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MIGRAINE and Lexapro

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MIGRAINE Symptoms and Causes

What are Migraines?

Migraines are a recurring type of headache. They cause moderate to severe pain that is throbbing or pulsing. The pain is often on one side of your head. You may also have other symptoms, such as nausea and weakness. You may be sensitive to light and sound.

Who gets Migraines?

About 12 percent of Americans get Migraines. They can affect anyone, but you are more likely to have them if you

  • Are a woman. Women are three times more likely than men to get Migraines.
  • Have a family history of Migraines. Most people with Migraines have family members who have Migraines.
  • Have other medical conditions, such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, sleep disorders, and epilepsy.
What causes Migraines?

Researchers believe that Migraine has a genetic cause. There are also a number of factors that can trigger a Migraine, including

  • Stress
  • Anxiety
  • Hormonal changes in women
  • Bright or flashing lights
  • Loud noises
  • Strong smells
  • Medicines
  • Too much or not enough sleep
  • Sudden changes in weather or environment
  • Overexertion (too much physical activity)
  • Tobacco
  • Caffeine or caffeine withdrawal
  • Skipped meals
  • Medication overuse (taking medicine for Migraines too often)
  • Certain foods and food additives such as
    • Alcohol
    • Chocolate
    • Aged cheeses
    • Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
    • Some fruits and nuts
    • Fermented or pickled goods
    • Yeast
    • Cured or processed meats
What are the symptoms of Migraines?

There are four different phases of Migraines. You may not always go through every phase each time you have a Migraine.

  • Prodome. This phase starts up to 24 hours before you get the Migraine. You have early signs and symptoms, such as food cravings, unexplained mood changes, uncontrollable yawning, fluid retention, and increased urination.
  • Aura. If you have this phase, you might see flashing or bright lights or zig-zag lines. You may have muscle weakness or feel like you are being touched or grabbed. An aura can happen just before or during a Migraine.
  • Headache. A Migraine usually starts gradually and then becomes more severe. It typically causes throbbing or pulsing pain, which is often on one side of your head. But sometimes you can have a Migraine without a headache. Other Migraine symptoms may include
    • Increased sensitivity to light, noise, and odors
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Worsened pain when you move, cough, or sneeze
  • Postdrome (following the headache). You may feel exhausted, weak, and confused after a Migraine. This can last up to a day.

Migraines are more common in the morning; people often wake up with them. Some people have Migraines at predictable times, such as before menstruation or on weekends following a stressful week of work.

How are Migraines diagnosed?

To make a diagnosis, your health care provider will

  • Take your medical history
  • Ask about your symptoms
  • Do a physical and neurological exam

An important part of diagnosing Migraines is to rule out other medical conditions which could be causing the symptoms. So you may also have blood tests, an MRI or CT scan, or other tests.

How are Migraines treated?

There is no cure for Migraines. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and preventing additional attacks.

There are different types of medicines to relieve symptoms. They include triptan drugs, ergotamine drugs, and pain relievers. The sooner you take the medicine, the more effective it is.

There are also other things you can do to feel better:

  • Resting with your eyes closed in a quiet, darkened room
  • Placing a cool cloth or ice pack on your forehead
  • Drinking fluids

There are some lifestyle changes you can make to prevent Migraines:

  • Stress management strategies, such as exercise, relaxation techniques, and biofeedback, may reduce the number and severity of Migraines. Biofeedback uses electronic devices to teach you to control certain body functions, such as your heartbeat, blood pressure, and muscle tension.
  • Make a log of what seems to trigger your Migraines. You can learn what you need to avoid, such as certain foods and medicines. It also help you figure out what you should do, such as establishing a consistent sleep schedule and eating regular meals.
  • Hormone therapy may help some women whose Migraines seem to be linked to their menstrual cycle
  • If you have obesity, losing weight may also be helpful

If you have frequent or severe Migraines, you may need to take medicines to prevent further attacks. Talk with your health care provider about which drug would be right for you.

Certain natural treatments, such as riboflavin (vitamin B2) and coenzyme Q10, may help prevent Migraines. If your magnesium level is low, you can try taking magnesium. There is also an herb, butterbur, which some people take to prevent Migraines. But butterbur may not be safe for long-term use. Always check with your health care provider before taking any supplements.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Check out the latest treatments for MIGRAINE

MIGRAINE treatment research studies

Lexapro clinical trials, surveys and public health registries


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MIGRAINE Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting EScitalopram PIndolol ONset of Action
Condition: Unipolar Depression
Interventions: Drug: escitalopram, pindolol;   Drug: escitalopram
Outcome Measures: MADRS score change between baseline and 2 weeks of treatment;   Response/remission (MADRS) at 6 weeks;   Adverse events;   Correlation of drug level of pindolol and/or escitalopram and clinical outcome (primary outcome) between treatment groups
2 Recruiting Lexapro®'s Efficacy After Dose Escalation in Remission Study
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder
Intervention: Drug: escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS);   Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HAM-D);   Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A);   Clinical Global Impression-severity (CGI-S);   Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I);   Beck's Depression Inventory(BDI);   WHO Quality Of Life scale Abbreviated Version(WHOQOL-BREF);   Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS);   Short From-36 Health survey (SF-36 Health survey)
3 Unknown  Circadian Effects of Escitalopram
Condition: Depression
Intervention: Drug: placebo/escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Resetting effect of Escitalopram on the circadian pacemaker;   Correlation between improvement in depression with Escitalopram and the degree of realignment between the timing of sleep and the timing of the biological clock.
4 Recruiting Escitalopram Trial for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Patients With Panic Disorder
Conditions: Irritable Bowel Syndrome;   Panic Disorder
Intervention: Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS).;   State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
5 Recruiting Escitalopram, Placebo and tDCS in Depression: a Non-inferiority Trial
Conditions: Major Depressive Disorder;   Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Unspecified;   Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Unspecified
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram oxalate;   Device: transcranial direct current stimulation
Outcome Measures: Change in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 17 items (HAMD17);   Change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS);   Change in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI);   Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 17 items (HAMD17)
6 Not yet recruiting Cardiovascular Effects of Agomelatine and Escitalopram in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Interventions: Drug: Agomelatine;   Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Change from baseline in markers of sympathetic nervous system activity.;   Change from baseline in the magnitude of morning surge in blood pressure.;   To determine the association between sympathetic nervous system activity and left ventricular hypertrophy.;   Change from baseline in insulin resistance.;   Change from baseline on markers of cardiac risk.
7 Unknown  Cipralex in Treatment of Depressive Symptoms and Chronic Back Pain
Conditions: Low Back Pain;   Depression
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: In comparison to placebo-treated patients, patients with treated with Cipralex report a significant reduction in depressive symptoms (>= 50% HAMD score) after 4 weeks of treatment.;   In comparison to placebo, subjects treated with Cipralex report a significant reduction in pain intensity (>= 50% reduction of pain questionnaire score or VAS) after 12 weeks of treatment.;   In comparison with placebo, subjects treated with Cipralex report a significant improvement in physical and everyday functioning after 12 weeks of treatment.;   Personality traits do not have a significant influence on outcome regarding depressive traits, pain intensity and functioning.;   Personality disorders are significantly influencing worse outcome regarding depressive traits, pain intensity and functioning.
8 Recruiting Brain Aging and Treatment Response in Geriatric Depression
Conditions: Mild Neurocognitive Disorder;   MCI;   Depression
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram;   Drug: Memantine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores;   Change in cognitive domain scores
9 Recruiting DECIFER: DEpression and Citalopram In First Episode Recovery
Conditions: Schizophrenia;   Schizophreniform Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Citalopram;   Behavioral: Psychoeducation;   Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT);   Radiation: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS);   Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS);   Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS);   InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST);   Heinrich Quality of Life Scale (QOL)
10 Unknown  The Effects of Escitalopram on Cytokines
Condition: Depression
Intervention: Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: The changes in cytokines;   The changes in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale
11 Unknown  Relapse Prevention With Escitalopram or Nortriptyline Following Electro-Convulsive Treatment (DUAG-7)
Condition: Major Depression
Interventions: Drug: escitalopram;   Drug: nortriptyline
Outcome Measures: Hamilton depression rating scale;   Drop out due to side-effects of drugs
12 Not yet recruiting The ISLAND Study: InSuLa Assessed Needs for Depression
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Drug: Escitalopram;   Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy;   Other: Combination treatment (Escitalopram + CBT)
Outcome Measures: Remission from major depressive episode;   Response to treatment
13 Unknown  Development of Escitalopram Genomic Device by Using Candidate Gene Approach and Genome-Wide Scanning
Conditions: Depression;   Continuous Antidepressant Abuse;   Adverse Reaction to Drug
Intervention: Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: antidepressant response at 2,4,6,8 weeks A/E monitoring at 1,2,4,6,8 weeks;   biological value at 0 week and 8 weeks
14 Recruiting Citalopram Effects on Craving and Dopamine Receptor Availability in Alcoholics
Condition: Alcohol Dependence
Intervention: Drug: citalopram
Outcome Measures: Craving for alcohol in type B alcohol dependence with citalopram compared to placebo;   Striatal dopamine receptor availability in type B alcohol dependence with citalopram, compared to placebo
15 Unknown  Neuroprotective/Neurotrophic Effect of Lexapro® in Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Condition: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Intervention: Drug: escitalopram (Lexapro)
Outcome Measures: Changes from baseline in brain structure, function, and biochemical metabolism, analyzed using the computational approach;   Change from baseline in Clinician-administered PTSD scale scores at 1st week;   Change from baseline in Clinician-administered PTSD scale scores at 4th weeks;   Change from baseline in Clinician-administered PTSD scale scores at 8th weeks;   Change from baseline in Hamilton depression rating scale scores at 1st week;   Change from baseline in Hamilton anxiety rating scale scores at 1st week;   Number of participants with adverse events;   Change from baseline in Hamilton depression rating scale scores at 4th weeks;   Change from baseline in Hamilton depression rating scale scores at 8th weeks;   Change from baseline in Hamilton anxiety rating scale scores at 4th weeks;   Change from baseline in Hamilton anxiety rating scale scores at 8th weeks
16 Unknown  Citalopram for Cocaine Dependence
Condition: Cocaine Dependence
Interventions: Drug: Citalopram;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Abstinence;   Cocaine Use Days;   Cocaine-negative Urines;   Retention in Treatment
17 Recruiting A Study to Evaluate the Impact of Escitalopram on Quality of Life and Social Functionality in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder With Anxiety Symptom
Condition: Depressive Disorder, Major
Intervention: Drug: Escitalopram
Outcome Measures: Change From Baseline in Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF);   Change From Baseline in Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS);   Remission Rate at Week 8;   Onset of Effect Rate at Week 1;   Onset of Effect Rate at Week 2;   Change From Baseline to Week 8 in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) Scores;   Change From Baseline to Week 8 in Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) Scores;   Change From Baseline to Week 8 in Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report (QIDS-SR) Scores
18 Unknown  Cipralex® for Anxiety Disorders in Adolescents
Condition: Anxiety Disorder
Intervention: Drug: Cipralex®
Outcome Measures: Treatment Efficacy;   Physiological response to stress;   Suicide risk
19 Unknown  Intervention Study of Depression in Breast Cancer Patients
Conditions: Breast Cancer;   Depression;   Anxiety
Interventions: Behavioral: CBT and clinical management;   Drug: Escitalopram;   Behavioral: Clinical Management;   Drug: Sugar pill
Outcome Measures: Change from Baseline in Depression and Anxiety at 24 weeks, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA);   Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), Quality of Life (FACT-B), well-being index, pain score, Athens Insomnia Scale
20 Recruiting Effects of Intravenous (IV) Citalopram on Emotional Brain Activity in Healthy Young and Elderly Adults
Condition: Healthy Young and Elderly Volunteers
Interventions: Drug: Intravenous Citalopram;   Drug: Normal Saline
Outcome Measures: BOLD fMRI Response;   Genetics and Cognitive/Emotional Change