HYPERLIPIDAEMIA Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your body needs some cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help you digest foods. Your body makes all the cholesterol it needs. Cholesterol is also found in foods from animal sources, such as egg yolks, meat, and cheese.

If you have too much cholesterol in your blood, it can combine with other substances in the blood to form plaque. Plaque sticks to the walls of your arteries. This buildup of plaque is known as atherosclerosis. It can lead to coronary artery disease, where your coronary arteries become narrow or even blocked.

What are LDL and HDL?

There are two main types of cholesterol:

  • HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is called the "good" cholesterol because it carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. Your liver then removes the cholesterol from your body.
  • LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries.
What causes high cholesterol?

The most common cause of high cholesterol is an unhealthy lifestyle. This can include

  • Unhealthy eating habits, such as eating lots of bad fats. One type, saturated fat, is found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. Another type, trans fat, is in some fried and processed foods. Eating these fats can raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
  • Lack of physical activity, with lots of sitting and little exercise. This lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol.
  • Smoking, which lowers HDL cholesterol, especially in women. It also raises your LDL cholesterol.

Genetics may also cause people to have high cholesterol. For example, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited form of high cholesterol. Other medical conditions and certain medicines may also cause high cholesterol.

What can raise my risk of high cholesterol?

A variety of things can raise your risk for high cholesterol:

  • Age. Your cholesterol levels tend to rise as you get older.
  • Heredity. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Weight. Being overweight or having obesity raises your cholesterol level.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
  • Weight. Being overweight or having obesity raises your cholesterol level.
What health problems can high cholesterol cause?

If you have large deposits of plaque in your arteries, an area of plaque can rupture (break open). This can cause a blood clot to form on the surface of the plaque. If the clot becomes large enough, it can mostly or completely block blood flow in a coronary artery.

If the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle is reduced or blocked, it can cause angina (chest pain) or a heart attack.

Plaque also can build up in other arteries in your body, including the arteries that bring oxygen-rich blood to your brain and limbs. This can lead to problems such as carotid artery disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease.

How do I know if I have high cholesterol?

There are usually no signs or symptoms that you have high cholesterol. There is a blood test to measure your cholesterol level. When and how often you should get this test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
How can I lower my cholesterol?

You can lower your cholesterol through heart-healthy lifestyle changes. They include a heart-healthy eating plan, weight management, and regular physical activity.

If the lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol-lowering drugs available, including statins. If you take medicines to lower your cholesterol, you still should continue with the lifestyle changes.

Some people with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) may receive a treatment called lipoprotein apheresis. This treatment uses a filtering machine to remove LDL cholesterol from the blood. Then the machine returns the rest of the blood back to the person.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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Clindamycin clinical trials, surveys and public health registries

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Clindamycin Side Effects

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Abdominal Pain Upper (58)
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Pain (48)
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Weight Decreased (35)
Rash Pruritic (35)
Fatigue (34)
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Abdominal Distension (22)
Alanine Aminotransferase Increased (22)
Pharyngeal Oedema (20)
Haematochezia (20)
Blister (20)
Gastrointestinal Disorder (19)
Renal Failure (19)

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Recent Reviews

I was given Clindamycin (150 MG Capsule) to take for 10 days 4 times daily for tooth extractions aftercare. It gives me splitting headaches and acid reflux . Evdokia

After taking Clindamycin 4 days for my tooth infection, I started heart burn pain, cough, difficult swollen food. Now I have stoped the drug 4 days, but I only can drink fluid. Any solid food cause me severe chest pain.

After taking the Clindamycin Capsules, I have nausea then it feels as if my chest is about to burst open, like i am about to choke which lasts at least 3 hours. I never felt like this in my life. Help!

Clindamycin has caused me such horrible heartburn. It effects everything I drink or eat. I have burning in my throat and tightness in my chest tonight as well. My ears itch and burn deep inside them and they are red and hot to the touch. Horrible fee

Clindamycin is a safe medicine. If you have an abcess or tooth infection it can be VERY dangerous to NOT take the antibiotic. You can alleviate a lot of the stomach discomfort by taking high quality PRO-BIOTICS and consuming a LOT of unsweetened yo

Does clindamycin interact with Fentanyl or "industrial-strength" diuretics? Is it possible for clindamycin by itself, or with one of the other 2, or both, to cause a sleep that is almost like unconciousness? My Dad had this happen recently

Have been taking clindamycin for 10 days now, I am usually very sensitive to antibiotics, have been loading myself up with pro-biotics which has helped, I do have quite a sore throat from it though bu it is bearable

Headaches, red rash on legs, fatigue

Hello. I went to a Dentist for "Tooth Infection". I was prescribed Clindamycin. It has been 9 days since I stopped taking the medication. About every 3 days I get stomach pain, then diarhea. I have also had flatulance. My only

How many days should we take it? I have an ear infection and my doctor wanted me to take it for 3 days. Antibiotics should be taken 7 days right?

HYPERLIPIDAEMIA Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Adjunctive Clindamycin for Cellulitis: Clinical Trial Comparing Flucloxacillin With or Without Clindamycin for the Treatment of Limb Cellulitis (C4C Trial).
Condition: Cellulitis
Interventions: Drug: Flucloxacillin and Clindamycin;   Drug: Flucloxacillin and placebo
Outcome Measures: Improvement based on a composite of systemic and local features;   Decrease in pain;   Quality of life;   Physiological recovery
2 Recruiting Comparison Between Oral Clindamycin Vs Metronidazole for the Treatment of Abnormal Vaginal Flora in High Risk Pregnancies
Conditions: Abnormal Vaginal Flora;   Clindamycin Vs Metronidazole;   High Risk Pregnancies for Preterm Labor
Interventions: Drug: Clindamycin;   Drug: Metronidazole
Outcome Measures: To compare the efficacy between oral Clindamycin Vs Metronidazole in the eradication of abnormal vaginal flora;   The prevalence of adverse effects;   The prevalence of late abortions and preterm deliveries;   Assessing the correlation between Nugent score , physical examination and Ph indicators
3 Recruiting Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Clindamycin in Pediatric Subjects With BMI ≥ 85th Percentile
Conditions: Bacterial Infections;   Obesity
Intervention: Drug: Clindamycin
Outcome Measures: Clearance (Cl);   Volume of distribution (Vd);   Area under the curve (AUCtau);   Oral apparent clearance (Cl/F);   Oral apparent volume of distribution (V/F);   Number of Adverse Events
4 Unknown  A Study Comparing Combination Clindamycin Phosphate/Tretinoin Gel Alone Versus With Benzoyl Peroxide Foaming Cloths for Facial Acne
Condition: Acne Vulgaris
Interventions: Drug: Clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/tretinoin 0.025% gel alone;   Drug: Clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/tretinoin 0.025% gel plus benzoyl peroxide 6% foaming cloths
Outcome Measures: Change in PGA scores of patients using combination Clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/tretinoin 0.025% gel with or without benzoyl peroxide 6% foaming cloths for facial acne;   Change in Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation score at each study visit and from baseline to final visit.;   Total number of adverse events.;   Change in Subject Self Assessment Scoring Scale;   Change in Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acne-QoL)
5 Recruiting Clindamycin to Reduce Preterm Birth in a Low Resource Setting
Conditions: Pregnancy;   Prematurity;   Preterm Birth;   Bacterial Vaginosis
Interventions: Drug: Clindamycin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Preterm birth prior to 37 weeks;   Preterm birth prior to 34 weeks;   Late Miscarriage;   Low Birth weight;   Very Low birth Weight;   Neonatal complications through 42 days after delivery;   Maternal complications through 42 days postpartum;   The utility of vaginal pH tests for identification of women at elevated risk for preterm delivery
6 Recruiting Asymptomatic Colonization With S. Aureus After Therapy With Linezolid or Clindamycin for Acute Skin Infections
Conditions: Skin Diseases, Bacterial;   Abscess
Interventions: Biological: Linezolid;   Biological: Clindamycin
Outcome Measures: The presence of Staphylococcus aureus after treatment with linezolid versus Clindamycin;   Clinical response of skin infections to treatment;   The type of of Staphylococcus aureus present at the diagnosis will be compared to the type of Staphylococcus aureus present after treatment
7 Recruiting Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Clindamycin + Benzoyl Peroxide Formulation With Azelaic Acid Formulation in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris
Condition: Acne Vulgaris
Interventions: Drug: Clindamycin + BPO;   Drug: Azelaic acid
Outcome Measures: Change from Baseline of inflammatory lesion counts at Week 4;   Change from Baseline of lesion counts;   Change from Baseline of lesions by Investigator's Static Global Assessment (ISGA);   Time to 50% reduction in total lesion count;   Change from Baseline of local tolerability as assessed by investigator;   Subject's global change assessment (SGCA) of skin;   Change from Baseline of local tolerability as assessed by subject;   Subject satisfaction score at Week 12;   Measured adherence to study medication at Week 12;   Quality of Life Assessments;   Number of treatment related adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs)
8 Unknown  Evaluation of Fosmidomycin and Clindamycin in the Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria
Condition: Malaria
Intervention: Drug: Fosmidomycin and Clindamycin
Outcome Measures: Cure rate;   cure rate
9 Recruiting To Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2% / Benzoyl Peroxide 5% Gel of CHL Versus DUAC® Gel
Condition: Acne Vulgaris
Interventions: Drug: Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2% / Benzoyl Peroxide 5% Gel;   Drug: DUAC® Gel;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Mean percent change from baseline to week 11 (study Day 77) for inflammatory (papules and pustules) lesions.;   Mean percent change from baseline to week 11 in the non-inflammatory lesion count;   Proportion of subjects with a clinical response of "success" at week 11
10 Unknown  Evaluate Efficacy, Tolerability & Safety of Combination of Clindamycin and Ketoconazole for the Treatment of Mixed-Type Vaginosis, Bacterial Vaginosis and Candidiasis
Conditions: Candidiasis;   Bacterial Vaginosis
Interventions: Drug: Clindamycin 100mg and Ketoconazole 400mg;   Drug: Tetracycline 100mg and Amphotericin B 50mg
Outcome Measures: Efficacy based on cure rate evaluated by clinical and laboratory criteria.;   Tolerability based on adverse events reports and patient's information;   Safety based on adverse events reports and laboratory criterion
11 Recruiting Assessing the Necessity of Prescribing Antibiotics (Clavulin or Clindamycin Versus Placebo) Post-peritonsillar Abscess Drainage
Condition: Peritonsillar Abscess
Interventions: Drug: Clavulin;   Drug: Randomization to Placebo;   Drug: Clindamycin
Outcome Measure: Re-accumulation of the patient's peri-tonsillar abscess
12 Unknown  Treatment of Chorioamnionitis After Delivery
Condition: Chorioamnionitis
Interventions: Drug: saline;   Drug: ampicillin gentamicin;   Drug: Ampicillin gentamicin Clindamycin;   Drug: ampicillin gentamicin Clindamycin
Outcome Measure: To determine the courses of antibiotics needed after vaginal delivery and after cesareans in pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis.
13 Recruiting Antibiotic Safety (SCAMP)
Condition: Complicated Intra Abdominal Infections
Interventions: Drug: ampicillin and metronidazole and gentamicin;   Drug: ampicillin and gentamicin and Clindamycin;   Drug: gentamicin and Piperacillin- tazobactam;   Drug: standard of care antibiotics and metronidazole
Outcome Measures: Death;   Number of participants with therapeutic success at Day 30 and Day 90
14 Unknown  Randomized Controlled Trial of Antibiotics in the Management of Children With Community-Acquired Skin and Soft Tissue Abscess Undergoing Incision and Drainage
Conditions: Skin and Soft Tissue Abscess;   Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infection
Intervention: Drug: Oral Clindamycin
Outcome Measures: The primary objective is to measure clinical resolution of skin abscess at routine follow-up visit 10-14 days post operation.;   Secondary outcomes measured include incidence of additional skin and soft tissue infections in patient and in household contacts as determined by healthcare provider. Compliance to antibiotic regime will also be assessed at this time.
15 Not yet recruiting Orthognathic Surgery and Postoperative Antibiotic Use
Condition: Dentofacial Deformity
Intervention: Drug: Cefazolin, Cephalexin, Clindamycin
Outcome Measures: Rate of infection;   Side effect from antibiotic use
16 Not yet recruiting Prophylactic Antibiotics for Manual Removal of Retained Placenta in Vaginal Birth: a Randomized Controlled Trial
Condition: Endometritis
Interventions: Drug: Antibiotic prophylaxis;   Drug: Ampicillin;   Drug: Gentamycin;   Drug: Clindamycin
Outcome Measures: Endometritis rate;   Puerperal fever
17 Recruiting Uncomplicated Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
Condition: Staphylococcal Infection
Interventions: Drug: Clindamycin;   Drug: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Clinical cure, defined as absence of clinical failure.;   Efficacy outcome: clinical cure of recurrences or relapses of SSTI.;   Safety outcomes: adverse events; and adverse events that are treatment limiting.
18 Recruiting PK of Antistaphylococcal Antibiotics in Infants (NICHD-2012-02-Staph Trio)
Condition: Systemic Infection
Intervention: Drug: Antibiotic
Outcome Measures: Pharmacokinetic concentrations in plasma will be measured at a central lab using a validated bioanalytical assay. Plasma samples will be drawn according to specific schedules for each drug;   Safety review will be performed through monitoring of adverse events each day that the infant is on study
19 Recruiting Skin Rash Study Before Chemotherapy in Colorectal & Head and Neck Cancer Patients
Conditions: Colorectal Cancer;   Head and Neck Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Doxycycline;   Drug: Hydrocortisone 1% cream;   Other: Sunscreen;   Other: Moisturizer;   Drug: Clindamycin;   Drug: Medrol-dose pack (Steroid)
Outcome Measures: Incidence of Rash;   Quality of Life (QOL);   Adherence to treatment regimen;   Progression Free Survival
20 Recruiting A Comparative Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Daptomycin Versus Standard of Care in Pediatric Subjects Two - Seventeen Years of Age With Bacteremia Caused by Staphylococcus Aureus
Condition: Bacteremia
Interventions: Drug: Daptomycin;   Drug: Comparator (Vancomycin, Semi-synthetic penicillin, First-generation cephalosporins, Clindamycin)
Outcome Measures: Safety of daptomycin measured by the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events, vital signs, echocardiogram (if performed) and clinical laboratory tests, use of concomitant medications,physical and neurological exam results.;   Efficacy of daptomycin will be based on Investigator's assessment of clinical response (cure, improved, failure or non-evaluable) at the Test of Cure (TOC) visit.