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FEAR and Dopamine

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FEAR Symptoms and Causes

A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder. It is a strong, irrational Fear of something that poses little or no real danger.

There are many specific phobias. Acrophobia is a Fear of heights. Agoraphobia is a Fear of public places, and claustrophobia is a Fear of closed-in places. If you become anxious and extremely self-conscious in everyday social situations, you could have a social phobia. Other common phobias involve tunnels, highway driving, water, flying, animals and blood.

People with phobias try to avoid what they are afraid of. If they cannot, they may experience

  • Panic and Fear
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Trembling
  • A strong desire to get away

Phobias usually start in children or teens, and continue into adulthood. The causes of specific phobias are not known, but they sometimes run in families.

Treatment helps most people with phobias. Options include medicines, therapy or both.

NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

Check out the latest treatments for FEAR

FEAR treatment research studies

Dopamine clinical trials, surveys and public health registries


Find Drug Side Effect reports



Dopamine Side Effects

Renal Failure (24)
Injury (23)
Unevaluable Event (21)
Fear (20)
Pain (19)
Renal Injury (18)
Death (17)
Emotional Distress (16)
Renal Impairment (15)
Anxiety (15)
Multi-organ Failure (14)
Stress (14)
Hypotension (11)
Device Failure (11)
Anhedonia (10)
Blood Pressure Decreased (10)
Device Malfunction (9)
Cardiac Arrest (9)
Depression (7)
Cardio-respiratory Arrest (5)
Loss Of Consciousness (5)
Incorrect Dose Administered (5)
Electrocardiogram St Segment Elevation (4)
Hypernatraemia (4)
Cerebrovascular Accident (4)
Bradycardia (4)
Renal Failure Acute (4)
Myocardial Infarction (4)
Ventricular Fibrillation (4)
Ventricular Tachycardia (4)
Pulse Absent (4)
Acidosis (3)
Accidental Overdose (3)
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (3)
Blood Pressure Systolic Decreased (3)
Choreoathetosis (3)
Condition Aggravated (3)
Blood Pressure Immeasurable (3)
Atrial Fibrillation (3)
Confusional State (3)
Encephalitis (3)
Depressed Level Of Consciousness (3)
Tachycardia (3)
Hypertension (3)
Metabolic Acidosis (3)
Rhabdomyolysis (3)
Mitral Valve Incompetence (3)
Nausea (2)
Pancytopenia (2)
Nervousness (2)

➢ More


Common Meds

Abilify (10132)
Adderall (1304)
Amlodipine (6664)
Amoxicillin (4387)
Benadryl (1568)
Celebrex (12876 )
Celexa (1342)
Cialis (2975)
Cipro (8580)
Citalopram (7792)
Crestor (18839)
Cymbalta (14373)
Doxycycline (1757)
Effexor (7289)
Flexeril (435)
Flomax (2177)
Fluoxetine (4261)
Gabapentin (4593)
Hydrocodone (2469)
Ibuprofen (8222)
Lantus (10968)
Lexapro (3499)
Lipitor (17769)
Lisinopril (8919)
Lyrica (27148)
Medrol (650)
Mirena (41254)
Mobic (957)
Morphine (5356)
Naproxen (538)
Neurontin (6501)
Oxycodone (4438)
Pradaxa (13372)
Prednisone (5926)
Prilosec (2631)
Prozac (1954)
Seroquel (27216)
Simvastatin (8348)
Synthroid (4452)
Tamiflu (5585)
Topamax (3748)
Tramadol (5054)
Trazodone (1458)
Viagra (5394)
Vicodin (1153)
Wellbutrin (6324)
Xanax (2847)
Zocor (5718)
Zoloft(6792)
Zyrtec(1669)

Recent Reviews

I m a neurotherapist. i m doing neurotherapy since 7 year. this disease is uncurable . plz tell me some advice

Shijiazhuang Kidney Disease Hospital in China is specialized in treating Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy. Since it was founded in 1986, it concentrates on dealing with kinds of kidney problem. In June, 2010, Stem Cell Technology is introduced to ou

Am linzi from west yorkshire aged 42 av been on them 5 years reason was depression and anxiety attacks. they did give me confidence and took away panic attacks and made me calmer.i travelled long distance in my car without the fear and pani

Am on Dolcet, 3x a day for three weeks already due to herpes zoster pain. For fear of overdosage i stopped taking this, i shifted to Lyrica 75 mg. But the pain continues. Is it okay if I take Lyrica in the morning and dolcet in the afternoon?

Am using melalite 15 from last 2 months... i had an average colour only, but not black. aftr using melalite i have big change in my skin colour. thts why am continuing it. now am fear about stopping it. am big confused that if i stop it who its will

Fear, swetting,anxiety, serious weight loss, addiction. After having drug removed abruptly ( by doctors mistake )side effects lasted for years after, such as: constantly living in the past, thinking backwards, forced thoughts, head ache, lo

First I too cipralex in the month of feb-11 for a period of two months. after again started in July due to fear for a period of one month. then again start in november for one month. now since last two weeks i am trying but the side effects are getti

I am going in next week, and scared to death to take the moviprep for fear of breathing difficulties, does this happen? thanks so much

I can't sleep if i take a percocet, if i do fall asleep i wake up every ten minutes or so in fear, turns my eyes red? (maybe, could be coincidental)

I had a aneurysm 3 years ago under went surgey with coils.I always have this fear i am going to have another one.Since this operation i have developed fluid tention in my legs put on weight seem to have fatty liver(NASH)I still have short memory lose

I have a back problem and I needed physical therapy however I had an immedate problem with Geodon and that problem was severe headaches. I think if your concerned about fear muscle relaxants are a much better choice than Geodon.

I have taken endep 25 for about a year now for insomnia. It has helped a lot and I don't want to come off it, because I fear the anxiety that comes from having no sleep. I do experience dull moods though and I am not as vibrant si

FEAR Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Diuretics and Dopamine in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction
Condition: Heart Failure, Diastolic
Interventions: Drug: Furosemide;   Drug: Dopamine
Outcome Measures: Change in glomerular filtration rate at 72 hours;   Change in incidence of acute kidney injury;   Volume of diuresis measured in liters;   Six minute walk distance;   Global well-being assessment score;   Heart failure readmissions;   Frailty index;   Subjective dyspnea score;   Length of stay
2 Not yet recruiting Dopamine Receptor Imaging to Predict Response to Stimulant Therapy in Chronic TBI
Condition: Traumatic Brain Injury
Interventions: Drug: methylphenidate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Relationship between tonic Dopamine release (measured by displacement of [11C]-raclopride by oral methylphenidate) and change in processing speed between baseline and after methylphenidate treatment.;   Relationship between D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex and neuropsychologic deficits.;   Relationship between tonic Dopamine release in the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex with neuropsychologic deficits after TBI.;   Relationship between D2/D3 receptor availability and functional connectivity of the prefrontal cortex with nodes of the default mode network.;   Relationship between TMS-induced short-interval cortical inhibition of M1 and tonic Dopamine release.;   Test motivation and reward on and off methylphenidate in TBI patients.
3 Unknown  Dopamine in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (DAD-HF) Trial
Condition: Acute Heart Failure
Interventions: Drug: Furosemide;   Drug: low-dose Dopamine + low-dose furosemide
Outcome Measures: 1-year mortality or rehospitalization (all-cause, cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular, and due to worsening heart failure).;   60-day mortality or rehospitalization (all-cause, cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular, and due to worsening heart failure).
4 Unknown  A Brain Imaging Study Into Nicotine Induced Dopamine Release in Cigarette Smokers.
Condition: Tobacco Use Disorder
Intervention: Drug: Bupropion
Outcome Measures: Dopamine D2 receptor occupancy before and after smoking a cigarette with nicotine;   Subjective measures of craving, anxiety and depression.
5 Recruiting Dopamine Versus Dobutamine for Treatment of Arterial Hypotension in Term and Preterm Neonates
Condition: Arterial Hypotension
Interventions: Drug: Dobutamine;   Drug: Dopamine
Outcome Measures: Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation;   Cardiac output
6 Recruiting Impact of Dopamine Infusion on Insulin Secretion in Healthy Subjects
Conditions: Hyperglycemia;   Sepsis
Intervention: Drug: Dopamine
Outcome Measures: insulin secretion;   counter-regulatory hormones
7 Not yet recruiting Role of Dopamine on Loss Aversion Behaviour: Study on Parkinsonian Patients
Condition: Parkinson's Disease
Intervention: Behavioral: Role of Dopamine
Outcome Measures: percentage of signal modification;   Cluster activation size;   Brain activity indicators
8 Recruiting Vasopressors for Cerebral Oxygenation
Conditions: Hypoxia;   Hypotension
Interventions: Drug: Dopamine;   Drug: phenylephrine
Outcome Measures: Cerebral oximeter reading;   cardiac output;   incidence of delirium;   incidence of acute renal injury
9 Recruiting Dietary Sodium's Effect on Urinary Sodium and Dopamine Excretion in Patients With Postural Tachycardia Syndrome
Condition: Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome
Interventions: Radiation: Total Blood Volume;   Procedure: Exercise Capacity Test - Bicycle;   Procedure: Posture Study
Outcome Measures: Urinary sodium;   Urinary Dopamine;   Blood Volume;   Change in Heart Rate with Standing;   Orthostatic Symptoms;   Change in Urinary Sodium following Change in Dietary Sodium;   Change in Urinary Dopamine following Change in Dietary Sodium
10 Not yet recruiting Switching From Oral Dopamine Agonists to Rotigotine
Conditions: Restless Legs Syndrome;   Ekbom Syndrome;   Willis-Ekbom Disease
Intervention: Drug: Rotigotine
Outcome Measures: Proportion of patients completing the switch and their adverse events;   International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS);   RLS-6 Scales;   Preference of Medication Scale (POM);   The Patient Global Impression of Change scale;   The Clinician Global Impression of Change Scale
11 Recruiting Effects of Corticorelin Administration on Dopamine Transmission, Craving, and Mood in Cocaine Dependence
Conditions: Cocaine-Related Disorders;   Cocaine Addiction;   Substance-Related Disorders
Intervention: Drug: Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
Outcome Measures: PET measure: [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding;   stress hormone levels;   subjective measures;   vital signs;   neuropsychological battery
12 Recruiting Study of Dopamine and Serotonin Transporters in Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Controls
Condition: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Intervention: Drug: SPECT : 123 I-FP-CIT (DATSCAN) and 123I-ADAM
Outcome Measures: Dopamine transporter binding potential;   Serotonin transporter binding potential;   Relationships between transporter binding potential and the clinical scores
13 Recruiting Blinking and Yawning in Epilepsy: The Role of Dopamine
Condition: Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy
Intervention: Other: Apomorphine (Experimental product)
Outcome Measures: Number of yawn;   Number of eyelid blinking;   Number of eyelid blinking in both groups after apomorphin or placebo injection;   Neurophysiological assessment of the Dopaminergic reactivity;   To test the correlation between the behavioral and neurophysiological markers of Dopaminergic reactivity in patients with epilepsy;   To assess Dopaminergic reactivity with biological markers;   Number of Adverse Events as a Measure of Safety and Tolerability;   Check the absence of spike-wave discharges in healthy volunteers
14 Not yet recruiting The Relationship Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Dopamine (a Chemical in the Brain)
Condition: Traumatic Brain Injury
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Choice reaction time (CRT) task with methylphenidate in patients with low volume of distribution (VT) of the Dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum.
15 Recruiting Dopamine D2 and D3 Receptor Occupancy and Clinical Response in Older Patients With Schizophrenia
Conditions: Schizophrenia;   Schizoaffective Disorder;   Schizophreniform Disorder
Intervention: Drug: risperidone
Outcome Measures: The occupancy of risperidone at the D2 and D3 receptor, using [11C]-raclopride and [11C]-(+)-PHNO, respectively.;   Plasma levels of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone
16 Recruiting Behavioural Addictions Occurring During a Dopaminergic Treatment Prescribe Under Parkinson's Disease: Study of the Psychopathological, Neurological and Pharmacokinetic Profiles
Conditions: Parkinson's Disease;   Secondary Behavioural Addiction
Intervention: Other: questionnaires
Outcome Measures: Psychopathological axis : score of sensation seeking (S Score) of the impulsivity questionnaire "UPPS";   Pharmacological axis : Area under the curve of the pramipexole concentration;   Neurological axis : Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III score;   Treatments except the anti-parkinsonism ones;   drug misuse;   addiction and punding antecedents;   ADHD antecedents;   impulsivity profile;   Age of onset of the Parkinson's disease;   stage and form of the Parkinson's disease;   time course of Parkinson's disease;   family history of Parkinson's disease;   anti-parkinsonism treatments;   Residual plasmatic concentration of the pramipexole;   median pharmacokinetic parameters of pramipexole;   study of the hepatic and renal functions;   Physiopathological covariates
17 Recruiting Imaging of Vesicular Acetylcholine and Dopamine Transporters in Dementia With Lewy Bodies
Condition: Dementia With Lewy Bodies
Interventions: Other: Imaging with IBVM;   Other: Imaging with DATSCAN;   Behavioral: neuropsychological evaluation
Outcome Measures: Binding Potential (BP) quantification of each radioligand;   Ratio Dopaminergic system/cholinergic system Binding Potential
18 Unknown  Expression Profile of Somatostatin Receptors and Dopamine Receptor 2 in Non-functioning Pituitary Adenomas and Resistant Prolactinomas: Correlation With in Vivo Response to Pasireotide and Cabergoline
Conditions: Non-functioning Pituitary Adenomas;   Prolactinomas
Interventions: Drug: Pasireotide;   Drug: cabergoline
Outcome Measures: Tumor volume reduction;   Prolactin levels normalization
19 Unknown  Multicenter Study on Fibrotic Valvular Heart Disease in Patients With Parkinson's Disease Treated With Dopamine Agonists
Conditions: Heart Valve Diseases;   Parkinson's Disease
Intervention:
Outcome Measure:
20 Recruiting The Effects of Prazosin on Dopamine in Healthy Humans: A PET Pilot Study
Condition: Healthy
Intervention: Drug: Prazosin Hydrochloride
Outcome Measure: Changes in [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding