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FLUID RETENTION Symptoms and Causes

What are migraines?

Migraines are a recurring type of headache. They cause moderate to severe pain that is throbbing or pulsing. The pain is often on one side of your head. You may also have other symptoms, such as nausea and weakness. You may be sensitive to light and sound.

What causes migraines?

Researchers believe that migraine has a genetic cause. There are also a number of factors that can trigger a migraine, including

  • Stress
  • Anxiety
  • Hormonal changes in women
  • Bright or flashing lights
  • Loud noises
  • Strong smells
  • Medicines
  • Too much or not enough sleep
  • Sudden changes in weather or environment
  • Overexertion (too much physical activity)
  • Tobacco
  • Caffeine or caffeine withdrawal
  • Skipped meals
  • Medication overuse (taking medicine for migraines too often)
  • Certain foods and food additives such as
    • Alcohol
    • Chocolate
    • Aged cheeses
    • Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
    • Some fruits and nuts
    • Fermented or pickled goods
    • Yeast
    • Cured or processed meats
Who is at risk for migraines?

About 12 percent of Americans get migraines. They can affect anyone, but you are more likely to have them if you

  • Are a woman. Women are three times more likely than men to get migraines.
  • Have a family history of migraines. Most people with migraines have family members who have migraines.
  • Have other medical conditions, such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, sleep disorders, and epilepsy.
What are the symptoms of migraines?

There are four different phases of migraines. You may not always go through every phase each time you have a migraine.

  • Prodome. This phase starts up to 24 hours before you get the migraine. You have early signs and symptoms, such as food cravings, unexplained mood changes, uncontrollable yawning, fluid retention, and increased urination.
  • Aura. If you have this phase, you might see flashing or bright lights or zig-zag lines. You may have muscle weakness or feel like you are being touched or grabbed. An aura can happen just before or during a migraine.
  • Headache. A migraine usually starts gradually and then becomes more severe. It typically causes throbbing or pulsing pain, which is often on one side of your head. But sometimes you can have a migraine without a headache. Other migraine symptoms may include
    • Increased sensitivity to light, noise, and odors
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Worsened pain when you move, cough, or sneeze
  • Postdrome (following the headache). You may feel exhausted, weak, and confused after a migraine. This can last up to a day.

Migraines are more common in the morning; people often wake up with them. Some people have migraines at predictable times, such as before menstruation or on weekends following a stressful week of work.

How are migraines diagnosed?

To make a diagnosis, your health care provider will

  • Take your medical history
  • Ask about your symptoms
  • Do a physical and neurological exam

An important part of diagnosing migraines is to rule out other medical conditions which could be causing the symptoms. So you may also have blood tests, an MRI or CT scan, or other tests.

How are migraines treated?

There is no cure for migraines. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and preventing additional attacks.

There are different types of medicines to relieve symptoms. They include triptan drugs, ergotamine drugs, and pain relievers. The sooner you take the medicine, the more effective it is.

There are also other things you can do to feel better:

  • Resting with your eyes closed in a quiet, darkened room
  • Placing a cool cloth or ice pack on your forehead
  • Drinking fluids

There are some lifestyle changes you can make to prevent migraines:

  • Stress management strategies, such as exercise, relaxation techniques, and biofeedback, may reduce the number and severity of migraines. Biofeedback uses electronic devices to teach you to control certain body functions, such as your heartbeat, blood pressure, and muscle tension.
  • Make a log of what seems to trigger your migraines. You can learn what you need to avoid, such as certain foods and medicines. It also help you figure out what you should do, such as establishing a consistent sleep schedule and eating regular meals.
  • Hormone therapy may help some women whose migraines seem to be linked to their menstrual cycle
  • If you have obesity, losing weight may also be helpful

If you have frequent or severe migraines, you may need to take medicines to prevent further attacks. Talk with your health care provider about which drug would be right for you.

Certain natural treatments, such as riboflavin (vitamin B2) and coenzyme Q10, may help prevent migraines. If your magnesium level is low, you can try taking magnesium. There is also an herb, butterbur, which some people take to prevent migraines. But butterbur may not be safe for long-term use. Always check with your health care provider before taking any supplements.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

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FLUID RETENTION Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Unknown  Does Oral Sildenafil (Viagra) Decrease Mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure After Cardiac Surgery?
Condition: Pulmonary Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Sildenafil (Viagra);   Drug: Sildenafil;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: To determine the efficacy of 12.5mg oral sildenafil to decrease the mPAP in patients presenting with a mPAP >/= 25mmHg after cardiopulmonary bypass.;   To determine the efficacy of a second dose of oral sildenafil 12.5mg to decrease the mPAP in those patients who do not respond with a 20% decrease in mPAP after the initial administration of study medication.;   To determine the safety of oral sildenafil to treat increased mPAP after cardiac surgery.
2 Unknown  Sildenafil for Prevention of Cerebral Vasospasm
Conditions: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage;   Cerebral Vasospasm;   Rupture of Intracranial Aneurysm
Interventions: Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Sildenafil Citrate, 25 mg, 3 times a day.;   Drug: Sildenafil Citrate 50 mg, 3 times a day
Outcome Measures: New neurological Deficit;   Transcranial Ecodoppler;   Mortality;   Side effects;   Time to discharge;   Rankin Scale
3 Unknown  A Study to Evaluate a Possible Superiority Expressed by the Faster Onset of Action and the Efficacy and Safety of Sildenafil Citrate 20mg Sublingual Tablet in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction of Different Etiologies
Condition: Erectile Dysfunction
Interventions: Drug: Sildenafil Citrate 20mg Tablet Sublingual;   Drug: Viagra ® 50mg tablet Coated
Outcome Measures: Evaluate a possible superiority expressed by the faster onset of action.;   Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Sildenafil Citrate 20mg Sublingual tablet, compared to Viagra ® 50mg tablet Coated in control of Erectile Dysfunction.
4 Recruiting Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil in Premature Infants
Condition: Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn
Intervention: Drug: 1 dose of sildenafil
Outcome Measures: Area under the plasma concentration versus time curve 0-24 hours for sildenafil;   Peak plasma concentration of sildenafil;   Clearance of sildenafil;   Volume of distribution at steady state;   Half life of sildenafil;   Number of subjects with adverse events as a measure of safety and tolerability.;   Correlation between serum and dried blood spot samples;   Evaluate P450 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
5 Unknown  Use of Sildenafil (Viagra) to Alter Fatigue, Functional Status and Impaired Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients With CFS
Condition: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Interventions: Drug: Sildenafil (Viagra);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: The principal aim of this study is to determine whether chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is due to inadequate blood flow to the brain and to test a medication, Viagra, which should help increase blood flow to the brain and improve the symptoms of CFS.
6 Unknown  Effects of Viagra on Heart Function in Patients With Heart Failure
Conditions: Heart Failure;   Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Intervention: Drug: sildenafil
Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure is a fall in the left ventricular filling pressure in association with administration of sildenafil;   A secondary outcome is the distance walked with the 6-minute walk test after the administration of sildenafil
7 Not yet recruiting Effects of Oral Sildenafil on Mortality in Adults With PAH
Condition: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Intervention: Drug: sildenafil citrate
Outcome Measures: Overall Survival (OS);   Time to first clinical worsening (TTCW) event;   6 Minute Walk Distance (6MWD) at Months 6 & 12
8 Recruiting VasoREACTivity Testing With Intravenous SILdenafil in Patients With Precapillary Pulmonary Hypertension
Condition: Pulmonary Hypertension Associated With Connective Tissue Disease
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil
Outcome Measures: efficacy of Sildenafil I.V. for vasoreactivity testing;   clinical efficacy of sildenafil per os predicted by testing it intravenously in the course of oral therapy
9 Unknown  Early Start of Oral Sildenafil 100mg for Erectile Dysfunction After Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy
Condition: Prostate Cancer
Intervention: Drug: sildenafil 100mg
Outcome Measures: patterns of recovery of erectile functions after nerve sparing RALP in men with on- demand sildenafil 100mg dosing from the early postoperative period (using IIEF-5);   comparison of the potency rates in men with on- demand sildenafil 100mg dosing from the early postoperative period with from the delayed postoperative period
10 Unknown  Evaluation of Sildenafil for the Treatment of Moderate Congestive Heart Failure
Condition: Heart Failure
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil
Outcome Measures: Change in 6-minute walk distance;   Changes in peak oxygen consumption (measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing);   Change in the level of neurohormones (b-type natriuretic peptide, catecholamines, ET-1),;   Change in quality of life
11 Unknown  The Effects of Sildenafil on Exercise Function and Capacity in Patients With Fontan Circulation
Condition: Fontan Circulation
Interventions: Drug: sildenafil;   Other: placebo
Outcome Measure: An increase in exercise capacity for patients administered sildenafil
12 Recruiting The Revaki-001. A Study to Determine the Pharmacokinetic Profile, Safety and Tolerability of Sildenafil (REVATIO®) in Cardiac Surgery
Condition: Acute Kidney Injury
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil
Outcome Measures: Area under the plasma concentration versus time curve and Plasma Concentration of Sildenafil;   Serum creatinine and Biochemical markers of AKI
13 Recruiting Effects of Sildenafil on Choroidal Thickness in AMD
Condition: Age-related Macular Degeneration
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil citrate
Outcome Measures: Change in Choroidal Thickness as Assessed on Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography (EDI-OCT);   Change in Central Foveal Thickness as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT)
14 Unknown  Viagra for the Treatment of IUGR
Condition: IUGR
Intervention: Drug: Viagra administration in IUGR/PET pregnancies
Outcome Measures: Uteroplacental perfusion;   Fetal growth;   Maternal and fetal safety
15 Not yet recruiting Blood Flow and Vascular Function in Cystic Fibrosis
Condition: Cystic Fibrosis
Interventions: Drug: Acute (1 hour) Sildenafil;   Drug: Sub-Chronic (4 weeks) Sildenafil;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Exercise Capacity;   Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD);   Arterial Stiffness Evaluation (PWV);   Physio Flow
16 Recruiting "As Required" Oral Sildenafil in Raynaud's Phenomenon
Condition: Raynaud's Phenomenon
Interventions: Drug: Sildenafil 40 mg;   Drug: Sildenafil 80 mg;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Mean change in the Raynaud's Condition Score (RCS) during treatment, as compared to placebo.;   Frequency of RP: number of RP attacks during treatment, as compared to placebo.;   Patients' preference: comparison between the number of patients favoring a treatment to another.;   Pain associated with RP: Mean change in the Raynaud's pain score during treatment, as compared to placebo.;   Frequency and severity of adverse drug events during treatment, as compared to placebo;   Microvascular reactivity: index of skin perfusion in response to local/regional cooling after a single dose of sildenafil, as compared to placebo (laboratory experiments)
17 Recruiting Effectiveness of the Vasodilator Test With Revatio, Made in Patients With Acute Pulmonary Hypertension
Condition: Pulmonary Hypertension
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil 20mg oral vs Sildenafil 10mg intravenous
Outcome Measure: Effectiveness
18 Recruiting Sildenafil Citrate Before Surgery in Improving Kidney Function in Patients With Kidney Cancer
Condition: Kidney Tumor
Interventions: Drug: sildenafil citrate;   Other: placebo;   Procedure: therapeutic conventional surgery
Outcome Measures: Accrual rate;   Retention rate;   Participation rate;   Change in GFR;   Change in proteinuria;   Estimated blood loss;   Hemoglobin concentration;   Changes in blood pressure measurements;   Vasopressor support requirements during the operative procedure;   Intravenous fluid requirements during the operative procedure;   Overall complication rates;   Preliminary effect size of sildenafil citrate on change in GFR
19 Unknown  On Demand Versus Daily Sildenafil for Patients Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy
Condition: Erectile Dysfunction
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil
Outcome Measures: Proportion of patients with an Erectile Function domain score of International Index of Erectile Function ( IIEF) => 22 at the end of the wash-out period (44 wks after surgery);   Proportion of patients with an Erectile Function domain score of IIEF => 22 at the end of the study (52 wks after surgery);   IIEF - Domain Scores for: Erection Hardness Score (1-4) Intercourse success rates defined by the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) questionnaire (questions 2 and 3) Safety Endpoints: Adverse event summarized Global assessment questions
20 Not yet recruiting Growth Hormone or Sildenafil as Therapies for Fatigue in Mild-​Traumatic-brain-injury (MTBI)
Condition: Traumatic Brain Injury
Interventions: Drug: Growth Hormone;   Drug: Sildenafil;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Perceptual fatigue as measured weekly using the Brief Fatigue Inventory;   Performance fatigue as measured by using hand and leg dynamometry.