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PRESCRIBED OVERDOSE and Adderall

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PRESCRIBED OVERDOSE Symptoms and Causes

What are opioids?

Opioids, sometimes called narcotics, are a type of drug. They include strong prescription pain relievers, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid.

A health care provider may give you a prescription opioid to reduce pain after you have had a major injury or surgery. You may get them if you have severe pain from health conditions like cancer. Some health care providers prescribe them for chronic pain.

Prescription opioids used for pain relief are generally safe when taken for a short time and as prescribed by your health care provider. However, people who take opioids are at risk for opioid dependence and addiction, as well as an overdose. These risks increase when opioids are misused. Misuse means you are not taking the medicines according to your provider's instructions, you are using them to get high, or you are taking someone else's opioids.

What is an opioid overdose?

Opioids affect the part of the brain that regulates breathing. When people take high doses of opioids, it can lead to an overdose, with the slowing or stopping of breathing and sometimes death.

What causes an opioid overdose?

An opioid overdose can happen for a variety of reasons, including if you

  • Take an opioid to get high
  • Take an extra dose of a prescription opioid or take it too often (either accidentally or on purpose)
  • Mix an opioid with other medicines, illegal drugs, or alcohol. An overdose can be fatal when mixing an opioid and certain anxiety treatment medicines, such as Xanax or Valium.
  • Take an opioid medicine that was prescribed for someone else. Children are especially at risk of an accidental overdose if they take medicine not intended for them.

There is also a risk of overdose if you are getting medication-assisted treatment (MAT). MAT is a treatment for opioid abuse and addiction. Many of the medicines used for MAT are controlled substances that can be misused.

Who is at risk for an opioid overdose?

Anyone who takes an opioid can be at risk of an overdose, but you are at higher risk if you

  • Take illegal opioids
  • Take more opioid medicine than you are prescribed
  • Combine opioids with other medicines and/or alcohol
  • Have certain medical conditions, such as sleep apnea, or reduced kidney or liver function
  • Are over 65 years old
What are the signs of an opioid overdose?

The signs of an opioid overdose include

  • The person's face is extremely pale and/or feels clammy to the touch
  • Their body goes limp
  • Their fingernails or lips have a purple or blue color
  • They start vomiting or making gurgling noises
  • They cannot be awakened or are unable to speak
  • Their breathing or heartbeat slows or stops
What should I do if I think that someone is having an opioid overdose?

If you think someone is having an opioid overdose,

  • Call 9-1-1 immediately
  • Administer naloxone, if it is available. Naloxone is a safe medication that can quickly stop an opioid overdose. It can be injected into the muscle or sprayed into the nose to rapidly block the effects of the opioid on the body.
  • Try to keep the person awake and breathing
  • Lay the person on their side to prevent choking
  • Stay with the person until emergency workers arrive
How can I prevent an opioid overdose?

There are steps you can take to help prevent an overdose:

  • Take your medicine exactly as prescribed by your health care provider. Do not take more medicine at once or take medicine more often than you are supposed to.
  • Never mix pain medicines with alcohol, sleeping pills, or illegal substances
  • Store medicine safely where children or pets can't reach it. Consider using a medicine lockbox. Besides keeping children safe, it also prevents someone who lives with you or visits your house from stealing your medicines.
  • Dispose of unused medicine promptly

If you take an opioid, it is also important to teach your family and friends how to respond to an overdose. If you are at high risk for an overdose, ask your health care provider about whether you need a prescription for naloxone.

Check out the latest treatments for PRESCRIBED OVERDOSE

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PRESCRIBED OVERDOSE Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Not yet recruiting Adderall XR and Processing Speed in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Conditions: Impaired Processing Speed;   Cognitive Impairment;   Multiple Sclerosis
Interventions: Drug: Adderall XR 5mg;   Drug: Adderall XR 10 mg;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in score of Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT);   Change in Score of Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT);   Change in Score of Stroop Colour Word Test;   Blood Pressure;   Heart Rate
2 Recruiting Multicenter Trial of Combined Pharmacotherapy to Treat Cocaine Dependence
Condition: Cocaine Dependence
Interventions: Drug: Adderall-ER;   Drug: Topiramate;   Other: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Three weeks of Cocaine abstinence;   Proportion of negative urine samples
3 Recruiting Stimulant Enhancement of Well-Being Therapy for Depression
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Amphetamine-dextroamphetamine (AMPH);   Drug: Placebo;   Behavioral: Well-being therapy
Outcome Measures: Change in Hamilton-Depression Rating Scale(SIGH-D)-17 items;   Change in Hamilton-Depression Rating Scale(SIGH-D)-31 item;   Change in Psychological Well-being Scale (PWB);   Change in the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS);   Change in Behavioral inhibition/activation scale (BIS/BAS);   Change in Positive and Negative Affective Scale (PANAS);   Change in functioning on Short Form-12(SF-12)
4 Recruiting Follow up Treatment of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Condition: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Interventions: Behavioral: Academic and Organization skills;   Behavioral: Parent Training;   Behavioral: Social Skills Training;   Drug: Long-acting stimulant
Outcome Measures: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptomatology (measured via Conners' Global Index - Parent and Teacher Version);   Social skills (measured via Parent and Teacher Social Skills Rating Scale);   Academic achievement (measured via Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT));   Emotional and symptomatic functioning (measured via the Achenbach Child Behavior Check List (CBCL));   Overall functioning (measured via the Weiss Functional Impairment Scale (WFIRS));   Overall functioning (measured via the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI))
5 Recruiting Adjunctive Mixed Salts Amphetamine (MSA) for Depressed Adults With Incomplete Response to Current Antidepressant Therapy (ADT)
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder
Intervention: Drug: mixed salts amphetamine
Outcome Measures: Change in scores on the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionaire;   Change in scores on the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale;   Change in scores on the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report 16
6 Recruiting Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation to ADHD Pharmacotherapy in ADHD Adults With Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation Traits
Conditions: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD);   Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation (DESR)
Interventions: Drug: ADHD Medication;   Drug: Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Outcome Measures: Efficacy assessed by mean change from baseline to endpoint on the BRIEF-A Emotional Control scale;   Efficacy measured by mean change from baseline to endpoint on AISRS total score;   Efficacy measured by mean change from baseline to endpoint on CGI;   Efficacy measured by mean change from baseline to endpoint on BRIEF-A subscales;   Efficacy measured by mean change from baseline to endpoint on GAF
7 Recruiting Interventions for Children With Attention and Reading Disorders
Conditions: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder;   Reading Disabilities
Interventions: Drug: Methylphenidate;   Behavioral: Intensive reading instruction;   Behavioral: Parent Training;   Drug: Mixed Salt Amphetamine;   Drug: Atomoxetine;   Drug: Guanfacine
Outcome Measures: Wechsler Individual Achievement Test of Word Reading and Pseudoword Decoding;   Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham checklist for DSM-IV;   Stop-Signal Test;   Test of Word Reading Efficiency;   Wechsler Individual Achievement Test of Reading Comprehension;   Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Oral Reading Fluency
8 Not yet recruiting A Sequenced Behavioral and Medication Intervention for Cocaine Dependence
Condition: Cocaine Dependence
Interventions: Behavioral: Computer-assisted behavior therapy;   Drug: Mixed amphetamine salts;   Drug: Computer-assisted therapy plus placebo (for mixed amphetamine salts)
Outcome Measures: Three weeks of cocaine abstinence;   Proportion of cocaine positive urines
9 Recruiting Efficacy of Intuniv Extended Release as Adjunctive Therapy With Psycho-stimulant on Executive Function in Children With ADHD
Condition: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Interventions: Drug: Guanfacine extended release;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: To evaluate the effect of adjunctive INTUNIV extended release treatment on executive function as assessed by the BRIEF-parent questionnaires;   To evaluate the effect of adjunctive INTUNIV extended release treatment on quality of life as assessed by the KINDL®-child and KINDL®-parent questionnaires.;   To examine the congruency of the perceived effect of treatment on EF and quality of life from the perspective of the subject, parent, and teacher.;   To evaluate the effect of adjunct therapy on ADHD symptom control as assessed by the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS-IV) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) of Severity (CGI-S) and of Improvement (CGI-I) questionnaires.;   To compare the percentage of subjects experiencing suicidal ideation, suicidal behaviour and self-injurious behaviour without suicidal intent and incident of Serious Adverse Events in each treatment arm
10 Recruiting IMPAACT P1080: Psychiatric and Antiretroviral Medication Concentrations in HIV-infected and Uninfected Children and Adolescents
Conditions: ADHD;   HIV
Intervention:
Outcome Measure: Estimation of steady-state oral clearance (Cl/F) for each psychiatric study medication is the primary outcome.