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INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS and Diclofenac

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INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Symptoms and Causes

Mosquitoes are insects that live all over the world. There are thousands of different species of mosquitoes; about 200 of those live in the United States.

Female mosquitoes bite animals and humans and drink a very small amount of their blood. They need protein and iron from blood to produce eggs. After drinking blood, they find some standing water and lay their eggs in it. The eggs hatch into larvae, then pupae, and then they become adult mosquitos. The males live for about a week to ten days, and the females can live up to several weeks. Some female mosquitoes can hibernate in the winter, and they can live for months.

What health problems can mosquito bites cause?

Most mosquito bites are harmless, but there are times when they can be dangerous. The ways that mosquito bites can affect humans include

  • Causing itchy bumps, as an immune system response to the mosquito's saliva. This is the most common reaction. The bumps usually go away after a day or two.
  • Causing allergic reactions, including blisters, large hives, and in rare cases, anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that affects the whole body. It is a medical emergency.
  • Spreading diseases to humans. Some of these diseases can be serious. Many of them do not have any treatments, and only a few have vaccines to prevent them. These diseases are more of a problem in Africa and other tropical areas of the world, but more of them are spreading to the United States. One factor is climate change, which makes the conditions in some parts of the United States more favorable to certain types of mosquitoes. Other reasons include increased trade with, and travel to, tropical and subtropical areas.
Which diseases can mosquitoes spread?

Common diseases spread by mosquitoes include

  • Chikungunya, a viral infection that causes symptoms such as fever and severe joint pain. The symptoms usually last about a week, but for some, the joint pain may last for months. Most cases of chikungunya in the United States are in people who traveled to other countries. There have been a few cases where it has spread in the United States.
  • Dengue, a viral infection that causes a high fever, headaches, joint and muscle pain, vomiting, and a rash. Most people get better within a few weeks. In some cases, it can become very severe, even life-threatening. Dengue is rare in the United States.
  • Malaria, a parasitic disease that causes serious symptoms such as high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. It can be life-threatening, but there are drugs to treat it. Malaria is a major health problem in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Almost all cases of malaria in the United States are in people who traveled to other countries.
  • West Nile Virus (WNV), a viral infection that often has no symptoms. In those that do have symptoms, they are usually mild, and include fever, headache, and nausea. In rare cases, the virus can enter the brain, and it can be life-threatening. WNV has spread across the continental United States.
  • Zika Virus, a viral infection that often does not cause symptoms. One in five infected people do get symptoms, which are usually mild. They include a fever, rash, joint pain, and pinkeye. Besides being spread by mosquitoes, Zika can spread from mother to baby during pregnancy and cause serious birth defects. It can also spread from one partner to another during sex. There have been a few outbreaks of Zika in the southern United States.
How can I prevent mosquito bites?
  • Use an insect repellent when you go outdoors. Choose an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent. They are evaluated to make sure they are safe and effective. Make sure that the repellant has one of these ingredients: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus, or para-menthane-diol. It is important to follow the instructions on the label.
  • Cover up. Wear long sleeves, long pants, and socks when outdoors. Mosquitoes may bite through thin fabric, so spray thin clothes with an EPA-registered repellent like permethrin. Don't apply permethrin directly to skin.
  • Mosquito-proof your home. Install or repair screens on windows and doors to keep mosquitoes out. Use air conditioning if you have it.
  • Get rid of mosquito breeding sites. Regularly empty standing water from your house and yard. The water could be in flowerpots, gutters, buckets, pool covers, pet water dishes, discarded tires, or birdbaths.
  • If you plan to travel, get information about the areas you will be going to. Find out whether there is a risk of diseases from mosquitoes, and if so, whether there is a vaccine or medicine to prevent those diseases. See a health care provider familiar with travel medicine, ideally 4 to 6 weeks before your trip.

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Diclofenac Side Effects

Renal Failure Acute (154)
Abdominal Pain (139)
Diarrhoea (136)
Vomiting (128)
Dyspnoea (103)
Haemoglobin Decreased (103)
Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage (102)
Nausea (88)
Blood Creatinine Increased (88)
Anaemia (86)
Malaise (83)
Dehydration (82)
Pruritus (79)
Abdominal Pain Upper (77)
Blood Urea Increased (76)
Dizziness (72)
Gastric Ulcer (68)
Gastrointestinal Disorder (68)
Haematemesis (64)
Anaphylactic Reaction (62)
Pyrexia (61)
Erythema (60)
Fatigue (60)
Pain (60)
Hypotension (57)
Melaena (56)
Embolia Cutis Medicamentosa (54)
Chest Pain (54)
Arthralgia (53)
Rash (53)
Oedema Peripheral (51)
Asthenia (50)
Loss Of Consciousness (49)
Alanine Aminotransferase Increased (49)
Fall (48)
Headache (47)
Blood Alkaline Phosphatase Increased (47)
Metabolic Acidosis (46)
Gastritis (46)
Renal Failure (45)
Cardiac Arrest (44)
Confusional State (43)
Back Pain (43)
C-reactive Protein Increased (43)
Convulsion (43)
Urticaria (43)
Blood Pressure Decreased (41)
Weight Decreased (41)
Peritonitis (41)
Aspartate Aminotransferase Increased (40)

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INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting An Investigator Initiated, Within-Subject, Proof of Concept Study to Assess the Analgesic Efficacy and Safety of Voltaren Gel (1% Diclofenac Sodium) Compared to Placebo in Subjects Experiencing Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
Condition: Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
Interventions: Drug: 1% Diclofenac sodium gel;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: To assess analgesic efficacy of Topical Voltaren® gel compared to placebo
2 Recruiting Safety Study of Flector Patch in Children With Minor Soft Tissue Injuries
Condition: Athletic Injuries
Intervention: Drug: Diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine
Outcome Measures: Dermatologic assessment at the patch application site;   Investigator assessment of the global response to therapy on a 5-point scale;   Patient assessment of pain on a 6-point scale;   Plasma concentration of Diclofenac
3 Recruiting Study Comparing a Generic Diclofenac Sodium Topical Gel, 1% to Voltaren in the Treatment of Subjects With Osteoarthritis of the Knee
Condition: Osteoarthritis
Interventions: Drug: Diclofenac Sodium Topical Gel, 1%;   Drug: Voltaren Topical Gel, 1%;   Drug: Vehicle Diclofenac Sodium Topical Gel
Outcome Measure: WOMAC Pain Score
4 Recruiting Treatment of Knee Pain With Topical Diclofenac Cream 8% or Diclofenac Gel 1%
Conditions: Knee Pain Chronic;   Knee Injuries
Interventions: Drug: Diclofenac Cream 8%;   Drug: Diclofenac Gel 1%
Outcome Measure: Descrete Response Scale Pain Scores
5 Unknown  Comparison of the Effect of Etoricoxib and Diclofenac on Early Morning Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Condition: Rheumatoid Arthritis
Interventions: Drug: Etoricoxib;   Drug: Diclofenac
Outcome Measures: To explore the effect of Etoricoxib compared to Diclofenac on physical activity in RA subjects with Early morning pain and stiffness.;   To explore the effect of Etoricoxib compared to Diclofenac on average daily pain scores, fatigue scores, and quality of life.
6 Recruiting Efficacy of Diclofenac on Pain During Endometrial Sampling
Condition: Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Unrelated to Menstrual Cycle
Interventions: Drug: Diclofenac Potassium;   Drug: Folic Acid
Outcome Measure: Effectiveness of Diclofenac Potassium for additional acute pain control in patient undergoing fractional curettage under paracervical block due to abnormal uterine bleeding
7 Recruiting A Multicenter Efficacy Study of a Diclofenac+Menthol Gel in Subjects With Ankle Sprain
Condition: Ankle Sprain
Interventions: Drug: 1% Diclofenac sodium plus 3% menthol;   Drug: 1% Diclofenac sodium plus 0.09% menthol;   Drug: 3% menthol;   Drug: Placebo with 0.09% menthol gel
Outcome Measures: AUC (1-3 days);   Pain Intensity Difference (PID) on movement;   PID at rest;   Pain Relief Score (PRS);   Sum of Pain Intensity Difference (SPID);   Time of Onset of Pain Relief (TOPR);   Time of Onset of Meaningful Pain Relief (TOMR);   Time of Onset of Cooling Sensation (TOCS);   Total Pain Relief (TOTPAR);   Skin Temperature;   Ankle Swelling;   Time to complete Recovery;   Patient's Global Assessment in Response to Treatment (PGART);   Adverse events (AEs)
8 Recruiting Effects of Topical Diclofenac on Tumor Metabolism
Condition: Actinic Keratoses
Intervention: Drug: 3% Diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronic acid gel
Outcome Measures: Lactate level in skin biopsies of actinic keratoses;   Lactate level in skin biopsies of healthy skin in a subpopulation;   Glycolysis-relevant proteins evaluated using PCR and Westernblot techniques;   Metabolic changes (e.g. glucose, amino acids)
9 Not yet recruiting Supersaturation and Precipitation of Diclofenac in the Stomach of Healthy Volunteers
Condition: Supersaturation and Precipitation in the Stomach
Intervention: Drug: Diclofenac potassium 50 mg
Outcome Measure: Area under the Concentration - Time Curve
10 Recruiting Diclofenac for Submassive PE
Condition: Pulmonary Embolism
Interventions: Drug: Diclofenac;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Right ventricular dysfunction assessed by transthoracic echocardiography
11 Unknown  Use of Etoricoxib Compared to Diclofenac in the Perioperative Treatment of Patients After Total Hip Arthroplasty
Conditions: Coxarthrosis;   Arthroplasties Hip Replacement;   Perioperative Blood Loss
Interventions: Drug: Etoricoxib;   Drug: Diclofenac
Outcome Measure:
12 Recruiting Efficacy and Safety of Diclofenac DDEA 2.32 % in Patient Suffering From Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)
Condition: Osteoarthritis, Knee
Intervention: Drug: Diclofenac diethylamine, DDEA 2.32% gel
Outcome Measures: Measure: Pain On Movement (POM);   Measure POM regarding onset of efficacy
13 Recruiting Intramuscular Diclofenac in the Prevention of Post-ERCP Pancreatitis
Condition: Post ERCP Pancreatitis
Interventions: Drug: Diclofenac;   Drug: normal saline
Outcome Measure: Incidence of post ERCP pancreatitis
14 Not yet recruiting In Vivo Inhibition Profile of CYP2C9 by Pineapple Juice
Condition: Healthy Volunteers
Intervention: Dietary Supplement: pineapple juice (Carrefour n°1) 500 ml/day 5 days
Outcome Measures: a) AUC 4-OH-Diclofenac / AUC Diclofenac quantified in plasma, on days 1 (without pineapple juice) and 11 (after pretreatment with pineapple juice);   (b) AUC 4-OH-Diclofenac/ AUC Diclofenac quantified in urine, on days 1 (without pineapple juice) and 11 (after pretreatment with pineapple juice)
15 Unknown  The Comparison Between the Therapeutic Affect of Intravitreal Diclophenac and Triamcinolone in Persistent Uveitic Cystoids Macular Edema
Conditions: Uveitis;   Cystoid Macular Edema
Interventions: Drug: Diclophenac;   Drug: Triamcinolone
Outcome Measure:
16 Unknown  Efficacy of Diclofenac BCG Irrigations
Condition: Bladder Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Abitren;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in weekly COOP Questionnaire 1;   Change in weekly COOP Questionnaire 2;   Change in weekly COOP Questionnaire 3;   Change in weekly Bladder symptoms Questionnaire;   Change in weekly time schedule questionnaire
17 Unknown  Intravitreal Diclofenac Versus Avastin as Primary Treatment of Diffuse Diabetic Macular Edema
Condition: Diffuse Diabetic Macular Edema
Interventions: Drug: Bevacizumab;   Drug: Diclofenac
Outcome Measure:
18 Not yet recruiting Diclofenac add-on to Treatment as Usual for Suicidal Patients
Condition: Depression Suicidal
Interventions: Drug: sugar pill;   Drug: Diclofenac
Outcome Measures: Suicide Assessment Scale (differences in scores before and after treatment);   Montgomery Asberg Rating Scale (differences in scores before and after treatment);   Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (differences in scores before and after treatment);   Montgomery Asberg depression Ratin scale (changes in suicidality item before and after treatment);   Montgomery Asberg Rating Scale (changes in concentration item before and after treatment);   Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (changes in aggressive feelings item before and after treatment);   Comprehensive Psychopthological Rating Scale (changes in fatigue item before and after treatment)
19 Recruiting Post ERCP Pancreatitis Prevention in Average Risk Patients
Condition: Pancreatitis
Intervention: Procedure: Ceftazidime
Outcome Measure: Incidence of PEP in the group of patients receiving Ceftazidime versus incidence of PEP in the group of patients receiving Diclophenac potassium
20 Recruiting OASIS: Osteoarthritis Sensitivity Integration Study
Conditions: Osteoarthritis;   Chronic Pain
Intervention: Drug: duloxetine, Diclofenac
Outcome Measure: Pain