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LIVER FUNCTION TEST ABNORMAL and Ritalin

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LIVER FUNCTION TEST ABNORMAL Symptoms and Causes

What is fatty liver disease?

Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds up in your liver. There are two main types:

  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
  • Alcoholic fatty liver disease, also called alcoholic steatohepatitis
What is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)?

NAFLD is a type of fatty liver disease that is not related to heavy alcohol use. There are two kinds:

  • Simple fatty liver, in which you have fat in your liver but little or no inflammation or liver cell damage. Simple fatty liver typically does not get bad enough to cause liver damage or complications.
  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), in which you have inflammation and liver cell damage, as well as fat in your liver. Inflammation and liver cell damage can cause fibrosis, or scarring, of the liver. NASH may lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer.
What is alcoholic fatty liver disease?

Alcoholic fatty liver disease is due to heavy alcohol use. Your liver breaks down most of the alcohol you drink, so it can be removed from your body. But the process of breaking it down can generate harmful substances. These substances can damage liver cells, promote inflammation, and weaken your body's natural defenses. The more alcohol that you drink, the more you damage your liver. Alcoholic fatty liver disease is the earliest stage of alcohol-related liver disease. The next stages are alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis.

Who gets fatty liver disease?

Researchers do not know the cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD). They do know that it is more common in people who

  • Have type 2 diabetes and prediabetes
  • Have obesity
  • Are middle aged or older (although children can also get it)
  • Are Hispanic, followed by non-Hispanic whites. It is less common in African Americans.
  • Have high levels of fats in the blood, such as cholesterol and triglycerides
  • Have high blood pressure
  • Take certain drugs, such as corticosteroids and some cancer drugs
  • Have certain metabolic disorders, including metabolic syndrome
  • Have rapid weight loss
  • Have certain infections, such as hepatitis C
  • Have been exposed to some toxins

NAFLD affects about 25 percent of people in the world. As the rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and high cholesterol are rising in the United States, so is the rate of NAFLD. NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disorder in the United States.

Alcoholic fatty liver disease only happens in people who are heavy drinkers, especially those who have been drinking for a long period of time. The risk is higher for heavy drinkers who are women, have obesity, or have certain genetic mutations.

What are the symptoms of fatty liver disease?

Both NAFLD and alcoholic fatty liver disease are usually silent diseases with few or no symptoms. If you do have symptoms, you may feel tired or have discomfort in the upper right side of your abdomen.

How do I know if I have fatty liver disease?

Because there are often no symptoms, it is not easy to find fatty liver disease. Your doctor may suspect that you have it if you get abnormal results on liver tests that you had for other reasons. To make a diagnosis, your doctor will use

  • Your medical history
  • A physical exam
  • Various tests, including blood and imaging tests, and sometimes a biopsy

As part of the medical history, your doctor will ask about your alcohol use, to find out whether fat in your liver is a sign of alcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD). He or she will also ask which medicines you take, to try to determine whether a medicine is causing your NAFLD.

During the physical exam, your doctor will examine your body and check your weight and height. Your doctor will look for signs of fatty liver disease, such as

  • An enlarged liver
  • Signs of cirrhosis, such as jaundice, a condition that causes your skin and whites of your eyes to turn yellow

You will likely have blood tests, including liver function tests and blood count tests. In some cases you may also have imaging tests, like those that check for fat in the liver and the stiffness of your liver. Liver stiffness can mean fibrosis, which is scarring of the liver. In some cases you may also need a liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis, and to check how bad the liver damage is.

What are the treatments for fatty liver disease?

Doctors recommend weight loss for nonalcoholic fatty liver. Weight loss can reduce fat in the liver, inflammation, and fibrosis. If your doctor thinks that a certain medicine is the cause of your NAFLD, you should stop taking that medicine. But check with your doctor before stopping the medicine. You may need to get off the medicine gradually, and you might need to switch to another medicine instead.

There are no medicines that have been approved to treat NAFLD. Studies are investigating whether a certain diabetes medicine or Vitamin E can help, but more studies are needed.

The most important part of treating alcohol-related fatty liver disease is to stop drinking alcohol. If you need help doing that, you may want to see a therapist or participate in an alcohol recovery program. There are also medicines that can help, either by reducing your cravings or making you feel sick if you drink alcohol.

Both alcoholic fatty liver disease and one type of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis) can lead to cirrhosis. Doctors can treat the health problems caused by cirrhosis with medicines, operations, and other medical procedures. If the cirrhosis leads to liver failure, you may need a liver transplant.

What are some lifestyle changes that can help with fatty liver disease?

If you have any of the types of fatty liver disease, there are some lifestyle changes that can help:

  • Eat a healthy diet, limiting salt and sugar, plus eating lots of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
  • Get vaccinations for hepatitis A and B, the flu and pneumococcal disease. If you get hepatitis A or B along with fatty liver, it is more likely to lead to liver failure. People with chronic liver disease are more likely to get infections, so the other two vaccinations are also important.
  • Get regular exercise, which can help you lose weight and reduce fat in the liver
  • Talk with your doctor before using dietary supplements, such as vitamins, or any complementary or alternative medicines or medical practices. Some herbal remedies can damage your liver.

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LIVER FUNCTION TEST ABNORMAL Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting A Study Comparing Long-acting Methylphenidate (ConcertaTM) vs. Placebo in the Treatment of Memory Loss Due to HIV
Condition: HIV Dementia
Interventions: Drug: Long acting methylphenidate;   Drug: Matched placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in rate of reaction time as measured by neuropsychological testing;   Number of Subjects with Adverse Events as Measures of Safety and Tolerability of Concerta in HIV infected adults
2 Recruiting Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin®) on the Neural Basis of Anxiety
Condition: PTSD
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Changes in blood oxygenation level-dependent BOLD signal responses;   Changes in BOLD signal responses;   Changes in skin conductance response;   Latency and accuracy during a interoceptive stimulus task
3 Not yet recruiting The Effect of Ritalin (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) on Pain and Auditory Sensitivity: an Exploratory Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial on Healthy Subjects
Condition: Pharmacological Action (PA)
Interventions: Drug: methylphenidate hydrochloride;   Drug: Sugar pill (placebo)
Outcome Measures: Experimental pain intensity measured on a visual analogue scale (0-100);   effect of Ritalin on auditory sensitivity, measured by the response to different auditory stimulations;   pain intensity (NPS 0-100) in response to thermal stimuli and the measures of the auditory tests.
4 Not yet recruiting Identifying Characteristic Signature of Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Ritalin Treatment
Condition: "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder"
Interventions: Drug: Ritalin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Resting oscillation activity and Event-related-Potentials in Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and healthy subjects.
5 Not yet recruiting Dopamine Receptor Imaging to Predict Response to Stimulant Therapy in Chronic TBI
Condition: Traumatic Brain Injury
Interventions: Drug: methylphenidate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Relationship between tonic dopamine release (measured by displacement of [11C]-raclopride by oral methylphenidate) and change in processing speed between baseline and after methylphenidate treatment.;   Relationship between D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex and neuropsychologic deficits.;   Relationship between tonic dopamine release in the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex with neuropsychologic deficits after TBI.;   Relationship between D2/D3 receptor availability and functional connectivity of the prefrontal cortex with nodes of the default mode network.;   Relationship between TMS-induced short-interval cortical inhibition of M1 and tonic dopamine release.;   Test motivation and reward on and off methylphenidate in TBI patients.
6 Unknown  Amantadine Versus Ritalin in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Condition: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Amantadine;   Drug: Ritalin
Outcome Measure: The mean decrease in ADHD -RS-IV score from baseline will be used as the main outcome measure of response of ADHD treatment.
7 Recruiting Methylphenidate to Improve Balance and Walking in MS
Condition: Multiple Sclerosis
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate (Ritalin);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Timed Up and Go time (TUG time);   Automatic Postural Response (APR) Latency (in sec);   Timed 25 Foot Walk (T25FW in secs);   Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Assessment Questionnaire score;   Modified Fatigue Index Scale score;   Vestibular-Ocular Reflex time (in secs)
8 Unknown  Study of Methylphenidate as Add on Therapy in Depressed Cancer Patients
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: depressive symptoms;   Distress level
9 Recruiting Effects of Methylphenidate, Modafinil, and MDMA on Emotion-processing in Humans: A Pharmaco-fMRI Study
Conditions: Healthy;   Substance-related Disorder;   Mood Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Drug: Modafinil;   Drug: MDMA;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Effect on amygdala and striatum BOLD signal responses to emotional stimuli;   Effects on cognitive performance and associated BOLD signal changes in frontal areas;   Subjective effects;   Neuroendocrine effects;   Empathy and social behavior;   Physiological effects of methylphenidate, modafinil, and MDMA;   Genetic Polymorphisms;   Pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate, modafinil, and MDMA
10 Recruiting Methylphenidate vs. Risperidone for the Treatment of Children and Adolescents With ADHD and Disruptive Disorders
Conditions: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder;   Oppositional Defiant Disorder;   Conduct Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Drug: Risperidone
Outcome Measures: Change from baseline of aggressive behaviors.;   Clinical Global Impression - Improvement scale (CGI-I) questionnaire;   ADHD-RS questionnaire;   Children's Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) questionnaire;   Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) questionnaire;   Children Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ);   Clinical Global Impression - Severity (CGI-S) questionnaire
11 Recruiting The Effect of Methylphenidate Treatment in Familial Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Conditions: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Combined Type;   ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Type;   ADHD Predominantly Hyperactivity Type;   ADHD-not Other Specified
Intervention: Drug: Methylphenidate- Ritalin IR (Immediate Release)
Outcome Measures: Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale;   overall ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) score
12 Recruiting Methylphenidate as Treatment Option of Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis
Conditions: Multiple Sclerosis;   Fatigue
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate modified release;   Drug: Maltodextrin
Outcome Measures: Change of Fatigue as measured by Fatigue Severity Scale;   Change of Fatigue as measured by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS)
13 Not yet recruiting Methylphenidate on Intracortical Inhibition in Methamphetamine Abusers Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Condition: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Intervention: Other: methylphenidate tablets and Inter-stimulus Intervals (ISI)
Outcome Measures: Conners ADHD Rating Scale;   Change of Motor Evoked Potential (MEP)
14 Recruiting Control of Cognition
Conditions: Healthy;   Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder;   Alcohol Dependence;   Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Alcohol Dependence
Interventions: Drug: Methylphendiate;   Drug: Naltrexone;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Identify abnormalities in prefrontal control neural circuits underlying attention control, motor control, and appetitive control;   Characterize effects of methylphenidate and naltrexone on neural circuits in prefrontal cortex associated with attention control, motor control, and appetitive control;   Reaction time on the Multi-Source Interference Task;   Accuracy on the Multi-Source Interference Task;   Reaction time variability on the Multi-Source Interference Task
15 Recruiting Multimodal Therapy for Treatment of Fatigue
Condition: Prostate Cancer
Interventions: Other: Placebo;   Drug: Methylphenidate;   Behavioral: Counseling Sessions;   Other: Sham Exercise;   Other: Standardized Exercise Intervention Program;   Other: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Outcome Measure: Change in Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue (FACIT-F) subscale scores
16 Recruiting Methylphenidate for Attention Problems After Pediatric TBI
Conditions: Traumatic Brain Injury;   TBI;   ADHD
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Parent report measures;   Neuropsychological Testing;   Teacher Report Measures
17 Not yet recruiting Reversal of General Anesthesia With Methylphenidate
Conditions: Post Operative Cognitive Dysfunction;   Emergence From Anesthesia
Intervention: Drug: Methylphenidate
Outcome Measures: Number of Participants with Adverse Events as a Measure of Safety and Tolerability;   Time to emergence from general anesthesia
18 Recruiting Impact of CES1 Genotype on Metabolism of Methylphenidate
Conditions: Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) Genotype;   CES1 Activity
Intervention: Drug: Methylphenidate
Outcome Measures: Plasma concentration of methylphenidate and Ritalinic acid;   Metabolomic Profile
19 Recruiting A Comparison of Methylphenidate and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder
Condition: Binge-Eating Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Outcome Measures: Frequency of binge episodes/days, as assessed by prospective daily binge diary;   Frequency of objective binge episodes and overall illness severity, as assessed by both the Eating Disorder Examination Interview and Questionnaire;   Clinician impression of illness severity and improvement, as assessed by the Clinical Global Impression scale;   Quality of life, as assessed by the Quality of Life Inventory;   Associated features of binge eating as captured by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Binge Eating Scale;   Body Mass Index
20 Not yet recruiting Methylphenidate ER Liquid Formulation in Adults With ASD and ADHD
Conditions: Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder;   Autism Spectrum Disorder
Intervention: Drug: Methylphenidate extended-release liquid formulation
Outcome Measure: Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Report Scale (AISRS)