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LIVER FUNCTION TEST ABNORMAL and ACYCLOVIR

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LIVER FUNCTION TEST ABNORMAL Symptoms and Causes

What is fatty liver disease?

Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds up in your liver. There are two main types:

  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
  • Alcoholic fatty liver disease, also called alcoholic steatohepatitis
What is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)?

NAFLD is a type of fatty liver disease that is not related to heavy alcohol use. There are two kinds:

  • Simple fatty liver, in which you have fat in your liver but little or no inflammation or liver cell damage. Simple fatty liver typically does not get bad enough to cause liver damage or complications.
  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), in which you have inflammation and liver cell damage, as well as fat in your liver. Inflammation and liver cell damage can cause fibrosis, or scarring, of the liver. NASH may lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer.
What is alcoholic fatty liver disease?

Alcoholic fatty liver disease is due to heavy alcohol use. Your liver breaks down most of the alcohol you drink, so it can be removed from your body. But the process of breaking it down can generate harmful substances. These substances can damage liver cells, promote inflammation, and weaken your body's natural defenses. The more alcohol that you drink, the more you damage your liver. Alcoholic fatty liver disease is the earliest stage of alcohol-related liver disease. The next stages are alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis.

Who gets fatty liver disease?

Researchers do not know the cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD). They do know that it is more common in people who

  • Have type 2 diabetes and prediabetes
  • Are obese
  • Are middle aged or older (although children can also get it)
  • Are Hispanic, followed by non-Hispanic whites. It is less common in African Americans.
  • Have high levels of fats in the blood, such as cholesterol and triglycerides
  • Have high blood pressure
  • Take certain drugs, such as corticosteroids and some cancer drugs
  • Have certain metabolic disorders, including metabolic syndrome
  • Have rapid weight loss
  • Have certain infections, such as hepatitis C
  • Have been exposed to some toxins

NAFLD affects about 25 percent of people in the world. As the rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and high cholesterol are rising in the United States, so is the rate of NAFLD. NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disorder in the United States.

Alcoholic fatty liver disease only happens in people who are heavy drinkers, especially those who have been drinking for a long period of time. The risk is higher for heavy drinkers who are women, are obese, or have certain genetic mutations.

What are the symptoms of fatty liver disease?

Both NAFLD and alcoholic fatty liver disease are usually silent diseases with few or no symptoms. If you do have symptoms, you may feel tired or have discomfort in the upper right side of your abdomen.

How do I know if I have fatty liver disease?

Because there are often no symptoms, it is not easy to find fatty liver disease. Your doctor may suspect that you have it if you get abnormal results on liver tests that you had for other reasons. To make a diagnosis, your doctor will use

  • Your medical history
  • A physical exam
  • Various tests, including blood and imaging tests, and sometimes a biopsy

As part of the medical history, your doctor will ask about your alcohol use, to find out whether fat in your liver is a sign of alcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD). He or she will also ask which medicines you take, to try to determine whether a medicine is causing your NAFLD.

During the physical exam, your doctor will examine your body and check your weight and height. Your doctor will look for signs of fatty liver disease, such as

  • An enlarged liver
  • Signs of cirrhosis, such as jaundice, a condition that causes your skin and whites of your eyes to turn yellow

You will likely have blood tests, including liver function tests and blood count tests. In some cases you may also have imaging tests, like those that check for fat in the liver and the stiffness of your liver. Liver stiffness can mean fibrosis, which is scarring of the liver. In some cases you may also need a liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis, and to check how bad the liver damage is.

What are the treatments for fatty liver disease?

Doctors recommend weight loss for nonalcoholic fatty liver. Weight loss can reduce fat in the liver, inflammation, and fibrosis. If your doctor thinks that a certain medicine is the cause of your NAFLD, you should stop taking that medicine. But check with your doctor before stopping the medicine. You may need to get off the medicine gradually, and you might need to switch to another medicine instead.

There are no medicines that have been approved to treat NAFLD. Studies are investigating whether a certain diabetes medicine or Vitamin E can help, but more studies are needed.

The most important part of treating alcohol-related fatty liver disease is to stop drinking alcohol. If you need help doing that, you may want to see a therapist or participate in an alcohol recovery program. There are also medicines that can help, either by reducing your cravings or making you feel sick if you drink alcohol.

Both alcoholic fatty liver disease and one type of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis) can lead to cirrhosis. Doctors can treat the health problems caused by cirrhosis with medicines, operations, and other medical procedures. If the cirrhosis leads to liver failure, you may need a liver transplant.

What are some lifestyle changes that can help with fatty liver disease?

If you have any of the types of fatty liver disease, there are some lifestyle changes that can help:

  • Eat a healthy diet, limiting salt and sugar, plus eating lots of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
  • Get vaccinations for hepatitis A and B, the flu and pneumococcal disease. If you get hepatitis A or B along with fatty liver, it is more likely to lead to liver failure. People with chronic liver disease are more likely to get infections, so the other two vaccinations are also important.
  • Get regular exercise, which can help you lose weight and reduce fat in the liver
  • Talk with your doctor before using dietary supplements, such as vitamins, or any complementary or alternative medicines or medical practices. Some herbal remedies can damage your liver.

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Renal Failure Acute (111)
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LIVER FUNCTION TEST ABNORMAL Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Effect of Body Mass on Acyclovir Pharmacokinetics
Conditions: Hematological Malignancy;   Pharmacokinetics of Acyclovir
Intervention:
Outcome Measures: Systemic clearance of Acyclovir in obese and non-obese patients;   Alpha and beta half-life of Acyclovir in obese and non-obese patients;   Maximum concentration (Cmax) of Acyclovir in obese and non-obese patients;   Time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of Acyclovir in obese and non-obese patients;   Volume of distribution (Vd and Vdss) of Acyclovir in obese and non-obese patients;   Time that concentration is above IC50 for varicella and herpes viruses 4,5,6,7 for Acyclovir in obese and non-obese patients
2 Recruiting Efficacy of Antiviral Medications in Controlling Vertigo Attacks of Patients With Meniere's Disease
Condition: Meniere's Disease
Interventions: Drug: Acyclovir;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Vertigo;   Hearing Loss;   Aural Fullness;   Tinnitus
3 Recruiting Efficacy of Oral Famciclovir Versus Aciclovir Treatment in Patients With Herpes Zoster
Condition: Herpes Zoster
Interventions: Drug: Famciclovir;   Drug: Aciclovir
Outcome Measures: For efficacy evaluation, a visual analogue scale (VAS) will be used to detect the improvement of symptoms;   Safety will be evaluated by the adverse events occurrences
4 Recruiting Efficacy of Oral Famciclovir 125mg Comparing to Aciclovir 200 mg Treatment in Patients With Active Recurrent Genital Herpes
Condition: GENITAL HERPES
Interventions: Drug: Famciclovir;   Drug: Aciclovir
Outcome Measures: Efficacy will be evaluated by the proportion of subjects with non herpes manifestation;   Safety will be evaluated by the Adverse events occurence
5 Recruiting PTH - Preemptive Treatment for Herpesviridae
Condition: Viral Pneumonia
Interventions: Drug: Aciclovir;   Drug: Ganciclovir;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Ventilator-free days at Day 60;   Day 60 mortality;   ICU mortality;   Hospital mortality;   Duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors;   Duration of ICU stay;   Duration of hospital stay;   Incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia;   Incidence of bacteremia;   SOFA score;   Acute renal failure related to aciclovir or its placebo;   Leucopenia related to ganciclovir or its placebo;   Time to oropharyngeal negativation of HSV PCR;   Time to blood negativation of CMV PCR;   Incidence of herpetic bronchopneumonia;   Incidence of active CMV infection
6 Not yet recruiting A Study to Compare Two Techniques for Articular Cartilage Repair:ACIC Vs. MCIC
Condition: Articular Cartilage Defect
Interventions: Procedure: ACIC;   Procedure: MCIC;   Device: implant with a collagen + fibrin gel mixture
Outcome Measures: Clinical outcome;   Radiological outcome
7 Recruiting Contribution of Salivary Cortisol in the Detection of Infra-clinic Cortisol Adenoma (ACIC)
Condition: Obesity
Intervention: Other: Salivary Cortisol
Outcome Measures: Number of patients with positive salivary cortisol dosage among patients with positive serum cortisol dosage;   Number of patients with negative salivary cortisol dosage among patients with negative serum cortisol dosage;   Comparing the results of salivary cortisol dosage and serum cortisol dosage;   Comparing the results of the two salivary samples;   Number of patients with metabolic complications of obesity among patients with ACIC;   Number of patients with severe type 2 diabetes among patients with ACIC
8 Not yet recruiting Efficacy and Safety of Foscarnet Sodium and Sodium Chloride Injection in Patients With Herpes Zoster
Condition: Herpes Zoster
Interventions: Drug: Foscarnet Sodium;   Drug: Acyclovir
Outcome Measures: Effective rate;   Incidence of Postherpetic neuralgia;   number of participants with adverse event and serious adverse event
9 Recruiting Cytomegalovirus Control in Critical Care
Condition: Critical Illness
Interventions: Drug: Valaciclovir/Aciclovir;   Drug: Valganciclovir/Ganciclovir
Outcome Measures: Time to reactivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (defined as above the lower limit of sample assay).;   Time to reactivation above the lower limit of assay detection of CMV PCR in urine, throat swab and non-directed bronchiolar lavage (NDBL). NDBL whilst trachea is intubated only.;   Time to >1000 CMV copies in blood, urine, throat swab and NDBL (NDBL whilst intubated);   Time to >10000 CMV copies in blood, urine, throat swab and NDBL (NDBL whilst intubated);   CMV PCR in blood, urine, throat swab and NDBL (NDBL whilst intubated);   Markers of inflammation;   Clinical Outcomes;   Number of Serious Adverse events;   Time to neutropenia (count <1.0x10-9/L);   Time to thrombocytopenia (platelet <50x10-9/L);   Use of G-CSF or termination of study drug;   Number of platelet transfusions received;   Time to renal insufficiency (CrCl <60ml/min, <30ml/min, need for renal support)
10 Unknown  Phase III Randomized Study of Oral Acyclovir in Infants With Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Involving the Central Nervous System
Condition: Herpes Simplex
Intervention: Drug: Acyclovir
Outcome Measure:
11 Unknown  Comparison of Topical Antiviral Agents for Labial Cold Sores (Herpes Labialis)
Condition: Reccurent Herpes Labialis
Interventions: Drug: Acyclovir 5%;   Drug: Docosanol 10%;   Device: Superlysine gel
Outcome Measure: Reducing healing process and duration of cold sores using superlysin gel
12 Recruiting Bortezomib in KRAS-Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Never Smokers or Those With KRAS G12D
Condition: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Bortezomib;   Drug: Acyclovir
Outcome Measures: efficacy of single-agent subcutaneous bortezomib;   Efficacy;   Toxicity
13 Recruiting Phase 2 Trial of Carfilzomib for Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Following Treatment
Condition: Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Carfilzomib;   Drug: Dexamethasone;   Drug: Acyclovir
Outcome Measures: Progression-free survival (PFS);   Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) changes;   Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) enumeration;   Baseline whole blood 20S proteasome level;   Measurable disease response rate;   Pain response;   Overall survival;   Assessment of toxicities
14 Not yet recruiting A Multiple Ascending Dose-Finding Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of a Novel Antiviral Drug in Infants With Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
Condition: Herpes Simplex Virus
Interventions: Drug: Novel Antiviral Drug;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters for a Novel Antiviral Drug, including AUC24, maximum serum concentration (Cmax), half-life (T1/2), CL/F, and time to maximum concentration (Tmax);   Clearance of HSV DNA from CSF by Day 4 of antiviral treatment of neonatal HSV disease;   The incidence of SAEs and AEs considered to be related to study treatment;   The incidence of grade 3-4 AEs and SAEs, with or without relationship to study treatment;   Intracellular pharmacokinetic parameters for the active diphosphate moiety of a Novel Antiviral Drug in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs);   Correlation of a Novel Antiviral Drug plasma and intracellular concentrations with qualitative and quantitative HSV detection in cerebrospinal fluid and blood by PCR
15 Unknown  Can ValAcyclovir Attenuate Inflammation in Antiretroviral-Treated HIV-Infected Individuals With Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2?
Conditions: HIV Infections;   Herpes Simplex
Interventions: Drug: ValAcyclovir;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Percentage activated CD8+ T-cells;   Inflammatory markers;   CD4 cell count;   Virologic blips;   Drug-related adverse events;   HSV reactivations;   Acyclovir-resistant HSV
16 Recruiting Can ValAcyclovir Delay the Need for Initiation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Treatment in HIV-infected Individuals With Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2?
Conditions: HIV Infection;   Herpesvirus 2, Human;   HIV Infections
Interventions: Drug: valAcyclovir;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Time from baseline until reaching the primary endpoint, a composite of either a CD4 cell count ≤350 cells/mm3 measured on two consecutive occasions at least 1 month apart, or initiation of HAART for any reason, whichever occurs first.;   Annual rate of change in CD4 count, calculated as the slope of patients' CD4 count change / time;   Annual rate of change in the CD4 cell count percentage, calculated as the slope of the patient's CD4 count percentage change over time;   Log10 plasma HIV viral load;   Treatment-emergent adverse events and laboratory abnormalities;   Frequency of episodes of HSV reactivations at any anatomic site;   Proportion of microbiologically confirmed flares of HSV during the trial that are caused by laboratory-confirmed Acyclovir-resistant HSV;   Quality of life
17 Not yet recruiting PACT for Individuals With Serious Mental Illness
Condition: Schizophrenia and Disorders With Psychotic Feature
Intervention: Other: Patient Aligned Care Team (PACT)
Outcome Measures: Composite Prevention Score;   Composite Diabetes Mellitus Score;   medical and mental health treatment utilization and cost;   Assess acceptability of the SMI-PACT model, and barriers and facilitators to its implementation;   Investigate the relationships between organizational context, intervention factors, and patient and provider outcomes;   Identify factors related to successful patient outcomes;   VA Decision Support System National Database Extracts (DSS NDEs);   Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC);   patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC);   Rogers' Adoption Questionnaire;   Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI);   Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale - Revised (BASIS-R);   Ambulatory Care Experiences Survey (ACES; Short Form);   Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL);   Medication Possession Ratio (MPR);   Ethnographic field notes;   Semi-structured qualitative interviews
18 Recruiting Short Course of Bortezomib in Anemic Patients With Refractory Cold Agglutinin Disease
Condition: Refractory Cold Agglutinin Disease
Intervention: Drug: Bortezomib
Outcome Measures: Number of patients who become transfusion-free after Bortezomib therapy.;   Number of patients who have never been transfused with a >2g hemoglobin rise compared to baseline.;   Number of CTC grade 3 and 4 adverse events.;   Duration in months of transfusion independence.;   Effect of treatment on the underlying clonal B cell disorder.
19 Unknown  Early Response-adapted Intensification of Induction Chemotherapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma (MM)
Condition: Multiple Myeloma
Intervention: Drug: Thalidomide, cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone, bortezomib
Outcome Measure: response rate for induction chemotherapy
20 Recruiting HSV-tk + ValAcyclovir Therapy in Combination With Brachytherapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer
Condition: Prostatic Neoplasms
Intervention: Drug: HSV-tk +ValAcyclovir in Combination with Brachytherapy
Outcome Measures: 1. Safety based on standard laboratory and clinical adverse event monitoring;   Local control survival (measured by PSA and biopsy);   Evaluate immunological markers