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DRUG WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME and Promethazine

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DRUG WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME Symptoms and Causes

Opioids, sometimes called narcotics, are a type of drug. They include strong prescription pain relievers, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid. Some opioids are made from the opium plant, and others are synthetic (man-made).

A doctor may give you a prescription opioid to reduce pain after you have had a major injury or surgery. You may get them if you have severe pain from health conditions like cancer. Some doctors prescribe them for chronic pain.

Opioids can cause side effects such as drowsiness, mental fog, nausea, and constipation. They may also cause slowed breathing, which can lead to overdose deaths. If someone has signs of an overdose, call 9-1-1:

  • The person's face is extremely pale and/or feels clammy to the touch
  • Their body goes limp
  • Their fingernails or lips have a purple or blue color
  • They start vomiting or making gurgling noises
  • They cannot be awakened or are unable to speak
  • Their breathing or heartbeat slows or stops

Other risks of using prescription opioids include dependence and addiction. Dependence means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse can include taking too much medicine, taking someone else's medicine, taking it in a different way than you are supposed to, or taking the medicine to get high.

Opioid abuse, addiction, and overdoses are serious public health problems in the United States. Another problem is that more women are abusing opioids during pregnancy. This can lead to babies being addicted and going through withdrawal, known as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Opioid abuse may sometimes also lead to heroin use, because some people switch from prescription opioids to heroin.

The main treatment for prescription opioid addiction is medication-assisted treatment (MAT). It includes medicines, counseling, and support from family and friends. MAT can help you stop using the drug, get through withdrawal, and cope with cravings. There is also a medicine called naloxone which can reverse the effects of an opioid overdose and prevent death, if it is given in time.

To prevent problems with prescription opioids, be sure to follow your doctor's instructions when taking them. Do not share your medicines with anyone else. Contact your doctor if you have any concerns about taking the medicines.

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Check out the latest treatments for DRUG WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME

DRUG WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME treatment research studies

Promethazine clinical trials, surveys and public health registries


Find Drug Side Effect reports



Promethazine Side Effects

Poisoning (63)
Toxicity To Various Agents (47)
Pain (45)
Nausea (37)
Completed Suicide (36)
Cardiac Arrest (36)
Cholecystitis Chronic (36)
Respiratory Arrest (34)
Confusional State (33)
Anxiety (27)
Vomiting (24)
Dyspnoea (24)
Exposure Via Ingestion (23)
Cholelithiasis (21)
Convulsion (21)
Injury (20)
Gallbladder Disorder (19)
Death (19)
Abdominal Pain (19)
Agitation (18)
Cardio-respiratory Arrest (18)
Dizziness (18)
Pain In Extremity (18)
Tremor (16)
Dystonia (16)
Diarrhoea (16)
Abdominal Pain Upper (15)
Dehydration (15)
Dyskinesia (15)
Mental Status Changes (15)
Headache (15)
Unresponsive To Stimuli (14)
Hallucination (14)
Emotional Distress (13)
Fatigue (13)
Hypotension (12)
Gait Disturbance (12)
Extrapyramidal Disorder (11)
Somnolence (11)
Oedema Peripheral (11)
Dysarthria (10)
Depression (10)
Deep Vein Thrombosis (10)
Burning Sensation (10)
Erythema (10)
Hypertension (10)
Pulmonary Embolism (10)
Lethargy (10)
Injection Site Pain (10)
Hypoaesthesia (10)

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DRUG WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Not yet recruiting Study of Promethazine for Treatment of Diabetic Gastroparesis
Condition: Diabetic Gastroparesis
Interventions: Drug: Promethazine;   Drug: Sugar pill
Outcome Measures: Change in patient-reported symptoms as measured by the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index score (GCSI, 14) from week 0 to week 4.;   Occurrence of adverse events;   Use of rescue medication;   The impact on work activity as measured by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. (WPAI).
2 Unknown  Morphine Versus Morphine-Promethazine Combination for Acute Low Back Pain Relief in the Adult Emergency Department
Condition: Low Back Pain
Interventions: Drug: Morphine-Promethazine;   Drug: morphine
Outcome Measures: Pain relief;   Ambulatory status
3 Recruiting Pharmacogenetic Factors and Side Effects of Metoclopramide and Diphenhydramine
Condition: Drug Metabolism, Poor, CYP2D6-RELATED
Interventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Metoclopramide
Outcome Measures: Area under curve of metoclopramide (MCP);   Area under curve of diphenhydramine(DPH);   Cmax of metoclopramide;   Tmax of metoclopramide;   Cmax of diphenhydramine;   Tmax of diphenhydramine
4 Unknown  Does Thiamine Help Vomiting and Nausea in Pregnancy?
Condition: Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Intervention: Drug: thiamine & Promethazine
Outcome Measure: the improvement in nausea and/or vomiting after treatment
5 Unknown  Adjunct Sedatives in Procedures Involving Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
Conditions: Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS);   Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
Interventions: Drug: Saline;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Promethazine
Outcome Measures: Sedation Level;   Time to achieve adequate level of sedation to begin procedure;   Time for Recovery;   Adverse Symptoms From Sedative Agents
6 Recruiting Diphenhydramine for Acute Migraine
Condition: Migraine
Interventions: Drug: metoclopramide;   Drug: diphenhydramine;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measure: Sustained headache relief
7 Recruiting Antitussive Effect of a Naturally Flavored Syrup Containing Diphenhydramine, Compared With Dextromethorphan and Placebo
Condition: Cough Reflex Sensitivity
Interventions: Drug: Phenylephrine;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Dextromethorphan
Outcome Measure: change in cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin
8 Not yet recruiting Diphenhydramine as an Adjunctive Sedative in Patients on Chronic Opioids
Conditions: Colonoscopy;   Adjunct Anesthesia Medication
Interventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Dosage of Fentanyl and Midazolam;   Quality of sedation;   Duration of Procedure;   Adverse events;   24 hour follow up
9 Not yet recruiting Randomized Trial of Diphenhydramine Versus Continued Midazolam in "Difficult-to-sedate" Patients Undergoing Colonoscopy
Conditions: Sedation;   Endoscopy
Interventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Midazolam
Outcome Measure: Proportion of patients who achieve adequate sedation to allow colonoscopy (defined as MOAA/S ≤3)
10 Recruiting Ketamine as a Rapidly-Acting Antidepressant in Depressed Emergency Department Patients
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Drug: Ketamine;   Drug: Diphenhydramine
Outcome Measures: Evaluate the effects of ketamine on depressive symptomatology;   Evalaute the effects of ketamine on treatment alliance;   Evalaute the effects of ketamine on suicidal ideation
11 Not yet recruiting Countermeasures to Reduce Sensorimotor Impairment and Space Motion Sickness Resulting From Altered Gravity Levels
Condition: Vestibular
Interventions: Drug: Promethazine;   Behavioral: Hyper gravity training;   Drug: Placebo;   Behavioral: No hypergravity training
Outcome Measure: Rate of recovery of roll tilt perception errors after exposure to hypergravity
12 Not yet recruiting Histamine Glutamate Antagonism in Stroke
Conditions: Acute Cerebrovascular Accident;   Cerebral Edema
Interventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Pantoprazole;   Drug: Famotidine;   Drug: Dextromethorphan
Outcome Measures: Modified Rankin Score;   National Institutes of Health Stroke Severity (NIHSS) Scale;   Neurological examination of the subject;   All cause mortality data
13 Not yet recruiting Psilocybin-facilitated Treatment for Cocaine Use
Condition: Cocaine-Related Disorders
Interventions: Drug: Psilocybin;   Drug: Diphenhydramine
Outcome Measure: The difference between the treatment and placebo groups in the number of participants with biochemically verified cocaine abstinence.
14 Recruiting Pazopanib Versus Temsirolimus in Poor-Risk Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)
Condition: Kidney Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Pazopanib;   Drug: Temsirolimus;   Behavioral: Quality of Life Assessment;   Drug: Benadryl
Outcome Measure: Progression Free Survival (PFS)
15 Not yet recruiting First-time-in-man, to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of BP1.5375
Condition: Healthy Male Volunteers
Interventions: Drug: BP1.5375 suspension;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Single Ascending Dose - safety and tolerability (Part 1);   Proof of Concept - effect on polysomnography (Part 2)
16 Not yet recruiting A Double-Blind Trial of Psilocybin-Assisted Treatment of Alcohol Dependence
Condition: Alcohol Dependence
Interventions: Drug: Psilocybin;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Behavioral: Motivational Enhancement and Taking Action (META)
Outcome Measures: percent heavy drinking days;   Changes in vital signs;   adverse events;   Percent days abstinent;   drinks per drinking day;   days to first drinking day;   Days to first heavy drinking day;   consequences of drinking;   craving;   self efficacy;   Motivation to change drinking behavior
17 Recruiting Study Looking at End Expiratory Pressure for Altitude Illness Decrease (SLEEP-AID)
Condition: Acute Mountain Sickness
Interventions: Device: Theravent;   Device: Control
Outcome Measures: Incidence of acute mountain sickness;   number of nocturnal desaturations;   acute mountain sickness severity;   nocturnal awakenings;   subjective quality of sleep
18 Recruiting The Role of Intravenous (IV) Lidocaine in the Management of Chronic Neuropathic Pain of Peripheral Nerve Origin
Condition: Neuropathic Pain
Interventions: Drug: Lidocaine;   Drug: Diphenhydramine
Outcome Measures: Changes from Baseline Pain scores on the Visual Analog Scale at 6 weeks;   Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale;   Modified Brief Pain Inventory;   Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire;   Patient Global Satisfaction with Treatment and Impression of Change;   Side Effects;   Quality of Life Health Outcome Instrument
19 Recruiting FUS1-nanoparticles and Erlotinib in Stage IV Lung Cancer
Condition: Lung Cancer
Interventions: Drug: DOTAP:Chol-fus1;   Drug: Erlotinib;   Drug: Dexamethasone;   Drug: Diphenhydramine
Outcome Measures: Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) Level for Drug Treatment Combination;   Response Rate
20 Unknown  Efficacy and Safety of the Herbal Medicine Sominex ® (Passiflora Incarnata L., Valeriana Officinalis L. and Crataegus Oxyacantha L.), Manufactured by the Laboratory EMS S / A in Patients With Psychophysiological Insomnia
Condition: Insomnia
Interventions: Drug: Sominex;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Improvement in sleep efficiency;   Improvement of the values obtained by the answers of the questionnaires obtained during the treatment