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OVERDOSE and Aspirin

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OVERDOSE Symptoms and Causes

What are opioids?

Opioids, sometimes called narcotics, are a type of drug. They include strong prescription pain relievers, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid.

A health care provider may give you a prescription opioid to reduce pain after you have had a major injury or surgery. You may get them if you have severe pain from health conditions like cancer. Some health care providers prescribe them for chronic pain.

Prescription opioids used for pain relief are generally safe when taken for a short time and as prescribed by your health care provider. However, people who take opioids are at risk for opioid dependence and addiction, as well as an Overdose. These risks increase when opioids are misused. Misuse means you are not taking the medicines according to your provider's instructions, you are using them to get high, or you are taking someone else's opioids.

What is an opioid Overdose?

Opioids affect the part of the brain that regulates breathing. When people take high doses of opioids, it can lead to an Overdose, with the slowing or stopping of breathing and sometimes death.

What causes an opioid Overdose?

An opioid Overdose can happen for a variety of reasons, including if you

  • Take an opioid to get high
  • Take an extra dose of a prescription opioid or take it too often (either accidentally or on purpose)
  • Mix an opioid with other medicines, illegal drugs, or alcohol. An Overdose can be fatal when mixing an opioid and certain anxiety treatment medicines, such as Xanax or Valium.
  • Take an opioid medicine that was prescribed for someone else. Children are especially at risk of an accidental Overdose if they take medicine not intended for them.

There is also a risk of Overdose if you are getting medication-assisted treatment (MAT). MAT is a treatment for opioid abuse and addiction. Many of the medicines used for MAT are controlled substances that can be misused.

Who is at risk for an opioid Overdose?

Anyone who takes an opioid can be at risk of an Overdose, but you are at higher risk if you

  • Take illegal opioids
  • Take more opioid medicine than you are prescribed
  • Combine opioids with other medicines and/or alcohol
  • Have certain medical conditions, such as sleep apnea, or reduced kidney or liver function
  • Are over 65 years old
What are the signs of an opioid Overdose?

The signs of an opioid Overdose include

  • The person's face is extremely pale and/or feels clammy to the touch
  • Their body goes limp
  • Their fingernails or lips have a purple or blue color
  • They start vomiting or making gurgling noises
  • They cannot be awakened or are unable to speak
  • Their breathing or heartbeat slows or stops
What should I do if I think that someone is having an opioid Overdose?

If you think someone is having an opioid Overdose,

  • Call 9-1-1 immediately
  • Administer naloxone, if it is available. Naloxone is a safe medication that can quickly stop an opioid Overdose. It can be injected into the muscle or sprayed into the nose to rapidly block the effects of the opioid on the body.
  • Try to keep the person awake and breathing
  • Lay the person on their side to prevent choking
  • Stay with the person until emergency workers arrive
How can I prevent an opioid Overdose?

There are steps you can take to help prevent an Overdose:

  • Take your medicine exactly as prescribed by your health care provider. Do not take more medicine at once or take medicine more often than you are supposed to.
  • Never mix pain medicines with alcohol, sleeping pills, or illegal substances
  • Store medicine safely where children or pets can't reach it. Consider using a medicine lockbox. Besides keeping children safe, it also prevents someone who lives with you or visits your house from stealing your medicines.
  • Dispose of unused medicine promptly

If you take an opioid, it is also important to teach your family and friends how to respond to an Overdose. If you are at high risk for an Overdose, ask your health care provider about whether you need a prescription for naloxone.

Check out the latest treatments for OVERDOSE

OVERDOSE treatment research studies

Aspirin clinical trials, surveys and public health registries


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OVERDOSE Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Project OOPEN: Opioid Overdose Prevention, Education and Intervention
Condition: Opioid Overdose
Intervention: Drug: OOPEN+BBCC
Outcome Measures: Opioid Overdose;   Change in Overdose risk;   Health care utilization;   Health care costs;   Change in HIV risk behaviors
2 Not yet recruiting Developing a Prescription Opioid Overdose Prevention Intervention in Addictions Treatment
Conditions: Drug Overdose;   Opioid Related Disorders
Intervention: Behavioral: Therapist-led brief intervention (TBI)
Outcome Measures: Overdose risk behavior;   HIV risk behavor
3 Recruiting Monitoring of Overdose Patients With and Without Supplemental Oxygen in the Emergency Department
Condition: Overdose
Intervention:
Outcome Measures: Airway Interventions Performed by ED Staff;   Pulse oximetry;   End tidal CO2
4 Recruiting Increasing Patient Knowledge of the Signs of Opioid Overdose and Naloxone in a Suburban Treatment Program
Conditions: Opioid Dependence;   Opioid Use Disorder
Intervention: Other: Naloxone Education Intervention
Outcome Measures: Opiate Overdose Knowledge Scale (OOKS);   History Survey;   Guilt and Shame Proneness Scale (GASP)
5 Not yet recruiting Nasal Naloxone for Narcotic Overdose
Condition: Drug Overdose
Interventions: Drug: Intranasal (IN) naloxone;   Drug: Intravenous (IV) naloxone;   Drug: Intramuscular (IM) naloxone;   Drug: Intraosseus (IO) naloxone
Outcome Measures: Proportion of patients with adequate respiration within 10 minutes;   Number of patients requiring second dose of naloxone;   Time to first naloxone administration;   Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms;   Naloxone Adverse Events;   Proportion of Patients breathing unassisted upon arrival to the hospital;   Days of hospitalization following naloxone administration;   Mortality rate
6 Not yet recruiting Repeated-dose Brief Intervention to Reduce Overdose and Risk Behaviors Among Naloxone Recipients
Conditions: Opioid-Related Disorders;   Drug Overdose
Interventions: Behavioral: Brief counseling Intervention;   Other: Information and referrals
Outcome Measures: Feasibility of a randomized trial with REBOOT;   Acceptability of REBOOT;   Influence of egocentric social network characteristics on Overdose events and naloxone use
7 Not yet recruiting Evaluation of a Computerized Opioid Overdose Prevention Program
Conditions: Computer + Fluency;   Computer Only;   Treatment as Usual
Interventions: Behavioral: Computer + Fluency;   Behavioral: Computer Only;   Behavioral: Treatment as Usual
Outcome Measures: Knowledge gain;   Self-reported change in behaviors, participant acceptance
8 Not yet recruiting Clinician-patient Interaction During Addiction Consultation
Condition: Drug Dependency
Intervention: Other: methadone replacement therapy
Outcome Measures: Number of days patients injected non-prescribed drugs;   Patient Satisfaction
9 Unknown  Naloxone Nasal Spray Pharmacokinetic Study
Condition: Opioid Overdose
Interventions: Drug: MVP005;   Drug: Naloxone hydrochloride solution for injection with mucosal atomization device
Outcome Measures: Pharmacokinetics;   Number of subjects with adverse events;   Physical Examination;   Vital signs;   ECGs;   Safety Laboratory Tests
10 Recruiting EtCO2 Monitoring in Acute Self-poisoning
Condition: Acute Intentional Overdose
Intervention:
Outcome Measure: ROC curve of maximal EtCO2 to predict poisoning complication
11 Recruiting Safety Study of Ornithine Phenylacetate to Treat Patients With Acute Liver Failure Due to Acetaminophen
Conditions: Acute Liver Failure;   Acute Liver Injury
Intervention: Drug: Ornithine phenylacetate
Outcome Measures: Number of Participants with Adverse Events as a Measure of Safety and Tolerability;   Measurement of OCR-002 Plasma Concentration;   Change in Venous Ammonia;   Neurological Function measured by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS);   Neurological Function measured by the West Haven Criteria (WHC);   Neurological Function measured by the Orientation log (O-log)
12 Recruiting Naltrexone vs Buprenorphine-Naloxone for Opioid Dependence in Norway
Condition: Opioid Dependence
Interventions: Drug: Naltrexone intramuscular suspension;   Drug: Buprenorphine-naloxone
Outcome Measures: Number of biological samples negative/positive for opioid agonists;   Retention;   Mortality;   Use of other substances of abuse;   Mental health;   Somatic health;   Psychosocial problems
13 Recruiting CARE Corrections: Technology for Jail HIV/HCV Testing, Linkage, and Care (TLC)
Condition: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Interventions: Device: Intervention Arm (computer-based CARE+ Corrections tool);   Other: Educational video on opiate Overdose prevention
Outcome Measures: Plasma Viral Load Suppression;   Linkage to community care
14 Not yet recruiting Optimizing Propofol Dosing for (Preterm) Newborn Infants That Need Endotracheal Intubation
Conditions: Anesthesia Intubation Complication;   Premature Birth of Newborn;   Other Preterm Infants;   Propofol Overdose
Intervention: Drug: Propofol
Outcome Measures: adequate propofol dose;   Determine a valid sedation assessment scale;   to determine an age specific propofol PK/PD model;   aEEG / NIRS
15 Recruiting Acute Acetaminophen Ingestion: Does Repeated Acetaminophen Blood Test Have an Interest?
Condition: Acetaminophen Overdose
Intervention:
Outcome Measure:
16 Recruiting A Trial of Genotype-based Warfarin Initiation in Patients With Mechanical Prosthetic Heart Valve
Conditions: Anticoagulation Treatment Overdose;   Heart Valve Diseases
Interventions: Other: Genotype-based Warfarin Initiation model;   Other: clinical factor-based warfarin initiation model
Outcome Measures: time to steady dosage;   Time in Therapeutic Range;   first time to treatment window;   the ratio of INR≥3.0 and INR≤1.5;   the monitoring frequency of INR;   the whole-cause mortality;   major bleeding event;   major thrombosis rate;   absolute difference between the stable dose and initial dose;   the frequency of dosage change
17 Recruiting Skeletal Muscle Paralysis in Hypothermic Patients After Cardiac Arrest
Conditions: Cardiac Arrest With Successful Resuscitation;   Hypothermia;   Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Overdose
Interventions: Drug: rocuronium;   Other: placebo
Outcome Measures: Number of shivering episodes;   Elapsed time to target temperature;   Dissipated energy to reach the target temperature;   Changes in basal metabolism due to shivering or elevated stress levels;   Depth of relaxation;   Changes in serum levels of midazolam, fentanyl and rocuronium;   Number of necessary boli of rocuronium
18 Recruiting To Establish a Novel Prototype of Clinical Pharmacy Services by Warfarin Consultation in a Pharmacist Clinic
Condition: Intentional Warfarin Sodium Overdose
Intervention: Other: patient education
Outcome Measures: percentage of INR in therapeutic range and incidence of complications;   patient's warfarin knowledge improvement;   Patient's satisfaction to anticoagulation pharmacist clinic
19 Recruiting Safety and Efficacy Study of CENV3 Vaccine to Protect Against HCV Infection
Condition: Vaccine Overdose of Undetermined Intent
Interventions: Biological: prophylactic peptide vaccine;   Biological: therapeutic peptide vaccine
Outcome Measure: Safety and Efficacy Study of CENV3 Vaccine to Protect Against HCV Infection
20 Unknown  Mechanisms of N-acetylcysteine Mediated Vascular Adverse Effects
Condition: Poisoning
Interventions: Drug: Chlorphenamine and Ranitidine;   Drug: Paracetamol
Outcome Measures: Attenuation of NAC induced vasodilatation by histamine antagonists (H1 and H2 antagonists) and/or paracetamol;   Inhibition of the inflammatory cascade contributes to a paracetamol mediated protective role against NAC adverse reactions.