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RESPIRATORY FAILURE and Neurontin

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RESPIRATORY FAILURE Symptoms and Causes

What is respiratory failure?

Respiratory failure is a condition in which your blood doesn't have enough oxygen or has too much carbon dioxide. Sometimes you can have both problems.

When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen. The oxygen passes into your blood, which carries it to your organs. Your organs, such as your heart and brain, need this oxygen-rich blood to work well.

Another part of breathing is removing the carbon dioxide from the blood and breathing it out. Having too much carbon dioxide in your blood can harm your organs.

What causes respiratory failure?

Conditions that affect your breathing can cause respiratory failure. These conditions may affect the muscles, nerves, bones, or tissues that support breathing. Or they may affect the lungs directly. These conditions include

  • Lung diseases such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism
  • Conditions that affect the nerves and muscles that control breathing, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injuries, and stroke
  • Problems with the spine, such as scoliosis (a curve in the spine). They can affect the bones and muscles used for breathing.
  • Damage to the tissues and ribs around the lungs. An injury to the chest can cause this damage.
  • Drug or alcohol overdose
  • Inhalation injuries, such as from inhaling smoke (from fires) or harmful fumes
What are the symptoms of respiratory failure?

The symptoms of respiratory failure depend on the cause and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood.

A low oxygen level in the blood can cause shortness of breath and air hunger (the feeling that you can't breathe in enough air). Your skin, lips, and fingernails may also have a bluish color. A high carbon dioxide level can cause rapid breathing and confusion.

Some people who have respiratory failure may become very sleepy or lose consciousness. They also may have arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). You may have these symptoms if your brain and heart are not getting enough oxygen.

How is respiratory failure diagnosed?

Your health care provider will diagnose respiratory failure based on

  • Your medical history
  • A physical exam, which often includes
    • Listening to your lungs to check for abnormal sounds
    • Listening to your heart to check for arrhythmia
    • Looking for a bluish color on your skin, lips, and fingernails
  • Diagnostic tests, such as
    • Pulse oximetry, a small sensor that uses a light to measure how much oxygen is in your blood. The sensor goes on the end of your finger or on your ear.
    • Arterial blood gas test, a test that measures the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in your blood. The blood sample is taken from an artery, usually in your wrist.

Once you are diagnosed with respiratory failure, your provider will look for what is causing it. Tests for this often include a chest x-ray. If your provider thinks you may have arrhythmia because of the respiratory failure, you may have an EKG (electrocardiogram). This is simple, painless test that detects and records your heart's electrical activity.

What are the treatments for respiratory failure?

Treatment for respiratory failure depends on

  • Whether it is acute (short-term) or chronic (ongoing)
  • How severe it is
  • What is causing it

Acute respiratory failure can be a medical emergency. You may need treatment in intensive care unit at a hospital. Chronic respiratory failure can often be treated at home. But if your chronic respiratory failure is severe, you might need treatment in a long-term care center.

One of the main goals of treatment is to get oxygen to your lungs and other organs and remove carbon dioxide from your body. Another goal is to treat the cause of the condition. Treatments may include

  • Oxygen therapy, through a nasal cannula (two small plastic tubes that go in your nostrils) or through a mask that fits over your nose and mouth
  • Tracheostomy, a surgically-made hole that goes through the front of your neck and into your windpipe. A breathing tube, also called a tracheostomy, or trach tube, is placed in the hole to help you breathe.
  • Ventilator, a breathing machine that blows air into your lungs. It also carries carbon dioxide out of your lungs.
  • Other breathing treatments, such as noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), which uses mild air pressure to keep your airways open while you sleep. Another treatment is a special bed that rocks back and forth, to help you breathe in and out.
  • Fluids, often through an intravenous (IV), to improve blood flow throughout your body. They also provide nutrition.
  • Medicines for discomfort
  • Treatments for the cause of the respiratory failure. These treatments may include medicines and procedures.

If you have respiratory failure, see your health care provider for ongoing medical care. Your provider may suggest pulmonary rehabilitation.

If your respiratory failure is chronic, make sure that you know when and where to get help for your symptoms. You need emergency care if you have severe symptoms, such as trouble catching your breath or talking. You should call your provider if you notice that your symptoms are worsening or if you have new signs and symptoms.

Living with respiratory failure may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk therapy, medicines, and support groups can help you feel better.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Check out the latest treatments for RESPIRATORY FAILURE

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RESPIRATORY FAILURE Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Blinded, Randomized Study of Gabapentin (Neurontin®) and Gabapentin Enacarbil (Horizant™) in Restless Leg Syndrome
Condition: Restless Leg Syndrome
Interventions: Drug: Gabapentin immediate release (Neurontin);   Drug: Gabapentin enacarbil extended release (Horizant)
Outcome Measures: International Restless Leg Syndrome Rating Scale (IRLS);   Restless Leg Syndrome Quality of Life Scale (RLSQoL)
2 Recruiting Effectiveness of Gabapentin on Chronic Irritability in Neurologically Impaired Children
Conditions: Neurologically Impaired;   Irritable Mood;   Signs and Symptoms, Digestive;   Sleeplessness;   Chronic Pain
Interventions: Drug: Gabapentin;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measures: Symptom relief for chronic irritability in neurologically impaired children using gabapentin.;   Prevalence of associated gastrointestinal and sleep problems in neurologically impaired children and improvement using gabapentin.
3 Not yet recruiting Pain Control in Pediatric Posterior Spine Fusion Patients: The Effect of Gabapentin
Condition: Pain, Postoperative
Interventions: Drug: Gabapentin;   Drug: Simple Syrup
Outcome Measures: Difference in pain control when adding gabapentin to a multimodal pain management protocol in pediatric post-operative posterior spinal fusion patients.;   Determine if opiate usage is less in the gabapentin group versus control.
4 Recruiting Does a Perioperative Course of Gabapentin Improve Analgesia After Cesarean Delivery?
Condition: Pain
Interventions: Drug: Gabapentin;   Drug: lactose
Outcome Measures: VAS score (VAS 0-100 mm) for maternal pain on movement at 24 hours after surgical incision.;   VAS score on movement at 48 hours after surgical incision;   VAS scores at rest at 24 and 48 hours after surgical incision;   Maternal satisfaction scores at 24 and 48 hours after surgical incision.;   Opioid use in the first 48 hours after surgical incision;   Time to first analgesic;   Sedation;   Neonatal apgar scores;   Breastfeeding issues;   NICU admission
5 Recruiting Postoperative Tramadol/Gabapentin/Acetaminophen Versus Tramadol/Placebo/Acetaminophen
Condition: Pain
Interventions: Drug: gabapentin;   Drug: Tramadol;   Drug: Ibuprofen
Outcome Measures: Efficacy of scheduled tramadol + PRN ibuprofen vs. scheduled tramadol + scheduled gabapentin + PRN ibuprofen;   Side effects of scheduled tramadol + PRN ibuprofen vs. scheduled tramadol + scheduled gabapentin + PRN ibuprofen
6 Recruiting The Effect of Gabapentin on Thoracic Epidural Analgesia Following Thoracotomy
Condition: Pain, Postoperative
Interventions: Drug: Gabapentin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Persistent post surgical pain;   Acute postoperative pain;   Usage of epidural infusion of local and opioid analgesics (ml);   Early postoperative pain;   Consumption of opioid analgesics;   Time to first request for additional analgesics;   Analgesia related side-effects;   Convalescence of gastrointestinal function;   Health related quality of life;   Patient satisfaction;   Intensity of preoperative anxiety;   Convalescence of lung function (spirometry);   Sleep quality;   Walking distance (meters);   Fatigue;   Hospital length of stay (days);   Use of a vasopressor agent to correct hypotension
7 Recruiting GRASSP: Gralise® for Spine Surgery Pain
Condition: Post-laminectomy Pain Syndrome
Interventions: Drug: Gralise®;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Numeric Rating Scale (NRS);   Visual Analog Scale (VAS);   Patient Global Assessment (PGA);   McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (MPQ-2);   Modified Brief Pain Inventory- short form (mBPI-sf);   Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)
8 Recruiting Quality of Life Study Using Gabapentin Versus Venlafaxine in Treating Hot Flashes in Patients With Prostate Cancer
Condition: Hot Flashes in Men With Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen Ablation Therapy
Interventions: Drug: Gabapentin;   Drug: Venlafaxine
Outcome Measures: Changes in quality of life;   compare toxicity rates between the gabapentin and venlafaxine treatment groups;   Assess changes in the hot flash scores for the two arms;   Assess changes in quality of life using the Hot flash related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS)
9 Recruiting Gabapentin for Insomnia Symptoms and Nighttime Vasomotor Symptoms in Peri- and Postmenopausal Women
Conditions: Menopause;   Hot Flashes;   Vasomotor Disturbance
Intervention: Drug: Gabapentin
Outcome Measures: Tolerability of gabapentin;   VMS frequency, severity, and bothersomeness;   Subjective sleep quality;   Anxiety;   Depressed mood
10 Unknown  Comparison of Oral Gabapentin and Pregabalin in Postoperative Pain Control After Photorefractive Keratectomy
Condition: Postoperative Pain
Interventions: Drug: Gabapentin;   Drug: pregabalin
Outcome Measure: Decreased overall pain score as measured by the visual analogue scale
11 Recruiting Once Daily Gabapentin in the Treatment of Post Amputation Pain
Conditions: Pain;   Quality of Life
Intervention: Drug: Gralise
Outcome Measures: Change in Pain Numeric Rating Scale at rest;   Change in Pain numeric rating scale at movement.
12 Recruiting A Trial of Gabapentin in Vulvodynia: Biological Correlates of Response
Condition: Vulvodynia
Intervention: Drug: Gabapentin extended-release
Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure of this project are to test the prediction that pain from tampon insertion is lower in PVD patients when treated with gabapentin compared to when treated with placebo.;   The secondary outcome measure is to perform a mechanism-based analysis of gabapentin effectiveness, and to gain insight into the underlying pathophysiology of subtypes of PVD that may lead to more specific treatment options.
13 Unknown  Gabapentin in Functional Dyspepsia Refractory to Proton Pump Inhibition
Condition: Functional Dyspepsia
Interventions: Drug: Gabapentin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: The primary outcome will be the adequacy of symptom control during the last week of the study.;   Secondary outcomes equate dyspepsia symptoms with quality of life. The Nepean Dyspepsia Index scores patients on five categories while the Global Overall Symptom Scale measures the severity of dyspepsia on a 1-7 scale.
14 Recruiting Preoperative Gabapentin for Post-tonsillectomy Pain in Children
Condition: Post Operative Pain Management in Children With Tonsillectomy/Adenoidectomy
Interventions: Drug: Gabapentin;   Drug: liquid placebo
Outcome Measures: Total oral analgesia consumption;   Self-report pain score
15 Recruiting Gabapentin Treatment of Cannabis Dependence
Conditions: Cannabis Dependence;   Cannabis Withdrawal;   Cognitive Deficits
Interventions: Drug: gabapentin 1200mg/day;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Cannabis Use
16 Recruiting Efficacy and Safety of Gabapentin in Treating Overactive Bladder
Conditions: Urinary Frequency;   Urinary Urgency;   Nocturia;   Incontinence;   Detrusor Uninhibited Activity;   Quality of Life
Interventions: Drug: Gabapentin;   Drug: Solifenacin Succinate;   Drug: Placebo drugs
Outcome Measures: improvement of symptom domain means decreased frequency to less than 8 micturitions per 24 hours, no urgency noted per 24 hrs and less that 3 wakening at bedtime for micturation.;   Improvement of bladder function domain means increased bladder capacity and decreased overactive detrusor as recorded in urodynamic study.;   Improvement in quality of life domain means increased overall quality of life as perceived and result in OAB-q
17 Recruiting Maintenance Gabapentin to Prolong Pregnancy.
Condition: Preterm Labor, Premature Birth
Intervention: Drug: Gabapentin
Outcome Measure: Rate of premature birth (before 37 weeks gestation)
18 Recruiting Clinical Trial of Gabapentin to Improve Postoperative Pain in Surgical Patients
Condition: Postoperative Pain
Intervention: Drug: Gabapentin
Outcome Measures: Postoperative delirium and cognitive decline;   Postoperative opioid doses and pain scores
19 Recruiting Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome With Once Daily Gastric-Retentive Gabapentin (Gralise)
Condition: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (CRPS I)
Intervention: Drug: Gabapentin
Outcome Measures: Visual Analog Scale (VAS);   Functional status;   Side Effect Profile;   Drop Out Rate
20 Not yet recruiting Oral Clonidine & Gabapentin: Improving Recovery and Pain Management After Outpatient With Major Orthopedic Surgery
Conditions: Shoulder Arthroscopy;   Knee Arthroscopy
Interventions: Drug: Sugar pill;   Drug: Gabapentin;   Drug: Clonidine
Outcome Measures: Postoperative Pain using a Verbal Rating Scale (VRS);   Opioid consumption obtained from the recorded data;   postoperative nausea and vomiting using a Verbal Rating Scale;   return to normal activities of daily living using follow up questionnaires;   Patient satisfaction using a verbal rating scale from 0 to 100