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INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS and Penicillin

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INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Symptoms and Causes

Mosquitoes are insects that live all over the world. There are thousands of different species of mosquitoes; about 200 of those live in the United States.

Female mosquitoes bite animals and humans and drink a very small amount of their blood. They need protein and iron from blood to produce eggs. After drinking blood, they find some standing water and lay their eggs in it. The eggs hatch into larvae, then pupae, and then they become adult mosquitos. The males live for about a week to ten days, and the females can live up to several weeks. Some female mosquitoes can hibernate in the winter, and they can live for months.

What health problems can mosquito bites cause?

Most mosquito bites are harmless, but there are times when they can be dangerous. The ways that mosquito bites can affect humans include

  • Causing itchy bumps, as an immune system response to the mosquito's saliva. This is the most common reaction. The bumps usually go away after a day or two.
  • Causing allergic reactions, including blisters, large hives, and in rare cases, anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that affects the whole body. It is a medical emergency.
  • Spreading diseases to humans. Some of these diseases can be serious. Many of them do not have any treatments, and only a few have vaccines to prevent them. These diseases are more of a problem in Africa and other tropical areas of the world, but more of them are spreading to the United States. One factor is climate change, which makes the conditions in some parts of the United States more favorable to certain types of mosquitoes. Other reasons include increased trade with, and travel to, tropical and subtropical areas.
Which diseases can mosquitoes spread?

Common diseases spread by mosquitoes include

  • Chikungunya, a viral infection that causes symptoms such as fever and severe joint pain. The symptoms usually last about a week, but for some, the joint pain may last for months. Most cases of chikungunya in the United States are in people who traveled to other countries. There have been a few cases where it has spread in the United States.
  • Dengue, a viral infection that causes a high fever, headaches, joint and muscle pain, vomiting, and a rash. Most people get better within a few weeks. In some cases, it can become very severe, even life-threatening. Dengue is rare in the United States.
  • Malaria, a parasitic disease that causes serious symptoms such as high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. It can be life-threatening, but there are drugs to treat it. Malaria is a major health problem in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Almost all cases of malaria in the United States are in people who traveled to other countries.
  • West Nile Virus (WNV), a viral infection that often has no symptoms. In those that do have symptoms, they are usually mild, and include fever, headache, and nausea. In rare cases, the virus can enter the brain, and it can be life-threatening. WNV has spread across the continental United States.
  • Zika Virus, a viral infection that often does not cause symptoms. One in five infected people do get symptoms, which are usually mild. They include a fever, rash, joint pain, and pinkeye. Besides being spread by mosquitoes, Zika can spread from mother to baby during pregnancy and cause serious birth defects. It can also spread from one partner to another during sex. There have been a few outbreaks of Zika in the southern United States.
How can I prevent mosquito bites?
  • Use an insect repellent when you go outdoors. Choose an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent. They are evaluated to make sure they are safe and effective. Make sure that the repellant has one of these ingredients: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus, or para-menthane-diol. It is important to follow the instructions on the label.
  • Cover up. Wear long sleeves, long pants, and socks when outdoors. Mosquitoes may bite through thin fabric, so spray thin clothes with an EPA-registered repellent like permethrin. Don't apply permethrin directly to skin.
  • Mosquito-proof your home. Install or repair screens on windows and doors to keep mosquitoes out. Use air conditioning if you have it.
  • Get rid of mosquito breeding sites. Regularly empty standing water from your house and yard. The water could be in flowerpots, gutters, buckets, pool covers, pet water dishes, discarded tires, or birdbaths.
  • If you plan to travel, get information about the areas you will be going to. Find out whether there is a risk of diseases from mosquitoes, and if so, whether there is a vaccine or medicine to prevent those diseases. See a health care provider familiar with travel medicine, ideally 4 to 6 weeks before your trip.

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Penicillin Side Effects

Rash (32)
Pain (26)
Hypersensitivity (23)
Pruritus (17)
Urticaria (16)
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (14)
Dyspnoea (14)
Oedema Peripheral (13)
Pyrexia (13)
Vomiting (13)
Chest Pain (12)
Deep Vein Thrombosis (12)
Anxiety (12)
Erythema (11)
Headache (11)
Nausea (11)
Diarrhoea (9)
Injury (9)
Emotional Distress (9)
Swelling Face (8)
Pulmonary Embolism (8)
Alanine Aminotransferase Increased (8)
Pain In Extremity (7)
Renal Failure Acute (7)
Malaise (7)
Abdominal Pain (7)
Stevens-johnson Syndrome (7)
Rash Maculo-papular (6)
Anaphylactic Reaction (6)
Skin Exfoliation (6)
Aspartate Aminotransferase Increased (6)
Swelling (6)
Dysphagia (6)
Weight Decreased (6)
Angioedema (5)
Abdominal Pain Upper (5)
Fear (5)
Blood Creatinine Increased (5)
Haemorrhage (5)
Throat Tightness (5)
Dizziness (5)
Chromaturia (5)
Rash Pruritic (5)
Restlessness (5)
Fatigue (5)
Decreased Appetite (5)
No Adverse Event (4)
Neutropenia (4)
Blood Alkaline Phosphatase Increased (4)
Nasopharyngitis (4)

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Recent Reviews

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INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Oral Penicillin and Penicillin Levels in Venous Umbilical Cord Blood
Condition: Group B Streptococcus
Intervention: Drug: oral Penicillin V
Outcome Measures: The level of antibiotics in the umbilical vein cord blood of newborn infants after the administration of Penicillin orally while in labor.;   Compare levels of Penicillin in the umbilical cord blood of women who received oral Penicillin to the levels of women who received intravenous Penicillin in labor. Comparisons will be done through literature only.
2 Recruiting The Diagnosis of Penicillin/AminoPenicillin Allergy in Thailand
Conditions: Penicillin Allergy;   AminoPenicillin Allergy
Intervention:
Outcome Measures: The true prevalence of Penicillin/aminoPenicillin allergy;   The diagnostic values of currently used skin test reagents and drug-specific IgE measurement
3 Recruiting Perioperative Antibiotic Choices for Surgical Prophylaxis in Penicillin-allergic Pediatric Patients
Condition: Penicillin Allergy
Intervention: Drug: Antibiotic
Outcome Measure: Number of subjects with antibiotic related adverse event
4 Not yet recruiting Antibiotic Treatment and Intravenous Immunoglobulin Trial for PANDAS
Condition: Pandas
Interventions: Drug: Sertraline+Antibiotic (Penicillin/azithromycin);   Drug: Sertraline+placebo;   Biological: IVIG
Outcome Measures: The improvement of OC/tic symptoms will be superior in patients treated with SSRI+AB and in case with IVIG, compared with those treated with SSRI+placebo, as assessed by the YBOCS/YGTSS;   The degree of treatment response is expected to correlate with the percentage reduction in antibodies titers following IVIG administration;   The degree of treatment response is also expected to correlate with decreased inflammation in specific regions of the brain, as demonstrated by macroscopic changes and microstructural alterations on MRI and serum and CSF cytokines and chemokines
5 Recruiting A Comparative Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Daptomycin Versus Standard of Care in Pediatric Subjects Two - Seventeen Years of Age With Bacteremia Caused by Staphylococcus Aureus
Condition: Bacteremia
Interventions: Drug: Daptomycin;   Drug: Comparator (Vancomycin, Semi-synthetic Penicillin, First-generation cephalosporins, Clindamycin)
Outcome Measures: Safety of daptomycin measured by the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events, vital signs, echocardiogram (if performed) and clinical laboratory tests, use of concomitant medications,physical and neurological exam results.;   Efficacy of daptomycin will be based on Investigator's assessment of clinical response (cure, improved, failure or non-evaluable) at the Test of Cure (TOC) visit.
6 Not yet recruiting Patients Response to Early Switch To Oral:Osteomyelitis Study
Condition: Osteomyelitis
Interventions: Drug: oral antibiotics;   Procedure: intravenous antibiotics
Outcome Measures: Clinical Failures;   Evaluation of adverse events related to the use of antibiotics;   Cost of care from the hospital perspective
7 Unknown  Intravenous Immunoglobulins as Effective Treatment in Sydenham's Chorea
Conditions: Sydenham Chorea;   Post Streptococcal Movement Disorder
Interventions: Biological: Intravenous immunoglobulin;   Drug: standard interventions Penicillin VK and haloperidol
Outcome Measures: improved scores on the sydenham chorea assessment charts;   improved quality of life
8 Recruiting Neonatal and Paediatric Pharmacokinetics of Antimicrobials Study
Condition: Paediatric Antimicrobial Pharmacokinetics
Intervention:
Outcome Measure: The pharmacokinetic parameters of drug clearance and volume of distribution for each Penicillin.
9 Recruiting The Amputation Surgical Site Infection Trial (ASSIT)
Conditions: Wound Infection;   Amputation Wound
Interventions: Drug: Co-amoxiclav;   Drug: Iodine;   Drug: Metronidazole;   Drug: Chlorhexidine;   Drug: Teicoplanin;   Drug: Clindamycin
Outcome Measures: Surgical Site Infection;   Impact of different skin preparations on infection rates;   Rate of re-intervention;   Mortality;   Satisfactory healing rates;   Quality of life;   Resource use;   • Rate of C. Diff., MSSA (Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus), MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) infection;   Mobility;   Pain Control
10 Recruiting The Role of Antibiotics in Full Thickness Skin Graft Survival for Facial Reconstructive Surgery
Condition: Facial Defect
Intervention: Drug: cephalexin
Outcome Measures: Graft failure rate;   Percentage surface area of graft failure
11 Unknown  The Effectiveness of Probiotics for the Therapy of Acute Pharyngotonsillitis in Adult Patients
Condition: Throat Pain
Interventions: Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Probiotics
Outcome Measures: period of disease;   analysis
12 Recruiting Extended Open Challenge in Patients With a History of Drug Eruption Following Beta-lactam Treatment
Condition: Beta-lactam Allergy
Intervention: Drug: Beta-lactam oral challenge
Outcome Measure: The safety of a 5-day oral challenge in patients with suspected beta-lactam allergy
13 Not yet recruiting Mortality Reduction After Oral Azithromycin: Morbidity Study
Condition: Childhood Mortality
Interventions: Drug: Azithromycin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Presence of malaria parasites on thick blood smear in children 1-60 months;   Fraction of isolates of pneumococcus exhibiting macrolide resistance by nasopharyngeal swabs in children 1-60 months;   Fraction of isolates of Staphylococcus aureus exhibiting macrolide resistance by nasal swabs in children 1-60 months;   Fraction of isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes exhibiting macrolide resistance by oropharyngeal swabs in children 1-60 months;   Evidence of E. coli macrolide resistance in stool specimens in children 1-60 months;   Fraction of conjunctival swabs yielding ocular chlamydia in children 1-60 months;   Height over time in children aged 1-60 months;   Presence of malaria gametocytes, and density of malaria parasites and gametocytes, in children 1-60 months;   Rates of malaria parasitemia among children 1-59.9 months.;   Hemoglobin concentration and presence of anemia (hemoglobin <11 g/dL) in children 1-60 months;   Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal macrolide resistance in individuals 7-12 years;   Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal macrolide resistance in children aged 1-60 months seen in local health clinics for a respiratory complaint;   Rates of acute respiratory illness among children 1-59.9 months.;   Carriage rates and proportions of S. pneumoniae isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months.;   Carriage rates and proportions of S. pneumoniae isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months hospitalized for pneumonia and diarrhea.;   Presence of the trachoma grades "follicular trachoma" (TF) and "intense inflammatory trachoma" (TI), as defined by the WHO simplified grading system, in children 1-60 months;   Trachoma infection and antibody status in children (1-60 months);   Rates of diarrhea among children 1-59.9 months.;   Carriage rates and proportions E. coli isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months;   Carriage rates and proportions of E. coli isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months hospitalized for pneumonia and diarrhea.;   Studies of intestinal permeability and inflammation, microbial translocation, and immune activation assessed through venous sampling of children 6 months;   Studies of intestinal permeability and inflammation, microbial translocation, and immune activation assessed through urine samples for L:M ratios of children 6 months;   Studies of intestinal permeability and inflammation, microbial translocation, and immune activation assessed through stool (fecal neopterin) of children 6 months;   Nasopharyngeal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children 1-60 months;   Carriage rates and proportions of S. aureus isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months.;   Carriage rates and proportions of S. aureus isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months hospitalized for pneumonia and diarrhea.;   Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal resistance to Penicillin and clindamycin in children 1-60 months;   Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal macrolide resistance determinants (ermB and mefA), serotype, and multilocus sequence type in children 1-60 months;   Oropharyngeal Streptococcus pyogenes macrolide resistance to Penicillin and clindamycin in children 1-60 months;   Oropharyngeal Streptococcus pyogenes macrolide resistance determinants (mefA, ermB, ermTR) in children 1-60 months;   Microbial diversity in the conjunctival, nasopharyngeal, nasal, oropharyngeal, and intestinal microbiomes of children aged 1-60 months;   Serology for exposure to exotic pathogens cross sectional sample of children aged 1-60 months;   Knee-heel length and head circumference over time in children aged 1-60 months;   Commensal and diarrheagenic E. coli carriage in stool of children aged 1-60 months
14 Recruiting A Trial Comparing Two Modalities of Prophylactic Nutritional Support During Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer
Condition: Head and Neck Neoplasms
Interventions: Procedure: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement;   Procedure: nasogastric tube placement
Outcome Measures: Nutritional Status;   Quality of Life + Mental/Emotional health;   Cost of care;   Clinical Complications;   Nutritional status
15 Unknown  Study to Proof the Clinical and Bacteriological Non-inferiority of Ampicillin/Amoxicillin Versus Moxifloxacin in Hospitalized Patients With Non-severe Community-acquired Pneumonia
Condition: Community Acquired Pneumonia
Interventions: Drug: Moxifloxacin;   Drug: Ampicillin;Amoxicillin
Outcome Measures: Proof of the clinical non inferiority by the cure rate at the treatment of a Pneumonia at the therapy end (round 3: Day 7 to 10) with a standard Penicillin in a high dosage;   clinical cure rate;   bacteriological effectiveness on patients and seed level;   bacteriological sensitivity into-vitro;   time up to the drug-switch;   time until the dismissal of the patients necessity of the gift of additional antibacterial drug;   cost reduction of the antibiotic-therapy and the complete treatment;   assessment of the effectiveness by the investigator
16 Recruiting Levofloxacin in Preventing Infection in Young Patients With Acute Leukemia Receiving Chemotherapy or Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation
Conditions: Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage;   Bacterial Infection;   Diarrhea;   Fungal Infection;   Musculoskeletal Complications;   Neutropenia;   Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia;   Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia;   Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia;   Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies
Intervention: Drug: levofloxacin
Outcome Measures: Occurrence of at least 1 episode of true bacteremia among AL and HSCT subjects, respectively;   Susceptibility of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa to cefepime, imipenem, and levofloxacin;   Susceptibility of S. mitis to cefepime, levofloxacin, and Penicillin;   Presence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae;   Duration of parenteral antibiotic administration;   Incidence of febrile neutropenia, severe infection, and death from bacterial infection;   Incidence of severe infection;   Incidence of death from bacterial infection;   Incidence of CDAD, defined as a positive C. difficile toxin assay result and diarrhea, CTCAE version 4, grade 2 and higher
17 Recruiting The Effects of Modified Ultrafiltration on Vancomycin Levels During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Cardiac Surgery
Condition: Vancomycin Concentration
Intervention: Other: Vancomycin concentrations
Outcome Measure: Circulating vancomycin concentration
18 Recruiting Multicenter Pilot Study Evaluating the Immunogenicity of an Innovative Pneumococcal Vaccination Strategy in Splenectomized Adults
Condition: Splenectomized Patients
Intervention: Biological: Prime-boost pneumococcal immunization
Outcome Measures: Proportion of subjects responsive to 9 of the 13 serotypes common (serotypes 1, 3, 6A, 7F, 9V, 14, 19A, 19F, 23F).;   IgG dosage;   ELISA dosages;   Identification of predictive factors for immunogenicity;   Percentage of patients presenting local or systemic reactions post-immunization;   Evaluation of severe infectious episode;   OPA dosages
19 Not yet recruiting Prophylactic Antibiotics for Manual Removal of Retained Placenta in Vaginal Birth: a Randomized Controlled Trial
Condition: Endometritis
Interventions: Drug: Antibiotic prophylaxis;   Drug: Ampicillin;   Drug: Gentamycin;   Drug: Clindamycin
Outcome Measures: Endometritis rate;   Puerperal fever
20 Recruiting Assessment of the Optimal Dosing of Piperacillin-tazobactam in Intensive Care Unit Patients: Extended Versus Continuous Infusion
Condition: Infectious Disease
Interventions: Drug: piperacillin continuous infusion;   Drug: piperacillin extended infusion
Outcome Measures: pharmacokinetics of piperacillin continuous infusion compared to piperacillin extended infusion;   95% probability of target attainment (PTA95) versus MIC of different organisms.