacter Pylori Infection
Conditions: Helicobacter Pylori Infection;   Chronic Gastritis
Interventions: Drug: esomeprazole;   Drug: moxifloxacin;   Drug: Amoxicillin
Outcome Measures: Efficacy of a combination of esomeprazole (E), moxifloxacin (M) and Amoxicillin (A) for third line therapy of H. pylori infection.;   Comparison of EMA 7 days versus EMA 14 days. Hypothesis: superiority of EMA 14 days 4 weeks after end of eradication therapy;   Tolerability,safety, post treatment resistance, influence of host genetics (CYP status) and pathogenicity factors of H. pylori on treatment success.
14 Recruiting Extended Antibiotic Therapy in Postoperative of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Due to Acute Cholecystitis. Is it Necessary?
Condition: Acute Cholecystitis
Interventions: Drug: Amoxicillin clavulanic;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Incidence of infectious postoperative complications;   Number of days of hospital stay or readmissions.;   Number of surgical reinterventions or reoperations.
15 Recruiting Clarithromycin-based Triple Therapy for 14 Days Versus Sequential Therapy 10 Days in the First Line Therapy
Condition: Eradication Rates of the Two Regimens
Interventions: Drug: D1-D5: (lansoprazole + Amoxicillin ) D6-D10: (lansoprazole+clarithromycin +metronidazole);   Drug: D1-D14: (lansoprazole + clarithromycin + Amoxicillin)
Outcome Measures: Eradication rate according to Intention to treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analysis;   Incidence of adverse effects
16 Recruiting 14-day Quadruple Hybrid vs. Concomitant Therapies for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication
Condition: Helicobacter Pylori Infection
Intervention: Drug: PPI, Amoxicillin, metronidazole and clarithromycin
Outcome Measures: "Intention to treat" eradication rates;   " Per protocol" eradication rate;   Treatment compliance;   Number of participants with adverse events
17 Not yet recruiting Comparison Between Two Different Antibiotic Regimens for the Placement of Dental Implants
Condition: Dental Implants
Intervention: Drug: Amoxicillin
Outcome Measures: Implants survival rate;   Patients' pain experience;   Patients' experience of interference with their daily activities;   Surgeons' perception of healing
18 Recruiting The SCOUT Study: Short Course Therapy for Urinary Tract Infections in Children
Condition: Urinary Tract Infections
Interventions: Drug: Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, Amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefixime, or cephalexin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Occurrence of treatment failures between short-course and standard-course therapies;   Occurrence of recurrent infections;   Occurrence of colonization with antimicrobial resistant bacteria;   Occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria;   Occurrence of clinical symptoms;   Occurrence of positive urine cultures
19 Recruiting RCT: Triple vs Sequential vs Concomitant Therapy H Pylori
Condition: Bacterial Infection Due to Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori)
Interventions: Drug: 10 day triple therapy;   Drug: 10 day sequential therapy;   Drug: 10 day concomitant therapy
Outcome Measure: H pylori eradication rate
20 Unknown  Second Line Therapy for the Cure of Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) Infection
Conditions: Helicobacter Infections;   Gastritis;   Gastric Ulcer;   Duodenal Ulcer
Intervention: Drug: rabeprazole, Amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole
Outcome Measures: Which treatment yields the higher re-eradication rate of H. pylori infection;   Side effects