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HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIA and FOSAMAX

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HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIA Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your body needs some cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help you digest foods. Your body makes all the cholesterol it needs. Cholesterol is also found in foods from animal sources, such as egg yolks, meat, and cheese.

If you have too much cholesterol in your blood, it can combine with other substances in the blood to form plaque. Plaque sticks to the walls of your arteries. This buildup of plaque is known as atherosclerosis. It can lead to coronary artery disease, where your coronary arteries become narrow or even blocked.

What are LDL, HDL, and VLDL?

There are different types of cholesterol:

  • HDL stands for high-density lipoprotein. It is called the "good" cholesterol because it carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. Your liver then removes the cholesterol from your body.
  • LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to the buildup of plaque in your arteries.
  • VLDL stands for very low-density lipoprotein. It is also a "bad" cholesterol because it too contributes to the buildup of plaque in your arteries. But VLDL and LDL are different; VLDL carries triglycerides and LDL carries cholesterol.
What causes high cholesterol?

The most common cause of high cholesterol is an unhealthy lifestyle. This can include

  • Unhealthy eating habits, such as eating lots of bad fats. One type, saturated fat, is found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. Another type, trans fat, is in some fried and processed foods. Eating these fats can raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
  • Lack of physical activity, with lots of sitting and little exercise. This lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol.
  • Smoking, which lowers HDL cholesterol, especially in women. It also raises your LDL cholesterol.

Genetics may also cause people to have high cholesterol. For example, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited form of high cholesterol. Other medical conditions and certain medicines may also cause high cholesterol.

What can raise my risk of high cholesterol?

A variety of things can raise your risk for high cholesterol:

  • Age. Your cholesterol levels tend to rise as you get older. Even though it is less common, younger people, including children and teens, can also have high cholesterol.
  • Heredity. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Weight. Being overweight or having obesity raises your cholesterol level.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
  • Weight. Being overweight or having obesity raises your cholesterol level.
What health problems can high cholesterol cause?

If you have large deposits of plaque in your arteries, an area of plaque can rupture (break open). This can cause a blood clot to form on the surface of the plaque. If the clot becomes large enough, it can mostly or completely block blood flow in a coronary artery.

If the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle is reduced or blocked, it can cause angina (chest pain) or a heart attack.

Plaque also can build up in other arteries in your body, including the arteries that bring oxygen-rich blood to your brain and limbs. This can lead to problems such as carotid artery disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease.

How do I know if I have high cholesterol?

There are usually no signs or symptoms that you have high cholesterol. There is a blood test to measure your cholesterol level. When and how often you should get this test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
How can I lower my cholesterol?

You can lower your cholesterol through heart-healthy lifestyle changes. They include a heart-healthy eating plan, weight management, and regular physical activity.

If the lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol-lowering drugs available, including statins. If you take medicines to lower your cholesterol, you still should continue with the lifestyle changes.

Some people with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) may receive a treatment called lipoprotein apheresis. This treatment uses a filtering machine to remove LDL cholesterol from the blood. Then the machine returns the rest of the blood back to the person.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Check out the latest treatments for HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIA

HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIA treatment research studies

FOSAMAX clinical trials, surveys and public health registries


Find Drug Side Effect reports



FOSAMAX Side Effects

Femur Fracture (5674)
Anxiety (3177)
Osteonecrosis (2820)
Fall (2638)
Depression (2384)
Arthralgia (1887)
Dental Caries (1636)
Arthropathy (1621)
Back Pain (1566)
Low Turnover Osteopathy (1355)
Anaemia (1283)
Osteomyelitis (1270)
Hypertension (1242)
Blood Cholesterol Increased (1236)
Impaired Healing (1123)
Abscess (1121)
Adverse Event (1103)
Bone Density Decreased (1051)
Bone Disorder (1050)
Chest Pain (1022)
Bronchitis (915)
Tooth Disorder (890)
Arthritis (849)
Gastrooesophageal Reflux Disease (838)
Intramedullary Rod Insertion (835)
Osteonecrosis Of Jaw (834)
Cataract (805)
Osteoarthritis (784)
Osteoporosis (749)
Pain In Extremity (719)
Stress Fracture (715)
Jaw Disorder (708)
Asthma (706)
Cellulitis (697)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (679)
Abdominal Pain (632)
Diarrhoea (584)
Asthenia (582)
Constipation (557)
Bursitis (552)
Atrial Fibrillation (550)
Pain (544)
Exostosis (531)
Fatigue (522)
Oral Infection (505)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (503)
Dizziness (502)
Foot Fracture (501)
Hip Fracture (497)
Headache (477)

➢ More


Common Meds

Abilify (10132)
Adderall (1304)
Amlodipine (6664)
Amoxicillin (4387)
Benadryl (1568)
Celebrex (12876 )
Celexa (1342)
Cialis (2975)
Cipro (8580)
Citalopram (7792)
Crestor (18839)
Cymbalta (14373)
Doxycycline (1757)
Effexor (7289)
Flexeril (435)
Flomax (2177)
Fluoxetine (4261)
Gabapentin (4593)
Hydrocodone (2469)
Ibuprofen (8222)
Lantus (10968)
Lexapro (3499)
Lipitor (17769)
Lisinopril (8919)
Lyrica (27148)
Medrol (650)
Mirena (41254)
Mobic (957)
Morphine (5356)
Naproxen (538)
Neurontin (6501)
Oxycodone (4438)
Pradaxa (13372)
Prednisone (5926)
Prilosec (2631)
Prozac (1954)
Seroquel (27216)
Simvastatin (8348)
Synthroid (4452)
Tamiflu (5585)
Topamax (3748)
Tramadol (5054)
Trazodone (1458)
Viagra (5394)
Vicodin (1153)
Wellbutrin (6324)
Xanax (2847)
Zocor (5718)
Zoloft(6792)
Zyrtec(1669)

Recent Reviews

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I started generic fosamax 10 days ago . After my first dose( sunday)I was fine, but the day after (Monday) in the afternoon I experienced crushing pain in my upper spine that radiated to the front. I had severe difficulty rising f

I took Actonel for 2 months and the psorasis in my scalp got out of control. My Doctor could find no connection. I have been on Fosamax for one month now and the same thing is happening. Have there been other reports of this side effect?

I've heard that it's worse for the bones in the head (teeth, jaw bones, etc.) than anywhere in the body). I'm sure there are exceptions and people who get along fine, but there are WAY too many cases to chance it!

HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIA Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Not yet recruiting The Effect of Alendronate on the Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Healthy Adults
Condition: Healthy Volunteers
Interventions: Drug: Alendronate;   Drug: Hepatitis B Vaccine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Safety/Adverse events;   Efficacy
2 Recruiting Testosterone and Alendronate in Hypogonadal Men
Conditions: Hypogonadism;   Osteopenia;   Osteoporosis
Interventions: Drug: Testosterone;   Drug: Alendronate;   Drug: Placebo Alendronate;   Drug: Placebo Testosterone
Outcome Measure: Spine Bone Mineral Density by DXA
3 Unknown  Alendronate for Vascular Calcification in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients?
Condition: Peritoneal Dialysis
Intervention: Drug: alendronate (Fosamax)
Outcome Measures: 1.Changes of calcification score of coronary arteries and aorta;   2.Changes of bone density;   changes of parathyroid hormone;   changes of serum calcium and phosphate level;   changes of C reactive protein;   changes of lipid profile;   adverse reactions
4 Unknown  Fosamax for Childhood Cancer Survivors
Condition: Osteoporosis
Interventions: Drug: Alendronate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: The percent change in bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine at 36-weeks in subjects who receive active and control treatments;   Changes in BMD at femoral neck;   Changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover;   Occurrence of clinical bone-related symptoms at 12-weeks and end of this study
5 Not yet recruiting RA Denosumab on Bone Microstructure Study
Condition: Rheumatoid Arthritis
Interventions: Drug: Denosumab;   Drug: Alendronate
Outcome Measures: Changes from baseline in bone volumetric density at distal radius at 6th month;   Changes from baseline in trabecular bone microarchitecture at distal radius at 6th month;   Changes from baseline in bone volumetric density at the 2nd metacarpal bone at 6th month;   Changes from baseline in trabecular bone microarchitecture at 2nd metacarpal bone at 6th month;   Changes from baseline in areal bone density at total hip at 6th month;   Changes from baseline in areal bone density at lumbar spine at 6th month;   Changes in areal bone density at distal radius at 6th month;   Changes from baseline in bone volumetric density at distal radius at 3rd month;   Changes from baseline in trabecular bone microarchitecture at distal radius at 3rd month;   Changes from baseline in bone volumetric density at the 2nd metacarpal bone at 3rd month;   Changes from baseline in trabecular bone microarchitecture at 2nd metacarpal bone at 3rd month;   Changes from baseline in areal bone density at total hip at 3rd month;   Changes from baseline in areal bone density at lumbar spine at 3rd month;   Changes in areal bone density at distal radius at 3rd month
6 Recruiting Study to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of Romosozumab in the Treatment of Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis
Condition: Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis
Interventions: Drug: Romosozumab;   Drug: Alendronate
Outcome Measures: Incidence of clinical fracture;   Incidence of new vertebral fracture;   Incidence of fracture;   Percent changes in DXA Bone Mineral Density from baseline to 12 months;   Percent changes in DXA Bone Mineral Density from baseline to 24 months;   Percent changes in DXA Bone Mineral Density from baseline to 36 months
7 Not yet recruiting Bone Antiresorptive Therapy With Antiretroviral Initiation (BATARI) Pilot Trial
Condition: HIV
Intervention: Drug: alendronate/vitamin D
Outcome Measures: Percentage changes in BMD at a) the lumbar spine and b) proximal femur;   Feasibility;   Acceptability;   Safety/Tolerability;   Adherence;   Bone Biomarkers
8 Not yet recruiting Study Investigating the Effect of Drugs Used to Treat Osteoporosis on the Progression of Calcific Aortic Stenosis.
Condition: Calcific Aortic Stenosis
Interventions: Drug: Denosumab;   Drug: Alendronic Acid;   Drug: Denosumab Placebo;   Drug: Alendronic Acid Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in aortic valve calcium score;   Change in aortic valve 18F-NaF uptake;   Change in aortic-jet velocity;   Change in thoracic aortic and coronary artery calcium score;   Change in thoracic spine bone mineral density;   Change in quality of life determined by Short Form 36 Questionnaire
9 Recruiting Comparison of the Effect of an Ongoing Treatment With Alendronate or a Drug Holiday on the Fracture Risk in Osteoporotic Patients With Bisphosphonate Long Term Therapy
Condition: Osteoporosis
Interventions: Drug: Alendronate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Incidence of new osteoporotic fractures;   Equivalence of deaths with and without continued bisphosphonate therapy;   Incidence of the combination of fractures and deaths
10 Recruiting Bone Healing After Dental Extraction in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women Treated With Alendronate Per os Weekly
Condition: Alveolar Bone Healing After Dental Extraction
Intervention: Procedure: Dental extraction
Outcome Measures: Alveolar socket filled by new bone;   Mucosal injury
11 Unknown  The Study of the Early Administration of Alendronate on Prevention of Bone Loss After Hip Fracture.
Condition: Osteoporosis
Intervention: Drug: Alendronate
Outcome Measure:
12 Unknown  Osteoporosis and Dental Implant
Condition: Osteoporosis
Interventions: Drug: alendronate once weekly 70mg;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measure: Dental CT
13 Unknown  Randomized Study of Alendronate in Adult Patients With Cystic Fibrosis Related Osteoporosis
Conditions: Osteoporosis;   Cystic Fibrosis
Interventions: Drug: alendronate sodium;   Drug: calcium carbonate;   Drug: cholecalciferol
Outcome Measure:
14 Unknown  Phase II Randomized Study of Alendronate Sodium for Osteopenia in Patients With Gaucher's Disease
Conditions: Gaucher's Disease;   Osteopenia
Interventions: Drug: alendronate sodium;   Drug: calcium carbonate;   Drug: cholecalciferol
Outcome Measure:
15 Unknown  Pharmacokinetics of Maxmarvil® in Healthy Postmenopausal Women
Condition: Osteoporosis
Intervention: Drug: Maxmarvil®
Outcome Measure: analysis of Alendronate concentrate
16 Recruiting Stem Cell Recruitment in Osteoporosis Therapy
Condition: Low Bone Density
Interventions: Drug: Teriparatide;   Drug: Alendronate;   Dietary Supplement: calcium and vitamin D
Outcome Measures: Number of Stro-1+ MSCs at bone resorption sites in bone biopsies of subjects treated with PTH or ALN.;   Number of p-Smad 2/3+ cells/mm2 at active resorption sites on bone biopsy specimens of subjects treated with PTH or ALN.;   The percent increase in Stro-1+/CD146+ cells in the blood before and after treatment with PTH or ALN.;   Number of human Stro-1+ MSCs at bone resorption sites in bone of Rag2-/- mice reconstituted with human bone marrow derived from subjects treated with PTH or ALN.
17 Recruiting Twenty Four Month Extension Study of BA058-05-003
Condition: Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Intervention: Drug: Alendronate
Outcome Measures: Safety;   Vertebral Fracture Incidence;   Non-vertebral Fracture Incidence
18 Recruiting Bisphosphonate Biomarker Study
Conditions: Osteoporosis, With or Without Treatment;   Bisphosphonate Treatment;   Atypical Femur Fracture;   Bisphosphonate Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (BRONJ);   Healthy Volunteers
Intervention:
Outcome Measures: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion (ADME) Profiling of DNA from all sample types vs. normative data for the ADME panel and across study groups;   Differential expression of miRNA biomarkers across participant groups within the study
19 Recruiting Effectiveness of DiscontinuinG bisphosphonatEs Study: R21 Pilot Study
Condition: Osteoporosis
Intervention: Drug: Alendronate
Outcome Measures: Clinical site recruitment rate;   Participant recruitment rate;   Contracting and procedures;   Administrative procedures;   Osteonecrosis of the jaw;   Atypical femoral fracture;   Clinical fracture rate
20 Recruiting Acute Effect of Teriparatide With Bisphosphonate or Denosumab on Bone Resorption
Condition: Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Intervention: Drug: Teriparatide 40-mcg subcutaneous injection
Outcome Measure: Bone turnover marker (blood sample)