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INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS and Lexapro

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INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Symptoms and Causes

Mosquitoes are insects that live all over the world. There are thousands of different species of mosquitoes; about 200 of those live in the United States.

Female mosquitoes bite animals and humans and drink a very small amount of their blood. They need protein and iron from blood to produce eggs. After drinking blood, they find some standing water and lay their eggs in it. The eggs hatch into larvae, then pupae, and then they become adult mosquitos. The males live for about a week to ten days, and the females can live up to several weeks. Some female mosquitoes can hibernate in the winter, and they can live for months.

What health problems can mosquito bites cause?

Most mosquito bites are harmless, but there are times when they can be dangerous. The ways that mosquito bites can affect humans include

  • Causing itchy bumps, as an immune system response to the mosquito's saliva. This is the most common reaction. The bumps usually go away after a day or two.
  • Causing allergic reactions, including blisters, large hives, and in rare cases, anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that affects the whole body. It is a medical emergency.
  • Spreading diseases to humans. Some of these diseases can be serious. Many of them do not have any treatments, and only a few have vaccines to prevent them. These diseases are more of a problem in Africa and other tropical areas of the world, but more of them are spreading to the United States. One factor is climate change, which makes the conditions in some parts of the United States more favorable to certain types of mosquitoes. Other reasons include increased trade with, and travel to, tropical and subtropical areas.
Which diseases can mosquitoes spread?

Common diseases spread by mosquitoes include

  • Chikungunya, a viral infection that causes symptoms such as fever and severe joint pain. The symptoms usually last about a week, but for some, the joint pain may last for months. Most cases of chikungunya in the United States are in people who traveled to other countries. There have been a few cases where it has spread in the United States.
  • Dengue, a viral infection that causes a high fever, headaches, joint and muscle pain, vomiting, and a rash. Most people get better within a few weeks. In some cases, it can become very severe, even life-threatening. Dengue is rare in the United States.
  • Malaria, a parasitic disease that causes serious symptoms such as high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. It can be life-threatening, but there are drugs to treat it. Malaria is a major health problem in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Almost all cases of malaria in the United States are in people who traveled to other countries.
  • West Nile Virus (WNV), a viral infection that often has no symptoms. In those that do have symptoms, they are usually mild, and include fever, headache, and nausea. In rare cases, the virus can enter the brain, and it can be life-threatening. WNV has spread across the continental United States.
  • Zika Virus, a viral infection that often does not cause symptoms. One in five infected people do get symptoms, which are usually mild. They include a fever, rash, joint pain, and pinkeye. Besides being spread by mosquitoes, Zika can spread from mother to baby during pregnancy and cause serious birth defects. It can also spread from one partner to another during sex. There have been a few outbreaks of Zika in the southern United States.
How can I prevent mosquito bites?
  • Use an insect repellent when you go outdoors. Choose an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent. They are evaluated to make sure they are safe and effective. Make sure that the repellant has one of these ingredients: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus, or para-menthane-diol. It is important to follow the instructions on the label.
  • Cover up. Wear long sleeves, long pants, and socks when outdoors. Mosquitoes may bite through thin fabric, so spray thin clothes with an EPA-registered repellent like permethrin. Don't apply permethrin directly to skin.
  • Mosquito-proof your home. Install or repair screens on windows and doors to keep mosquitoes out. Use air conditioning if you have it.
  • Get rid of mosquito breeding sites. Regularly empty standing water from your house and yard. The water could be in flowerpots, gutters, buckets, pool covers, pet water dishes, discarded tires, or birdbaths.
  • If you plan to travel, get information about the areas you will be going to. Find out whether there is a risk of diseases from mosquitoes, and if so, whether there is a vaccine or medicine to prevent those diseases. See a health care provider familiar with travel medicine, ideally 4 to 6 weeks before your trip.

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INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting EScitalopram PIndolol ONset of Action
Condition: Unipolar Depression
Interventions: Drug: escitalopram, pindolol;   Drug: escitalopram
Outcome Measures: MADRS score change between baseline and 2 weeks of treatment;   Response/remission (MADRS) at 6 weeks;   Adverse events;   Correlation of drug level of pindolol and/or escitalopram and clinical outcome (primary outcome) between treatment groups
2 Recruiting Lexapro®'s Efficacy After Dose Escalation in Remission Study
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder
Intervention: Drug: escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS);   Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HAM-D);   Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A);   Clinical Global Impression-severity (CGI-S);   Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I);   Beck's Depression Inventory(BDI);   WHO Quality Of Life scale Abbreviated Version(WHOQOL-BREF);   Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS);   Short From-36 Health survey (SF-36 Health survey)
3 Unknown  Circadian Effects of Escitalopram
Condition: Depression
Intervention: Drug: placebo/escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Resetting effect of Escitalopram on the circadian pacemaker;   Correlation between improvement in depression with Escitalopram and the degree of realignment between the timing of sleep and the timing of the biological clock.
4 Recruiting Escitalopram Trial for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Patients With Panic Disorder
Conditions: Irritable Bowel Syndrome;   Panic Disorder
Intervention: Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS).;   State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
5 Recruiting Escitalopram, Placebo and tDCS in Depression: a Non-inferiority Trial
Conditions: Major Depressive Disorder;   Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Unspecified;   Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Unspecified
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram oxalate;   Device: transcranial direct current stimulation
Outcome Measures: Change in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 17 items (HAMD17);   Change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS);   Change in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI);   Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 17 items (HAMD17)
6 Not yet recruiting Cardiovascular Effects of Agomelatine and Escitalopram in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Interventions: Drug: Agomelatine;   Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Change from baseline in markers of sympathetic nervous system activity.;   Change from baseline in the magnitude of morning surge in blood pressure.;   To determine the association between sympathetic nervous system activity and left ventricular hypertrophy.;   Change from baseline in insulin resistance.;   Change from baseline on markers of cardiac risk.
7 Unknown  Cipralex in Treatment of Depressive Symptoms and Chronic Back Pain
Conditions: Low Back Pain;   Depression
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: In comparison to placebo-treated patients, patients with treated with Cipralex report a significant reduction in depressive symptoms (>= 50% HAMD score) after 4 weeks of treatment.;   In comparison to placebo, subjects treated with Cipralex report a significant reduction in pain intensity (>= 50% reduction of pain questionnaire score or VAS) after 12 weeks of treatment.;   In comparison with placebo, subjects treated with Cipralex report a significant improvement in physical and everyday functioning after 12 weeks of treatment.;   Personality traits do not have a significant influence on outcome regarding depressive traits, pain intensity and functioning.;   Personality disorders are significantly influencing worse outcome regarding depressive traits, pain intensity and functioning.
8 Recruiting Brain Aging and Treatment Response in Geriatric Depression
Conditions: Mild Neurocognitive Disorder;   MCI;   Depression
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram;   Drug: Memantine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores;   Change in cognitive domain scores
9 Recruiting DECIFER: DEpression and Citalopram In First Episode Recovery
Conditions: Schizophrenia;   Schizophreniform Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Citalopram;   Behavioral: Psychoeducation;   Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT);   Radiation: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS);   Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS);   Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS);   InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST);   Heinrich Quality of Life Scale (QOL)
10 Unknown  The Effects of Escitalopram on Cytokines
Condition: Depression
Intervention: Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: The changes in cytokines;   The changes in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale
11 Unknown  Relapse Prevention With Escitalopram or Nortriptyline Following Electro-Convulsive Treatment (DUAG-7)
Condition: Major Depression
Interventions: Drug: escitalopram;   Drug: nortriptyline
Outcome Measures: Hamilton depression rating scale;   Drop out due to side-effects of drugs
12 Not yet recruiting The ISLAND Study: InSuLa Assessed Needs for Depression
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram;   Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy;   Other: Combination treatment (Escitalopram + CBT)
Outcome Measures: Remission from major depressive episode;   Response to treatment
13 Unknown  Development of Escitalopram Genomic Device by Using Candidate Gene Approach and Genome-Wide Scanning
Conditions: Depression;   Continuous Antidepressant Abuse;   Adverse Reaction to Drug
Intervention: Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: antidepressant response at 2,4,6,8 weeks A/E monitoring at 1,2,4,6,8 weeks;   biological value at 0 week and 8 weeks
14 Recruiting Citalopram Effects on Craving and Dopamine Receptor Availability in Alcoholics
Condition: Alcohol Dependence
Intervention: Drug: citalopram
Outcome Measures: Craving for alcohol in type B alcohol dependence with citalopram compared to placebo;   Striatal dopamine receptor availability in type B alcohol dependence with citalopram, compared to placebo
15 Unknown  Neuroprotective/Neurotrophic Effect of Lexapro® in Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Condition: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Intervention: Drug: escitalopram (Lexapro)
Outcome Measures: Changes from baseline in brain structure, function, and biochemical metabolism, analyzed using the computational approach;   Change from baseline in Clinician-administered PTSD scale scores at 1st week;   Change from baseline in Clinician-administered PTSD scale scores at 4th weeks;   Change from baseline in Clinician-administered PTSD scale scores at 8th weeks;   Change from baseline in Hamilton depression rating scale scores at 1st week;   Change from baseline in Hamilton anxiety rating scale scores at 1st week;   Number of participants with adverse events;   Change from baseline in Hamilton depression rating scale scores at 4th weeks;   Change from baseline in Hamilton depression rating scale scores at 8th weeks;   Change from baseline in Hamilton anxiety rating scale scores at 4th weeks;   Change from baseline in Hamilton anxiety rating scale scores at 8th weeks
16 Unknown  Citalopram for Cocaine Dependence
Condition: Cocaine Dependence
Interventions: Drug: Citalopram;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Abstinence;   Cocaine Use Days;   Cocaine-negative Urines;   Retention in Treatment
17 Recruiting A Study to Evaluate the Impact of Escitalopram on Quality of Life and Social Functionality in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder With Anxiety Symptom
Condition: Depressive Disorder, Major
Intervention: Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Change From Baseline in Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF);   Change From Baseline in Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS);   Remission Rate at Week 8;   Onset of Effect Rate at Week 1;   Onset of Effect Rate at Week 2;   Change From Baseline to Week 8 in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) Scores;   Change From Baseline to Week 8 in Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) Scores;   Change From Baseline to Week 8 in Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report (QIDS-SR) Scores
18 Unknown  Cipralex® for Anxiety Disorders in Adolescents
Condition: Anxiety Disorder
Intervention: Drug: Cipralex®
Outcome Measures: Treatment Efficacy;   Physiological response to stress;   Suicide risk
19 Unknown  Intervention Study of Depression in Breast Cancer Patients
Conditions: Breast Cancer;   Depression;   Anxiety
Interventions: Behavioral: CBT and clinical management;   Drug: Escitalopram;   Behavioral: Clinical Management;   Drug: Sugar pill
Outcome Measures: Change from Baseline in Depression and Anxiety at 24 weeks, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA);   Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), Quality of Life (FACT-B), well-being index, pain score, Athens Insomnia Scale
20 Recruiting Effects of Intravenous (IV) Citalopram on Emotional Brain Activity in Healthy Young and Elderly Adults
Condition: Healthy Young and Elderly Volunteers
Interventions: Drug: Intravenous Citalopram;   Drug: Normal Saline
Outcome Measures: BOLD fMRI Response;   Genetics and Cognitive/Emotional Change