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RESPIRATORY FAILURE and Azithromycin

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RESPIRATORY FAILURE Symptoms and Causes

What is respiratory failure?

Respiratory failure is a condition in which your blood doesn't have enough oxygen or has too much carbon dioxide. Sometimes you can have both problems.

When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen. The oxygen passes into your blood, which carries it to your organs. Your organs, such as your heart and brain, need this oxygen-rich blood to work well.

Another part of breathing is removing the carbon dioxide from the blood and breathing it out. Having too much carbon dioxide in your blood can harm your organs.

What causes respiratory failure?

Conditions that affect your breathing can cause respiratory failure. These conditions may affect the muscles, nerves, bones, or tissues that support breathing. Or they may affect the lungs directly. These conditions include

  • Lung diseases such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism
  • Conditions that affect the nerves and muscles that control breathing, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injuries, and stroke
  • Problems with the spine, such as scoliosis (a curve in the spine). They can affect the bones and muscles used for breathing.
  • Damage to the tissues and ribs around the lungs. An injury to the chest can cause this damage.
  • Drug or alcohol overdose
  • Inhalation injuries, such as from inhaling smoke (from fires) or harmful fumes
What are the symptoms of respiratory failure?

The symptoms of respiratory failure depend on the cause and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood.

A low oxygen level in the blood can cause shortness of breath and air hunger (the feeling that you can't breathe in enough air). Your skin, lips, and fingernails may also have a bluish color. A high carbon dioxide level can cause rapid breathing and confusion.

Some people who have respiratory failure may become very sleepy or lose consciousness. They also may have arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). You may have these symptoms if your brain and heart are not getting enough oxygen.

How is respiratory failure diagnosed?

Your health care provider will diagnose respiratory failure based on

  • Your medical history
  • A physical exam, which often includes
    • Listening to your lungs to check for abnormal sounds
    • Listening to your heart to check for arrhythmia
    • Looking for a bluish color on your skin, lips, and fingernails
  • Diagnostic tests, such as
    • Pulse oximetry, a small sensor that uses a light to measure how much oxygen is in your blood. The sensor goes on the end of your finger or on your ear.
    • Arterial blood gas test, a test that measures the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in your blood. The blood sample is taken from an artery, usually in your wrist.

Once you are diagnosed with respiratory failure, your provider will look for what is causing it. Tests for this often include a chest x-ray. If your provider thinks you may have arrhythmia because of the respiratory failure, you may have an EKG (electrocardiogram). This is simple, painless test that detects and records your heart's electrical activity.

What are the treatments for respiratory failure?

Treatment for respiratory failure depends on

  • Whether it is acute (short-term) or chronic (ongoing)
  • How severe it is
  • What is causing it

Acute respiratory failure can be a medical emergency. You may need treatment in intensive care unit at a hospital. Chronic respiratory failure can often be treated at home. But if your chronic respiratory failure is severe, you might need treatment in a long-term care center.

One of the main goals of treatment is to get oxygen to your lungs and other organs and remove carbon dioxide from your body. Another goal is to treat the cause of the condition. Treatments may include

  • Oxygen therapy, through a nasal cannula (two small plastic tubes that go in your nostrils) or through a mask that fits over your nose and mouth
  • Tracheostomy, a surgically-made hole that goes through the front of your neck and into your windpipe. A breathing tube, also called a tracheostomy, or trach tube, is placed in the hole to help you breathe.
  • Ventilator, a breathing machine that blows air into your lungs. It also carries carbon dioxide out of your lungs.
  • Other breathing treatments, such as noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), which uses mild air pressure to keep your airways open while you sleep. Another treatment is a special bed that rocks back and forth, to help you breathe in and out.
  • Fluids, often through an intravenous (IV), to improve blood flow throughout your body. They also provide nutrition.
  • Medicines for discomfort
  • Treatments for the cause of the respiratory failure. These treatments may include medicines and procedures.

If you have respiratory failure, see your health care provider for ongoing medical care. Your provider may suggest pulmonary rehabilitation.

If your respiratory failure is chronic, make sure that you know when and where to get help for your symptoms. You need emergency care if you have severe symptoms, such as trouble catching your breath or talking. You should call your provider if you notice that your symptoms are worsening or if you have new signs and symptoms.

Living with respiratory failure may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk therapy, medicines, and support groups can help you feel better.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Check out the latest treatments for RESPIRATORY FAILURE

RESPIRATORY FAILURE treatment research studies

Azithromycin clinical trials, surveys and public health registries


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Azithromycin Side Effects

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Pain (75)
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Cholecystitis Chronic (26)
Product Quality Issue (26)
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Heart Rate Irregular (25)
Feeling Abnormal (25)
Chest Pain (25)
Heart Rate Increased (24)

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Recent Reviews

I am sorry you are in pain. But did you not just say you have Pneumonia!? I think that life threatening infection is worse than the diarrhea dont you?

A doctor subscribed this medication to me for a flu. On the 3rd day I had soft tissue blisters in my nose and my nose was swollen. Also my glands under my neck/jaw were sore. The 4th day my checks and jaws also swole up. *DONT_KNOW*

A week after finish the course of 5 day treatment. Itchy red rash developing all over my legs, very itchy. Wonder if I need to go back to my doctor.

Dear, Kindly ref my earlier post on 21/9/10. After 35 days of medication against side effects of azithromycin from different doctors, finally at the end of september 20

Definitely seems to cause a very down mood! Why don't they know this?

Diarrhea after eating. Bad headaches.

Elizabeth, I lost my sense of smell and my taste too. That was 3rd of May 2011. It is 8th of August and I still havent got it back yet. Have you got yours back yet?

Extreme sensitivity of joints experienced - especially hip, knee, ankle - which has effectively rendered walking painful and difficult. Suspicion of impact on tendons, sharp pain around shoulder blades on certain habitual movements, pressur

Got into a deep depression in 96 after taking zithromax and again in 2007 after the same medication. It started with major panick attacks and anxiety and just got worse. The first time I did not think the medication caused it but when it happened the

Hello will Azithromycin make you not sleep ever since i have been taking this i have not slept but 6 hours in three days?

i had heart failure last august 2010, among other tablets i have been taking emconcor. i wonder whether these tablets are responsible for making my limbs feel weak, and lightheaded.

<b>Describe Your Tazocin Experience Here:</b>after it was administered to my farther in hospital for the first time on day he was due to be released he had a cardiac arrest with multiple organ failure and subsequently died

had my first shot of aranesp one week ago for anemia , i have renal failure, I'm 62 , and I am a working nurse. I will be getting aranesp every 2 weeks if my blood count is less than 11. well out of no where I have becom

2 weeks after second infusion for Hodgkin's Lymphome (& RA), I had an extreme respiratory problem (BOOP). I was hospitalized twice & had high steroid does IV along with IV antiobiotics administered. After 1 year of decreasing steroi

5ml intramuscular morphine, produced respiratory depression, inability to communicate, severe drowsiness, low blood pressure but did not relieve the pain!

A report-I had a suppression dose of Macrobid; after 8 months much worse and after a year in fulminant hepatic failure leading to a transplant. How can these changes be spotted for women like me.

AGGRENOX SIDE EFFECT. PATIENT WAS PRESCRIBED PLAVIX. AGGRENOX WAS SUBSTITUTED. PATIENT SUFFERED ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE AND CARDIO-RESPIRATORY ARREST. PATIENT WAS HOSPITALIZED. PATIENT DIED 3/29/09.

An injection of toradol in hattiesburg Forrest general Hospital resulted in complete Kidney failure with 5 days in hospital. medical records are available if proof is needed. recovered

Been on drug since 1/20/11. er mid feb w/diagnosis of acid reflux; as time went on i have had excessive gas, leg/ankle swelling; loss of appetite; dry cough; sleepiness; lack of energy; out of breath; docs say heart failure---this is an 85 yr old man

Can Fosamax cause a drop in blood pressure? Can it worsen pre-existing anaemia. I've taken 4 weekly 70mg tablets and am feeling dizzy and week with loss of sensation in my fingers and joint pains. As I have suffered a year ago from kidney failure

RESPIRATORY FAILURE Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Not yet recruiting Mortality Reduction After Oral Azithromycin: Mortality Study
Condition: Childhood Mortality
Interventions: Drug: Azithromycin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: All-cause Mortality Rate in children aged 1-60 months;   Cause-specific Mortality Rate in children aged 1-60 months, as assessed from verbal autopsy;   Cost-effectiveness of mass Azithromycin administration, per averted childhood death;   All-cause and cause-specific health clinic visits in 1-60 month-old children
2 Recruiting Trial of Intravenous Azithromycin to Eradicate Ureaplasma Respiratory Tract Infection in Preterm Infants
Condition: Ureaplasma Infections
Interventions: Drug: Azithromycin;   Drug: Placebo (for Azithromycin)
Outcome Measures: Survival with microbiological eradication of Ureaplasma;   Physiologic defined bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) at 36 weeks post menstrual age;   Death or Neurodevelopmental impairment;   Pulmonary impairment;   Death;   Duration of positive pressure support;   Duration of oxygen supplementation;   Air leaks;   Received postnatal steroids;   Received Non-Study antibiotics;   Pharmacokinetics (PK)/Pharmacodynamics (PD) modelling of time course of Azithromycin plasma concentrations
3 Not yet recruiting Immunization With Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoites Under Chloroquine or Chloroquine/Azithromycin Prophylaxis
Conditions: Malaria, Falciparum;   Chloroquine;   Azithromycin;   Immunization
Interventions: Drug: Azithromycin capsules;   Drug: Placebo;   Biological: Immunization with falciparum;   Drug: Atovaquone/Proguanil;   Biological: Challenge with falciparum
Outcome Measures: Volunteers falciparum positive by thick smear;   Duration of pre-patent period by thick smear;   Kinetics of parasitemia by PCR;   Adverse events;   Immune responses
4 Not yet recruiting Mortality Reduction After Oral Azithromycin: Morbidity Study
Condition: Childhood Mortality
Interventions: Drug: Azithromycin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Presence of malaria parasites on thick blood smear in children 1-60 months;   Fraction of isolates of pneumococcus exhibiting macrolide resistance by nasopharyngeal swabs in children 1-60 months;   Fraction of isolates of Staphylococcus aureus exhibiting macrolide resistance by nasal swabs in children 1-60 months;   Fraction of isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes exhibiting macrolide resistance by oropharyngeal swabs in children 1-60 months;   Evidence of E. coli macrolide resistance in stool specimens in children 1-60 months;   Fraction of conjunctival swabs yielding ocular chlamydia in children 1-60 months;   Height over time in children aged 1-60 months;   Presence of malaria gametocytes, and density of malaria parasites and gametocytes, in children 1-60 months;   Rates of malaria parasitemia among children 1-59.9 months.;   Hemoglobin concentration and presence of anemia (hemoglobin <11 g/dL) in children 1-60 months;   Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal macrolide resistance in individuals 7-12 years;   Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal macrolide resistance in children aged 1-60 months seen in local health clinics for a respiratory complaint;   Rates of acute respiratory illness among children 1-59.9 months.;   Carriage rates and proportions of S. pneumoniae isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months.;   Carriage rates and proportions of S. pneumoniae isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months hospitalized for pneumonia and diarrhea.;   Presence of the trachoma grades "follicular trachoma" (TF) and "intense inflammatory trachoma" (TI), as defined by the WHO simplified grading system, in children 1-60 months;   Trachoma infection and antibody status in children (1-60 months);   Rates of diarrhea among children 1-59.9 months.;   Carriage rates and proportions E. coli isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months;   Carriage rates and proportions of E. coli isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months hospitalized for pneumonia and diarrhea.;   Studies of intestinal permeability and inflammation, microbial translocation, and immune activation assessed through venous sampling of children 6 months;   Studies of intestinal permeability and inflammation, microbial translocation, and immune activation assessed through urine samples for L:M ratios of children 6 months;   Studies of intestinal permeability and inflammation, microbial translocation, and immune activation assessed through stool (fecal neopterin) of children 6 months;   Nasopharyngeal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children 1-60 months;   Carriage rates and proportions of S. aureus isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months.;   Carriage rates and proportions of S. aureus isolates resistant to macrolides and to antibiotics commonly used to treat pediatric infections among children 1-59.9 months hospitalized for pneumonia and diarrhea.;   Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal resistance to penicillin and clindamycin in children 1-60 months;   Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal macrolide resistance determinants (ermB and mefA), serotype, and multilocus sequence type in children 1-60 months;   Oropharyngeal Streptococcus pyogenes macrolide resistance to penicillin and clindamycin in children 1-60 months;   Oropharyngeal Streptococcus pyogenes macrolide resistance determinants (mefA, ermB, ermTR) in children 1-60 months;   Microbial diversity in the conjunctival, nasopharyngeal, nasal, oropharyngeal, and intestinal microbiomes of children aged 1-60 months;   Serology for exposure to exotic pathogens cross sectional sample of children aged 1-60 months;   Knee-heel length and head circumference over time in children aged 1-60 months;   Commensal and diarrheagenic E. coli carriage in stool of children aged 1-60 months
5 Recruiting Trial for the Treatment of Acute Asthma in Wheezy Pre-school Aged Children
Condition: Asthma
Interventions: Drug: Azithromycin;   Drug: Suspension Placebo
Outcome Measures: To determine if treatment of pre-school children with a history of wheeze who present to an Emergency department (ED) with an acute wheezing episode with Azithromycin for 5 days will resolve their symptoms more quickly;   Treatment of pre-school children with acute wheezing symptoms with 5 days of Azithromycin will cause these children to use less rescue beta2 agonists than those treated with placebo;   Treatment of pre-school children with acute wheezing symptoms with 5 days of Azithromycin will allow these children to remain free of subsequent wheezy episodes longer than those treated with placebo.
6 Not yet recruiting Belgian Trial With Azithromycin During Acute COPD Exacerbations
Condition: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Intervention: Drug: Azithromycin
Outcome Measures: Time to treatment failure;   Number of treatment failures;   Time to new exacerbation;   Number of new exacerbations;   Rate of exacerbations;   Days of hospitalisation;   Days of intensive care;   Symptom and quality of life scores;   Pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1;   Total dose of systemic steroids;   Total days of antibiotic use;   Number of home physician contacts;   Average cost of hospitalization
7 Not yet recruiting Antibiotic Steroid Combination Compared With Individual Administration in the in the Treatment of Ocular Inflammation and Infection
Conditions: Ocular Inflammation;   Infection Associated Blepharitis;   Keratitis;   Conjunctivitis, Bacterial
Interventions: Drug: Azithromycin 1.5%/Loteprednol 0,5% + placebo;   Drug: Azithromycin 1.5% + Loteprednol 0,5% (separately)
Outcome Measures: Clinical cure;   irradication of pathogens
8 Recruiting Azithromycin for Children Hospitalized With Asthma
Condition: Asthma
Interventions: Drug: Azithromycin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Length of Stay;   Readmission rate;   School missed;   Work missed;   Emergency room visits;   Physician office visits;   Recurrence of asthma symptoms;   Steriod courses
9 Recruiting Trial Of Azithromycin In Campylobacter Concisus Patients With Diarrhea
Conditions: Diarrhea;   Fever;   Vomiting;   Abdominal Pain
Interventions: Drug: Azithromycin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Duration of diarrhea in days;   number of stools/day
10 Recruiting A Surveillance and Azithromycin Treatment for Newcomers and Travelers Evaluation: The ASANTE Trial
Condition: Trachoma
Intervention: Other: Surveillance and treatment with Azithromycin of newcomer and traveler families
Outcome Measures: The proportion of communities with C. trachomatis infection prevalence of 1% or below;   The proportion of communities with clinical trachoma prevalence of 5% or below;   The trajectory of change in prevalence of infection with C. trachomatis and clinical trachoma;   The community prevalence of new infections of C. trachomatis and clinical trachoma identified;   The presence of active trachoma in children;   The presence of trachomatous scarring in women
11 Recruiting Peri-operative Azithromycin to Improve Early Allograft Function and Outcome After Lung Transplantation
Condition: Disorder Related to Lung Transplantation
Interventions: Drug: Azithromycin;   Drug: Ora-Plus
Outcome Measures: Mean forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1, %pred);   Length of intubation;   Length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay;   Length of hospital stay;   Partial Pressure of Oxygen in Arterial Blood over fraction of inspired oxygen fraction - ratio (PaO2/FiO2);   Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) prevalence and score;   6-minute walking distance;   Acute rejection (grade A; grade B) prevalence/severity;   Broncho-alveolar lavage neutrophilia and cytokine/protein profile;   Airway colonization;   Plasma C-reactive protein levels;   Mortality;   Ventilator-free days
12 Recruiting Drug Interaction Study of Azithromycin and Theophylline
Conditions: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease;   Asthma
Interventions: Drug: Theophylline with Azithromycin;   Drug: Theophylline alone
Outcome Measure: steady-state plasma concentration of theophylline
13 Unknown  Safety and Efficacy of Azithromycin to Treat Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Condition: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Interventions: Drug: N-metil glucamine;   Drug: Azithromycin
Outcome Measures: Proportion of clinically cured patients;   Proportion of patients with failure;   Occurrence of mucosal lesions after treatment;   Proportion of patients presenting new lesions;   Proportion of adverse events on each treatment group
14 Recruiting PASS Study To Evaluate The Potential Of Zithromax To Cause Ocular Problems In Pediatric Patients
Conditions: Pharyngitis;   Tonsillitis
Intervention: Drug: Azithromycin
Outcome Measure: Best corrected visual acuity (distance), color vision, Amsler grid testing, anterior segment biomicroscopy, and fundus examination
15 Recruiting Azithromycin Against pLacebo in Exacerbations of Asthma
Condition: Asthma
Interventions: Drug: Zithromax;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Diary card summary symptom score;   Quality of life;   Time to 50% reduction in symptom score;   Pulmonary Function tests
16 Recruiting Azithromycin Based Therapy for Induction of Remission in Active Pediatric Crohn's Disease
Condition: Crohn's Disease
Interventions: Drug: Azithromycin + Metronidazole;   Drug: Metronidazole
Outcome Measures: Response rate at 8 weeks defined as a drop in PCDAI (Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index ) of at least 12.5 points (or remission without steroids, intention to treat principle);   Normalization of CRP ( CRP ≤0.5 mg/dL).;   Fecal calprotectin at 8 weeks .
17 Recruiting Efficacy of Azithromycin Prophylaxis in Preventing Recurrent Acute Sinusitis in Children
Condition: Sinusitis
Interventions: Drug: placebo;   Drug: Azithromycin
Outcome Measure: frequence of acute sinusitis during 12 mouths of study period
18 Unknown  The Efficacy of Prednisone and Azithromycin in the Treatment of Patients With Cat Scratch Disease
Conditions: Cat-scratch Disease;   Bartonella Infections
Interventions: Drug: prednison and Azithromycin;   Drug: prednison, Azithromycin;   Drug: prednison, Azenil
Outcome Measure: Severity score of lymphadenitis using a lymphadenitis Score (LS).
19 Recruiting Prevention of Bacterial Infections in Newborn
Condition: Neonatal Infection
Intervention: Drug: Azithromycin and Placebo
Outcome Measures: the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of the newborn of any of the following bacteria: 1) Group B Streptococci (GBS) , 2) S.pneumoniae and 3) S.aureus;   Vaginal bacterial Group B Streptococci(GBS), S.pneumoniae and S.aureus) carriage at day six post-delivery. Vaginal bacterial (GBS, S.pneumoniae and S.aureus) carriage at day 8-10 post-delivery
20 Unknown  the Comparison Efficacy of Azithromycin With Doxycycline in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris
Condition: Acne
Interventions: Drug: Doxycycline;   Drug: Azithromycin
Outcome Measures: change in acne lesions;   global response rates, patient's own assessment, side effects and compliance