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HYPERLIPIDAEMIA and Trazodone

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HYPERLIPIDAEMIA Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your body needs some cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help you digest foods. Your body makes all the cholesterol it needs. Cholesterol is also found in foods from animal sources, such as egg yolks, meat, and cheese.

If you have too much cholesterol in your blood, it can combine with other substances in the blood to form plaque. Plaque sticks to the walls of your arteries. This buildup of plaque is known as atherosclerosis. It can lead to coronary artery disease, where your coronary arteries become narrow or even blocked.

What are LDL and HDL?

There are two main types of cholesterol:

  • HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is called the "good" cholesterol because it carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. Your liver then removes the cholesterol from your body.
  • LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries.
What causes high cholesterol?

The most common cause of high cholesterol is an unhealthy lifestyle. This can include

  • Unhealthy eating habits, such as eating lots of bad fats. One type, saturated fat, is found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. Another type, trans fat, is in some fried and processed foods. Eating these fats can raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
  • Lack of physical activity, with lots of sitting and little exercise. This lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol.
  • Smoking, which lowers HDL cholesterol, especially in women. It also raises your LDL cholesterol.

Genetics may also cause people to have high cholesterol. For example, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited form of high cholesterol. Other medical conditions and certain medicines may also cause high cholesterol.

What can raise my risk of high cholesterol?

A variety of things can raise your risk for high cholesterol:

  • Age. Your cholesterol levels tend to rise as you get older.
  • Heredity. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Weight. Being overweight or having obesity raises your cholesterol level.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
  • Weight. Being overweight or having obesity raises your cholesterol level.
What health problems can high cholesterol cause?

If you have large deposits of plaque in your arteries, an area of plaque can rupture (break open). This can cause a blood clot to form on the surface of the plaque. If the clot becomes large enough, it can mostly or completely block blood flow in a coronary artery.

If the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle is reduced or blocked, it can cause angina (chest pain) or a heart attack.

Plaque also can build up in other arteries in your body, including the arteries that bring oxygen-rich blood to your brain and limbs. This can lead to problems such as carotid artery disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease.

How do I know if I have high cholesterol?

There are usually no signs or symptoms that you have high cholesterol. There is a blood test to measure your cholesterol level. When and how often you should get this test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
How can I lower my cholesterol?

You can lower your cholesterol through heart-healthy lifestyle changes. They include a heart-healthy eating plan, weight management, and regular physical activity.

If the lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol-lowering drugs available, including statins. If you take medicines to lower your cholesterol, you still should continue with the lifestyle changes.

Some people with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) may receive a treatment called lipoprotein apheresis. This treatment uses a filtering machine to remove LDL cholesterol from the blood. Then the machine returns the rest of the blood back to the person.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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Recent Reviews

HYPERLIPIDAEMIA Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Efficacy and Safety of Risperidone and Trazodone Monotherapy and Combination Therapy in Critically Ill Patients With Delirium
Conditions: Delirium;   Agitation
Interventions: Drug: Risperidone;   Drug: Trazodone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: The number of days patients are without delirium during the study period (delirium-free days);   Daily prevalence of delirium as indicated by a positive Confusion Assessment Method in the ICU (CAM-ICU);   Resolution of delirium as indicated by a negative Confusion Assessment Method in the ICU (CAM-ICU) for more than 24 hours;   The number of patients who require rescue medications, the type of rescue medications utilized, and the amount of rescue medications per day;   The number of patients who receive sedative agents, amount of midazolam equivalents per day, and the number of days in which patients receive a sedative agent;   The number of patients who receive pain medications, amount of fentanyl equivalents per day, and the number of days in which patients receive a pain medication;   The number of hours spent agitated (RASS score between +4 and +2) as a percent of the time that the study drug was administered;   The number of hours spent excessively sedated or in a coma state (RASS score between -4 to -5) as a percent of the time that the study drug was administered;   The duration of mechanical ventilation from initial intubation to extubation as long as the patient remained extubated for more than 48 hours.;   The number of days that the patients were alive and breathing without assistance during the study period (ventilator-free days);   The number of episodes and number of patients who experience clinically significant QTc prolongation (≥ 500 msec or an increase of more than 60 msec from baseline);   The number of episodes and number of patients who experience clinically significant extrapyramidal effects (as evidenced by a positive Simpson-Angus Scale Score);   All-cause mortality and 28-day mortality
2 Unknown  A Clinical Study of Trazodone Hydrochloride Prolonged-Release Tablets for Treatment of Depression
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Drug: Trazodone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 score;   Changes in HAMA-14 score;   CGI-Severity of illness and CGI-Global improvement;   Changes in evaluation of sleep quality and sexual dysfunction;   Rate changes of responders/patients
3 Recruiting Study of Trazodone & Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Insomnia
Condition: Insomnia
Interventions: Drug: Trazodone;   Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Outcome Measures: Change from Baseline in objective sleep duration at 9 months;   Change from Baseline in Subjective Severity of Sleep Disturbance & Subjective Sleep Duration at 9 months
4 Recruiting The Effects of Trazodone on Sleep Apnea Severity
Condition: Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
Interventions: Drug: Placebo pill;   Drug: Trazodone
Outcome Measures: Apnea-Hypopnea Index;   Arousal threshold
5 Unknown  Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Three Generic Medications and Their Respective Brand Preparations
Condition: Healthy
Interventions: Drug: Trazodone;   Drug: Quetiapine;   Drug: Pindolol;   Procedure: Blood Collection
Outcome Measure: Plasma levels of Medication
6 Recruiting Algorithm Guided Treatment Strategies for Major Depressive Disorder
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram;   Drug: Mirtazapine;   Other: modified electroconvulsive therapy;   Other: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation;   Drug: Fluoxetine;   Drug: Citalopram;   Drug: Paroxetine;   Drug: Sertraline;   Drug: Fluvoxamine;   Drug: Venlafaxine;   Drug: Duloxetine;   Drug: Bupropion;   Drug: Trazodone
Outcome Measures: Remission defined as endpoint 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) total score ≤ 7;   Remission defined as endpoint the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (16-item) (QIDS-SR16) total score ≤ 5;   Frequency and intensity of adverse events;   Quality of life
7 Recruiting Development of Pharmacogenomic Method to Predict Antidepressant Responsiveness
Conditions: Depression;   Antidepressant Drug Adverse Reaction
Interventions: Drug: SSRI class antidepressant;   Drug: non-SSRI class antidepressant
Outcome Measures: all pharmacogenetic and biological marker variables cause drug response;   all clinical cause drug response
8 Recruiting Sequenced Therapies for Comorbid and Primary Insomnias
Conditions: Insomnia Comorbid to Psychiatric Disorder;   Primary Insomnia
Interventions: Behavioral: Behavioral Insomnia Therapy;   Drug: Zolpidem;   Drug: Trazodone;   Behavioral: Cognitive Therapy
Outcome Measure: Insomnia Severity Index- Change from Baseline (Remission)
9 Recruiting Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Treatment Resistant Depression
Condition: Treatment Resistant Depression
Interventions: Other: IPT+ antidepressant drugs;   Drug: fluoxetine;   Drug: sertraline;   Drug: paroxetine;   Drug: Citalopram;   Drug: escitalopram;   Drug: fluvoxamine;   Drug: Venlafaxine;   Drug: Duloxetine;   Drug: Bupropion;   Drug: Lithium;   Drug: Risperidone;   Drug: tranylcypromine;   Drug: Imipramine;   Drug: amitriptyline;   Drug: Clomipramine;   Drug: nortriptyline;   Drug: Trazodone;   Drug: Mirtazapine;   Drug: sulpiride
Outcome Measures: Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) - continuous;   Beck depression Inventory (BDI)
10 Recruiting Study Comparing 3 Different Treatments for Arthritis of the Lower Back (Lumbar Spinal Stenosis)
Condition: Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
Interventions: Drug: NSAIDs; adjunctive analgesics; adjunctive anti-depressants;   Procedure: Lumbar epidural injection;   Other: Joint Mobilizations (spine, sacroiliac, hip);   Other: Individualized exercises: clinical setting;   Other: Group Exercise: community setting
Outcome Measures: Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire Score;   Self Paced Walking Test
11 Recruiting The Effects of Cannabinoid on Patients With Non-GERD Related Non Cardiac Chest Pain
Condition: Chest Pain
Interventions: Drug: Marinol;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Frequency of chest pain episodes;   Frequency of chest pain in treatment group vs baseline;   Intensity of chest pain episodes;   Sensory thresholds for first sensation;   Frequency of reactive esophageal contractions;   Amplitude of reactive esophageal contractions;   Area under the curve of reactive esophageal contractions;   Duration of chest pain episodes;   Sensory thresholds for discomfort;   Sensory thresholds for pain