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RESPIRATORY FAILURE and Lorazepam

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RESPIRATORY FAILURE Symptoms and Causes

What is respiratory failure?

Respiratory failure is a condition in which your blood doesn't have enough oxygen or has too much carbon dioxide. Sometimes you can have both problems.

When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen. The oxygen passes into your blood, which carries it to your organs. Your organs, such as your heart and brain, need this oxygen-rich blood to work well.

Another part of breathing is removing the carbon dioxide from the blood and breathing it out. Having too much carbon dioxide in your blood can harm your organs.

What causes respiratory failure?

Conditions that affect your breathing can cause respiratory failure. These conditions may affect the muscles, nerves, bones, or tissues that support breathing. Or they may affect the lungs directly. These conditions include

  • Lung diseases such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism
  • Conditions that affect the nerves and muscles that control breathing, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injuries, and stroke
  • Problems with the spine, such as scoliosis (a curve in the spine). They can affect the bones and muscles used for breathing.
  • Damage to the tissues and ribs around the lungs. An injury to the chest can cause this damage.
  • Drug or alcohol overdose
  • Inhalation injuries, such as from inhaling smoke (from fires) or harmful fumes
What are the symptoms of respiratory failure?

The symptoms of respiratory failure depend on the cause and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood.

A low oxygen level in the blood can cause shortness of breath and air hunger (the feeling that you can't breathe in enough air). Your skin, lips, and fingernails may also have a bluish color. A high carbon dioxide level can cause rapid breathing and confusion.

Some people who have respiratory failure may become very sleepy or lose consciousness. They also may have arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). You may have these symptoms if your brain and heart are not getting enough oxygen.

How is respiratory failure diagnosed?

Your health care provider will diagnose respiratory failure based on

  • Your medical history
  • A physical exam, which often includes
    • Listening to your lungs to check for abnormal sounds
    • Listening to your heart to check for arrhythmia
    • Looking for a bluish color on your skin, lips, and fingernails
  • Diagnostic tests, such as
    • Pulse oximetry, a small sensor that uses a light to measure how much oxygen is in your blood. The sensor goes on the end of your finger or on your ear.
    • Arterial blood gas test, a test that measures the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in your blood. The blood sample is taken from an artery, usually in your wrist.

Once you are diagnosed with respiratory failure, your provider will look for what is causing it. Tests for this often include a chest x-ray. If your provider thinks you may have arrhythmia because of the respiratory failure, you may have an EKG (electrocardiogram). This is simple, painless test that detects and records your heart's electrical activity.

What are the treatments for respiratory failure?

Treatment for respiratory failure depends on

  • Whether it is acute (short-term) or chronic (ongoing)
  • How severe it is
  • What is causing it

Acute respiratory failure can be a medical emergency. You may need treatment in intensive care unit at a hospital. Chronic respiratory failure can often be treated at home. But if your chronic respiratory failure is severe, you might need treatment in a long-term care center.

One of the main goals of treatment is to get oxygen to your lungs and other organs and remove carbon dioxide from your body. Another goal is to treat the cause of the condition. Treatments may include

  • Oxygen therapy, through a nasal cannula (two small plastic tubes that go in your nostrils) or through a mask that fits over your nose and mouth
  • Tracheostomy, a surgically-made hole that goes through the front of your neck and into your windpipe. A breathing tube, also called a tracheostomy, or trach tube, is placed in the hole to help you breathe.
  • Ventilator, a breathing machine that blows air into your lungs. It also carries carbon dioxide out of your lungs.
  • Other breathing treatments, such as noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), which uses mild air pressure to keep your airways open while you sleep. Another treatment is a special bed that rocks back and forth, to help you breathe in and out.
  • Fluids, often through an intravenous (IV), to improve blood flow throughout your body. They also provide nutrition.
  • Medicines for discomfort
  • Treatments for the cause of the respiratory failure. These treatments may include medicines and procedures.

If you have respiratory failure, see your health care provider for ongoing medical care. Your provider may suggest pulmonary rehabilitation.

If your respiratory failure is chronic, make sure that you know when and where to get help for your symptoms. You need emergency care if you have severe symptoms, such as trouble catching your breath or talking. You should call your provider if you notice that your symptoms are worsening or if you have new signs and symptoms.

Living with respiratory failure may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk therapy, medicines, and support groups can help you feel better.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Check out the latest treatments for RESPIRATORY FAILURE

RESPIRATORY FAILURE treatment research studies

Lorazepam clinical trials, surveys and public health registries


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Lorazepam Side Effects

Completed Suicide (220)
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Poisoning (137)
Suicide Attempt (121)
Overdose (105)
Anxiety (104)
Agitation (100)
Tachycardia (84)
Cardiac Arrest (81)
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Fall (66)
Toxicity To Various Agents (65)
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Headache (49)
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Asthenia (45)
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Condition Aggravated (39)
Tremor (37)
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Product Substitution Issue (34)
Unresponsive To Stimuli (34)
Suicidal Ideation (33)
Psychotic Disorder (33)
Feeling Abnormal (33)
Catatonia (33)
Pain (33)
Gait Disturbance (32)
Disorientation (31)
Respiratory Failure (31)
Syncope (30)
Malaise (30)
Depressed Level Of Consciousness (29)
Oxygen Saturation Decreased (29)

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RESPIRATORY FAILURE Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Unknown  Effect of Additive Lorazepam on Patient Satisfaction as a Premedication in Diagnostic Flexible Bronchoscopy
Condition: Patient Satisfaction for Bronchoscopy
Interventions: Drug: Lorazepam;   Drug: Control
Outcome Measures: patient satisfaction;   relationship between patient satisfaction and sleep quality, anxiety level
2 Unknown  Acute Effect of Lorazepam on Brain Activity Measured by Magnetoencephalograpy (MEG) and Electroencephalography (EEG)
Condition: Healthy Subjects
Interventions: Drug: Lorazepam;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Correlated Brain Activity using MEG and SNI analysis;   Correlated Brain Activity using MEG and standard analyses
3 Unknown  IM Olanzapine Versus IM Haloperidol Plus Lorazepam for Acute Agitation in Schizophrenia
Conditions: Schizophrenia;   Schizoaffective Disorder;   Agitation
Interventions: Drug: IM olanzapine;   Drug: haloperidol plus Lorazepam IM
Outcome Measures: Positive and Negative Symptom Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC);   Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES)
4 Recruiting Haloperidol and Lorazepam for Delirium in Patients With Advanced Cancer
Condition: Advanced Cancers
Interventions: Drug: Lorazepam;   Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Haloperidol decanoate;   Behavioral: Questionnaires
Outcome Measure: Control of Delirium Symptoms
5 Recruiting Comparison Between Lorazepam, Clonazepam and Clonazepam + Fosphenytoin for the Treatment of Out-of-hospital Generalized Status Epilepticus
Conditions: Status Epilepticus;   Epilepsy
Interventions: Drug: Clonazepam;   Drug: Fosphenytoin;   Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Lorazepam
Outcome Measures: Percentage of patient with a cessation of seizures and absence of recurrence;   Duration between the first cessation and the recurrence of seizures;   Percentage of patients having had a second injection of benzodiazepine;   Percentage of patients having had an injection of the second line treatment;   Percentage of patients having a general anesthesia for refractory status epilepticus;   Percentage of patients having had a side effect;   Percentage of patients having been mechanically ventilated;   Glasgow Coma Scale;   Mortality;   Length of stay in Intensive Care Unit;   Length of stay in hospital
6 Recruiting The Cognitive Effects of Lorazepam in Healthy Older Individuals With TOMM40 Variable-length Polymorphisms
Condition: Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
Intervention: Drug: Lorazepam
Outcome Measures: AVLT Long term memory score;   Groton Maze Learning Test (GMLT) score
7 Recruiting Evaluation of the Effects of Etifoxine 100 mg and Lorazepam 2 mg on Vigilance and Cognitive Functions in the Elderly
Condition: Healthy Volunteers
Interventions: Drug: etifoxine;   Drug: Lorazepam;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Reaction time (RTI) of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Batteries (CANTAB)
8 Recruiting Evaluation of the Effects of Etifoxine 100 mg and Lorazepam 2 mg on Vigilance and Cognitive Functions in Elderly
Condition: Volunteers Aged Between 65 and 75 Years Old
Interventions: Drug: etifoxine;   Drug: Lorazepam;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Reaction time (RTI) of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Batteries (CANTAB)
9 Not yet recruiting Clobazam Use in Epilepsia Partialis Continua - Pilot Study
Conditions: Epilepsia Partialis Continua;   Kojewnikov's Epilepsy;   Epilepsy
Interventions: Drug: Clobazam;   Drug: Clonazepam;   Drug: Lorazepam
Outcome Measures: Time (measured in minutes) to onset of seizure freedom;   Reduction of seizure frequency/minute;   Mental status preservation off sedating anticonvulsants as measured by the MoCA© scale;   Ambulatory function as measured by the Hauser Ambulation Index
10 Recruiting Characterizing and Predicting Drug Effects on Cognition
Condition: Cognitive Deficits
Interventions: Drug: Topiramate;   Drug: Lorazepam
Outcome Measures: Relationship between neurocognitive performance and study drug plasma concentration;   Neurophysiological effect of study drug on working memory
11 Recruiting Liver Fibrosis in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD)
Conditions: Liver Fibrosis;   Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency;   AAT Deficiency;   AATD
Interventions: Device: Abdominal ultrasound;   Procedure: History and physical;   Procedure: Intravenous catheter;   Procedure: Blood draw;   Other: Liver questionnaire;   Procedure: Liver Biopsy;   Drug: Midazolam;   Drug: Fentanyl;   Drug: Lidocaine;   Drug: Acetaminophen;   Drug: Lorazepam;   Drug: Oxycodone/Acetaminophen;   Drug: Ondansetron
Outcome Measures: To estimate the prevalence and histologic spectrum of liver injury in an adult with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin deficiency and a genotype of ZZ.;   To identify environmental and host risk factors for clinically significant liver fibrosis.;   To define the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive markers of fibrosis in AAT liver disease.;   To explore epigenetic markers for the development of liver fibrosis.;   To quantify liver fibrosis progression.
12 Recruiting Sedative Premedication: Efficacy On Patient Experience
Condition: Perioperative Anxiety
Interventions: Drug: Lorazepam;   Other: no premedication;   Drug: Placebo (microcrystalline celluloses)
Outcome Measures: the EVAN score;   the perioperative level of anxiety
13 Not yet recruiting Explanation About Sleep in Post Trauma Patients
Conditions: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder;   Sleep Deprivation
Interventions: Behavioral: Explanation encouraging sleep;   Behavioral: Explanation discouraging sleep;   Drug: Lorazepam
Outcome Measure: PTSD severity as measured by CAPS
14 Recruiting Optimization of Procedural Sedation Protocol Used for Dental Care Delivery in People With Mental Disability
Condition: Dental Care for Disabled
Interventions: Drug: Midazolam Mylan;   Drug: Lorazepam Mylan;   Drug: Valium + Akineton + Dehydrobenzperidol + Atropine sulfate
Outcome Measures: Level of cooperation of patient when receiving regular dental care;   Recording of vital parameters during regular dental care delivery;   Level of patient comfort and possible side-effects after dental treatment session
15 Recruiting A First In Human Study In Healthy People To Evaluate Safety, Toleration, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Single Oral Doses Of PF-06372865
Condition: Healthy
Interventions: Drug: PF-06372865 or Placebo;   Drug: PF-06372865 or Placebo or Lorazepam
Outcome Measures: Maximum Observed Plasma Concentration (Cmax);   Area Under the Curve From Time Zero to Last Quantifiable Concentration (AUClast);   Area Under the Curve From Time Zero to Extrapolated Infinite Time;   Apparent Oral Clearance (CL/F);   Apparent Volume of Distribution (Vz/F);   Plasma Decay Half-Life (t1/2);   Area Under the Curve From Time Zero to 24 hours;   Change in Saccadic Eye Movements (saccadic reaction time, saccadic peak velocity and saccadic inaccuracy);   Change in Body Sway;   Change in Smooth Pursuit;   Change in Bond and Lader VAS;   Change in Adaptive Tracking;   Change in Visual Verbal Learning Test;   Change in Pharmaco-EEG
16 Unknown  Enteral Versus Intravenous Sedation in Critically Ill High-risk ICU Patients
Conditions: Critical Illness;   Mechanical Ventilation Complication
Interventions: Procedure: Enteral Sedation (EN);   Procedure: Control group: Intravenous Sedation (IV)
Outcome Measures: Percent of efficacy, measured by observed RASS = desired RASS ± 1.;   Sedation protocol effectiveness: percentage of "protocol violation days" on the total of ICU days.;   Delirium and coma free days (respectively negative CAM-ICU and RASS > - 3 in all daily observations until 28° ICU day) (11);   Ventilation free days (12);   Nursing evaluation of sedation adequacy (communication skills, cooperation, environment tolerance) (13);   Overall ICU and hospital mortality, absolute mortality after 1 year from ICU discharge.;   Sedative drugs costs.;   Indirect inefficacy markers
17 Recruiting Dexmedetomidine (Precedex®) for Severe Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) and Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium (AWD)
Conditions: Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium;   Alcohol Withdrawal Associated Autonomic Hyperactivity;   Alcohol Withdrawal Hallucinosis;   Alcohol Withdrawal-Induced Delirium Tremens
Interventions: Drug: Dexmedetomidine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: The length of ICU stay defined as the time between randomization and ICU transfer orders.;   The number of delirium-free and ventilator-free days during the first 28 days of hospitalization;   The length in days of the hospital stay;   Scores at hospital discharge on the Mini Mental Exam, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and PTSD checklist.;   Resource utilization costs associated with this hospitalization.;   Predefined adverse events;   average MINDS score
18 Not yet recruiting Emesis Control Study in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Receiving R-CHOP
Condition: Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin
Intervention: Drug: Standard anti-emetics in conjunction with R-CHOP
Outcome Measures: Complete Response, Acute Phase (Day 1), Cycle 1;   Complete Response, Delayed Phase (Days 2 to 11), Cycle 1;   Complete Response - Cycle 2 and beyond;   No Significant Nausea - Cycle 2 and beyond;   Failure of standard anti-emetic prophylaxis, Day 1 to Day 11, Cycle 1 and beyond;   Frequency of common adverse events associated with anti-emetics;   Severity of common adverse events associated with anti-emetics
19 Recruiting TELSTAR: Treatment of ELectroencephalographic STatus Epilepticus After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Conditions: Cardiac Arrest;   Postanoxic Encephalopathy;   Status Epilepticus
Interventions: Drug: Anti-epileptic drugs;   Other: No anti-epileptic drugs
Outcome Measures: Neurological outcome;   Long term outcome
20 Unknown  Continuation Electroconvulsive Therapy (C-ECT) for Relapse Prevention in Major Depression
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Device: Thrymatron System IV device (CONSOLIDATION ELECTROCONVUsLIVE THERAPY) plus PHARMACOTHERAPY;   Drug: PHARMACOTHERAPY
Outcome Measures: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 21 items (HDRS-21);   Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE 35);   UKU - Adverse effects rating scales;   Demographical Data Memory (MEDABI-20);   Rey Figure;   Trail Making Test A;   Trail Making Test B;   Stroop Test;   Direct and inverse digits (WAIS, Weschler Adults Intelligence Sacle).;   Vocabulary WAIS (Weschler Adults Intelligence Scale);   Frequency Hospitalization Quotient;   Hospital Day Quotient (HDQ)