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PRESCRIBED OVERDOSE and Diclofenac

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PRESCRIBED OVERDOSE Symptoms and Causes

What are opioids?

Opioids, sometimes called narcotics, are a type of drug. They include strong prescription pain relievers, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid.

A health care provider may give you a prescription opioid to reduce pain after you have had a major injury or surgery. You may get them if you have severe pain from health conditions like cancer. Some health care providers prescribe them for chronic pain.

Prescription opioids used for pain relief are generally safe when taken for a short time and as prescribed by your health care provider. However, people who take opioids are at risk for opioid dependence and addiction, as well as an overdose. These risks increase when opioids are misused. Misuse means you are not taking the medicines according to your provider's instructions, you are using them to get high, or you are taking someone else's opioids.

What is an opioid overdose?

Opioids affect the part of the brain that regulates breathing. When people take high doses of opioids, it can lead to an overdose, with the slowing or stopping of breathing and sometimes death.

What causes an opioid overdose?

An opioid overdose can happen for a variety of reasons, including if you

  • Take an opioid to get high
  • Take an extra dose of a prescription opioid or take it too often (either accidentally or on purpose)
  • Mix an opioid with other medicines, illegal drugs, or alcohol. An overdose can be fatal when mixing an opioid and certain anxiety treatment medicines, such as Xanax or Valium.
  • Take an opioid medicine that was prescribed for someone else. Children are especially at risk of an accidental overdose if they take medicine not intended for them.

There is also a risk of overdose if you are getting medication-assisted treatment (MAT). MAT is a treatment for opioid abuse and addiction. Many of the medicines used for MAT are controlled substances that can be misused.

Who is at risk for an opioid overdose?

Anyone who takes an opioid can be at risk of an overdose, but you are at higher risk if you

  • Take illegal opioids
  • Take more opioid medicine than you are prescribed
  • Combine opioids with other medicines and/or alcohol
  • Have certain medical conditions, such as sleep apnea, or reduced kidney or liver function
  • Are over 65 years old
What are the signs of an opioid overdose?

The signs of an opioid overdose include

  • The person's face is extremely pale and/or feels clammy to the touch
  • Their body goes limp
  • Their fingernails or lips have a purple or blue color
  • They start vomiting or making gurgling noises
  • They cannot be awakened or are unable to speak
  • Their breathing or heartbeat slows or stops
What should I do if I think that someone is having an opioid overdose?

If you think someone is having an opioid overdose,

  • Call 9-1-1 immediately
  • Administer naloxone, if it is available. Naloxone is a safe medication that can quickly stop an opioid overdose. It can be injected into the muscle or sprayed into the nose to rapidly block the effects of the opioid on the body.
  • Try to keep the person awake and breathing
  • Lay the person on their side to prevent choking
  • Stay with the person until emergency workers arrive
How can I prevent an opioid overdose?

There are steps you can take to help prevent an overdose:

  • Take your medicine exactly as prescribed by your health care provider. Do not take more medicine at once or take medicine more often than you are supposed to.
  • Never mix pain medicines with alcohol, sleeping pills, or illegal substances
  • Store medicine safely where children or pets can't reach it. Consider using a medicine lockbox. Besides keeping children safe, it also prevents someone who lives with you or visits your house from stealing your medicines.
  • Dispose of unused medicine promptly

If you take an opioid, it is also important to teach your family and friends how to respond to an overdose. If you are at high risk for an overdose, ask your health care provider about whether you need a prescription for naloxone.

Check out the latest treatments for PRESCRIBED OVERDOSE

PRESCRIBED OVERDOSE treatment research studies

Diclofenac clinical trials, surveys and public health registries


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Diclofenac Side Effects

Renal Failure Acute (154)
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Diarrhoea (136)
Vomiting (128)
Dyspnoea (103)
Haemoglobin Decreased (103)
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Nausea (88)
Blood Creatinine Increased (88)
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Alanine Aminotransferase Increased (49)
Fall (48)
Headache (47)
Blood Alkaline Phosphatase Increased (47)
Metabolic Acidosis (46)
Gastritis (46)
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Confusional State (43)
Back Pain (43)
C-reactive Protein Increased (43)
Convulsion (43)
Urticaria (43)
Blood Pressure Decreased (41)
Weight Decreased (41)
Peritonitis (41)
Aspartate Aminotransferase Increased (40)

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PRESCRIBED OVERDOSE Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting An Investigator Initiated, Within-Subject, Proof of Concept Study to Assess the Analgesic Efficacy and Safety of Voltaren Gel (1% Diclofenac Sodium) Compared to Placebo in Subjects Experiencing Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
Condition: Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
Interventions: Drug: 1% Diclofenac sodium gel;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: To assess analgesic efficacy of Topical Voltaren® gel compared to placebo
2 Recruiting Safety Study of Flector Patch in Children With Minor Soft Tissue Injuries
Condition: Athletic Injuries
Intervention: Drug: Diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine
Outcome Measures: Dermatologic assessment at the patch application site;   Investigator assessment of the global response to therapy on a 5-point scale;   Patient assessment of pain on a 6-point scale;   Plasma concentration of Diclofenac
3 Recruiting Study Comparing a Generic Diclofenac Sodium Topical Gel, 1% to Voltaren in the Treatment of Subjects With Osteoarthritis of the Knee
Condition: Osteoarthritis
Interventions: Drug: Diclofenac Sodium Topical Gel, 1%;   Drug: Voltaren Topical Gel, 1%;   Drug: Vehicle Diclofenac Sodium Topical Gel
Outcome Measure: WOMAC Pain Score
4 Recruiting Treatment of Knee Pain With Topical Diclofenac Cream 8% or Diclofenac Gel 1%
Conditions: Knee Pain Chronic;   Knee Injuries
Interventions: Drug: Diclofenac Cream 8%;   Drug: Diclofenac Gel 1%
Outcome Measure: Descrete Response Scale Pain Scores
5 Unknown  Comparison of the Effect of Etoricoxib and Diclofenac on Early Morning Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Condition: Rheumatoid Arthritis
Interventions: Drug: Etoricoxib;   Drug: Diclofenac
Outcome Measures: To explore the effect of Etoricoxib compared to Diclofenac on physical activity in RA subjects with Early morning pain and stiffness.;   To explore the effect of Etoricoxib compared to Diclofenac on average daily pain scores, fatigue scores, and quality of life.
6 Recruiting Efficacy of Diclofenac on Pain During Endometrial Sampling
Condition: Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Unrelated to Menstrual Cycle
Interventions: Drug: Diclofenac Potassium;   Drug: Folic Acid
Outcome Measure: Effectiveness of Diclofenac Potassium for additional acute pain control in patient undergoing fractional curettage under paracervical block due to abnormal uterine bleeding
7 Recruiting A Multicenter Efficacy Study of a Diclofenac+Menthol Gel in Subjects With Ankle Sprain
Condition: Ankle Sprain
Interventions: Drug: 1% Diclofenac sodium plus 3% menthol;   Drug: 1% Diclofenac sodium plus 0.09% menthol;   Drug: 3% menthol;   Drug: Placebo with 0.09% menthol gel
Outcome Measures: AUC (1-3 days);   Pain Intensity Difference (PID) on movement;   PID at rest;   Pain Relief Score (PRS);   Sum of Pain Intensity Difference (SPID);   Time of Onset of Pain Relief (TOPR);   Time of Onset of Meaningful Pain Relief (TOMR);   Time of Onset of Cooling Sensation (TOCS);   Total Pain Relief (TOTPAR);   Skin Temperature;   Ankle Swelling;   Time to complete Recovery;   Patient's Global Assessment in Response to Treatment (PGART);   Adverse events (AEs)
8 Recruiting Effects of Topical Diclofenac on Tumor Metabolism
Condition: Actinic Keratoses
Intervention: Drug: 3% Diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronic acid gel
Outcome Measures: Lactate level in skin biopsies of actinic keratoses;   Lactate level in skin biopsies of healthy skin in a subpopulation;   Glycolysis-relevant proteins evaluated using PCR and Westernblot techniques;   Metabolic changes (e.g. glucose, amino acids)
9 Not yet recruiting Supersaturation and Precipitation of Diclofenac in the Stomach of Healthy Volunteers
Condition: Supersaturation and Precipitation in the Stomach
Intervention: Drug: Diclofenac potassium 50 mg
Outcome Measure: Area under the Concentration - Time Curve
10 Recruiting Diclofenac for Submassive PE
Condition: Pulmonary Embolism
Interventions: Drug: Diclofenac;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Right ventricular dysfunction assessed by transthoracic echocardiography
11 Unknown  Use of Etoricoxib Compared to Diclofenac in the Perioperative Treatment of Patients After Total Hip Arthroplasty
Conditions: Coxarthrosis;   Arthroplasties Hip Replacement;   Perioperative Blood Loss
Interventions: Drug: Etoricoxib;   Drug: Diclofenac
Outcome Measure:
12 Recruiting Efficacy and Safety of Diclofenac DDEA 2.32 % in Patient Suffering From Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)
Condition: Osteoarthritis, Knee
Intervention: Drug: Diclofenac diethylamine, DDEA 2.32% gel
Outcome Measures: Measure: Pain On Movement (POM);   Measure POM regarding onset of efficacy
13 Recruiting Intramuscular Diclofenac in the Prevention of Post-ERCP Pancreatitis
Condition: Post ERCP Pancreatitis
Interventions: Drug: Diclofenac;   Drug: normal saline
Outcome Measure: Incidence of post ERCP pancreatitis
14 Not yet recruiting In Vivo Inhibition Profile of CYP2C9 by Pineapple Juice
Condition: Healthy Volunteers
Intervention: Dietary Supplement: pineapple juice (Carrefour n°1) 500 ml/day 5 days
Outcome Measures: a) AUC 4-OH-Diclofenac / AUC Diclofenac quantified in plasma, on days 1 (without pineapple juice) and 11 (after pretreatment with pineapple juice);   (b) AUC 4-OH-Diclofenac/ AUC Diclofenac quantified in urine, on days 1 (without pineapple juice) and 11 (after pretreatment with pineapple juice)
15 Unknown  The Comparison Between the Therapeutic Affect of Intravitreal Diclophenac and Triamcinolone in Persistent Uveitic Cystoids Macular Edema
Conditions: Uveitis;   Cystoid Macular Edema
Interventions: Drug: Diclophenac;   Drug: Triamcinolone
Outcome Measure:
16 Unknown  Efficacy of Diclofenac BCG Irrigations
Condition: Bladder Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Abitren;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in weekly COOP Questionnaire 1;   Change in weekly COOP Questionnaire 2;   Change in weekly COOP Questionnaire 3;   Change in weekly Bladder symptoms Questionnaire;   Change in weekly time schedule questionnaire
17 Unknown  Intravitreal Diclofenac Versus Avastin as Primary Treatment of Diffuse Diabetic Macular Edema
Condition: Diffuse Diabetic Macular Edema
Interventions: Drug: Bevacizumab;   Drug: Diclofenac
Outcome Measure:
18 Not yet recruiting Diclofenac add-on to Treatment as Usual for Suicidal Patients
Condition: Depression Suicidal
Interventions: Drug: sugar pill;   Drug: Diclofenac
Outcome Measures: Suicide Assessment Scale (differences in scores before and after treatment);   Montgomery Asberg Rating Scale (differences in scores before and after treatment);   Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (differences in scores before and after treatment);   Montgomery Asberg depression Ratin scale (changes in suicidality item before and after treatment);   Montgomery Asberg Rating Scale (changes in concentration item before and after treatment);   Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (changes in aggressive feelings item before and after treatment);   Comprehensive Psychopthological Rating Scale (changes in fatigue item before and after treatment)
19 Recruiting Post ERCP Pancreatitis Prevention in Average Risk Patients
Condition: Pancreatitis
Intervention: Procedure: Ceftazidime
Outcome Measure: Incidence of PEP in the group of patients receiving Ceftazidime versus incidence of PEP in the group of patients receiving Diclophenac potassium
20 Recruiting OASIS: Osteoarthritis Sensitivity Integration Study
Conditions: Osteoarthritis;   Chronic Pain
Intervention: Drug: duloxetine, Diclofenac
Outcome Measure: Pain