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RESPIRATORY FAILURE and RIBASPHERE

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RESPIRATORY FAILURE Symptoms and Causes

What is respiratory failure?

Respiratory failure is a condition in which your blood doesn't have enough oxygen or has too much carbon dioxide. Sometimes you can have both problems.

When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen. The oxygen passes into your blood, which carries it to your organs. Your organs, such as your heart and brain, need this oxygen-rich blood to work well.

Another part of breathing is removing the carbon dioxide from the blood and breathing it out. Having too much carbon dioxide in your blood can harm your organs.

What causes respiratory failure?

Conditions that affect your breathing can cause respiratory failure. These conditions may affect the muscles, nerves, bones, or tissues that support breathing. Or they may affect the lungs directly. These conditions include

  • Lung diseases such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism
  • Conditions that affect the nerves and muscles that control breathing, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injuries, and stroke
  • Problems with the spine, such as scoliosis (a curve in the spine). They can affect the bones and muscles used for breathing.
  • Damage to the tissues and ribs around the lungs. An injury to the chest can cause this damage.
  • Drug or alcohol overdose
  • Inhalation injuries, such as from inhaling smoke (from fires) or harmful fumes
What are the symptoms of respiratory failure?

The symptoms of respiratory failure depend on the cause and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood.

A low oxygen level in the blood can cause shortness of breath and air hunger (the feeling that you can't breathe in enough air). Your skin, lips, and fingernails may also have a bluish color. A high carbon dioxide level can cause rapid breathing and confusion.

Some people who have respiratory failure may become very sleepy or lose consciousness. They also may have arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). You may have these symptoms if your brain and heart are not getting enough oxygen.

How is respiratory failure diagnosed?

Your health care provider will diagnose respiratory failure based on

  • Your medical history
  • A physical exam, which often includes
    • Listening to your lungs to check for abnormal sounds
    • Listening to your heart to check for arrhythmia
    • Looking for a bluish color on your skin, lips, and fingernails
  • Diagnostic tests, such as
    • Pulse oximetry, a small sensor that uses a light to measure how much oxygen is in your blood. The sensor goes on the end of your finger or on your ear.
    • Arterial blood gas test, a test that measures the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in your blood. The blood sample is taken from an artery, usually in your wrist.

Once you are diagnosed with respiratory failure, your provider will look for what is causing it. Tests for this often include a chest x-ray. If your provider thinks you may have arrhythmia because of the respiratory failure, you may have an EKG (electrocardiogram). This is simple, painless test that detects and records your heart's electrical activity.

What are the treatments for respiratory failure?

Treatment for respiratory failure depends on

  • Whether it is acute (short-term) or chronic (ongoing)
  • How severe it is
  • What is causing it

Acute respiratory failure can be a medical emergency. You may need treatment in intensive care unit at a hospital. Chronic respiratory failure can often be treated at home. But if your chronic respiratory failure is severe, you might need treatment in a long-term care center.

One of the main goals of treatment is to get oxygen to your lungs and other organs and remove carbon dioxide from your body. Another goal is to treat the cause of the condition. Treatments may include

  • Oxygen therapy, through a nasal cannula (two small plastic tubes that go in your nostrils) or through a mask that fits over your nose and mouth
  • Tracheostomy, a surgically-made hole that goes through the front of your neck and into your windpipe. A breathing tube, also called a tracheostomy, or trach tube, is placed in the hole to help you breathe.
  • Ventilator, a breathing machine that blows air into your lungs. It also carries carbon dioxide out of your lungs.
  • Other breathing treatments, such as noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), which uses mild air pressure to keep your airways open while you sleep. Another treatment is a special bed that rocks back and forth, to help you breathe in and out.
  • Fluids, often through an intravenous (IV), to improve blood flow throughout your body. They also provide nutrition.
  • Medicines for discomfort
  • Treatments for the cause of the respiratory failure. These treatments may include medicines and procedures.

If you have respiratory failure, see your health care provider for ongoing medical care. Your provider may suggest pulmonary rehabilitation.

If your respiratory failure is chronic, make sure that you know when and where to get help for your symptoms. You need emergency care if you have severe symptoms, such as trouble catching your breath or talking. You should call your provider if you notice that your symptoms are worsening or if you have new signs and symptoms.

Living with respiratory failure may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk therapy, medicines, and support groups can help you feel better.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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RESPIRATORY FAILURE treatment research studies

RIBASPHERE clinical trials, surveys and public health registries


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RIBASPHERE Side Effects

Fatigue (131)
Anaemia (129)
Depression (100)
Asthenia (95)
Dyspnoea (84)
Nausea (82)
Dizziness (67)
White Blood Cell Count Decreased (63)
Dehydration (62)
Headache (58)
Diarrhoea (53)
Vomiting (52)
Weight Decreased (51)
Anxiety (49)
Alopecia (49)
Insomnia (46)
Condition Aggravated (43)
Platelet Count Decreased (35)
Anger (34)
Chest Pain (34)
Arthralgia (34)
Haemoglobin Decreased (33)
Decreased Appetite (33)
Influenza Like Illness (31)
Pneumonia (30)
Red Blood Cell Count Decreased (29)
Pain (29)
Loss Of Consciousness (29)
Back Pain (28)
Anorexia (27)
Chills (26)
Rash (25)
Fall (25)
Blood Glucose Increased (25)
Crying (25)
Cough (24)
Suicidal Ideation (22)
Pyrexia (21)
Abdominal Pain (21)
Hypertension (21)
Feeling Abnormal (20)
Abdominal Pain Upper (19)
Disturbance In Attention (19)
Blood Potassium Decreased (19)
Irritability (17)
Pregnancy (16)
Confusional State (16)
Paranoia (16)
Myalgia (15)
Pruritus (15)

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Recent Reviews

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A report-I had a suppression dose of Macrobid; after 8 months much worse and after a year in fulminant hepatic failure leading to a transplant. How can these changes be spotted for women like me.

AGGRENOX SIDE EFFECT. PATIENT WAS PRESCRIBED PLAVIX. AGGRENOX WAS SUBSTITUTED. PATIENT SUFFERED ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE AND CARDIO-RESPIRATORY ARREST. PATIENT WAS HOSPITALIZED. PATIENT DIED 3/29/09.

An injection of toradol in hattiesburg Forrest general Hospital resulted in complete Kidney failure with 5 days in hospital. medical records are available if proof is needed. recovered

Been on drug since 1/20/11. er mid feb w/diagnosis of acid reflux; as time went on i have had excessive gas, leg/ankle swelling; loss of appetite; dry cough; sleepiness; lack of energy; out of breath; docs say heart failure---this is an 85 yr old man

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RESPIRATORY FAILURE Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Unknown  Ribavirin Pre-treatment Followed by Combined Standard Therapy in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Recipients
Condition: Hepatitis C
Intervention: Drug: ribavirin pre-treatment
Outcome Measures: HCV-RNA level, Transaminases level;   liver biopsy and Transient elastography at baseline and after six month since therapy conclusion
2 Recruiting Tailored Regimens of PEGASYS® and Ribavirin for Genotype 1 Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Trial (TARGET-1)
Condition: Hepatitis C
Interventions: Drug: A: Peg-interferon alpha-2a & Ribavirin;   Drug: B: Peg-interferon alpha-2a & Ribavirin;   Drug: C: Peg-interferon alpha-2a & Ribavirin;   Drug: D: Peg-interferon alpha-2a & Ribavirin;   Drug: E: Peg-interferon alpha-2a & Ribavirin;   Drug: F: Peg-interferon alpha-2a & Ribavirin
Outcome Measures: Efficacy;   Safety
3 Recruiting In Hepatitis C Patients Treated With Interferon and Ribavirin, Does Hepcidin Contribute to Treatment Induced Anaemia
Condition: Hepatitis C
Interventions: Drug: Pegylated interferon alpha;   Drug: Ribavirin
Outcome Measures: Hepcidin levels;   iron metabolism markers;   heamolysis markers;   inosine triphosphatase genetic variants;   erythropoiesis markers
4 Unknown  RIBAJUSTE Clinical Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Dose Adaptation of Ribavirin
Condition: Chronic Hepatitis C
Interventions: Drug: Peg-interferon alpha 2a and ribavin;   Drug: ribavirin with adaptation dose
Outcome Measures: Inter-group comparison of sustained virological response rates as defined by the proportion of subjects with a negative PCR HCV-RNA test at Week 72;   Efficacy endpoints;   safety endpoints;   Economic endpoints
5 Recruiting Induction Chemotherapy With Afatinib, Ribavirin, and Weekly Carboplatin/Paclitaxel for Stage IVA/IVB HPV Associated Oropharynx Squamous Cell Cancer (OPSCC)
Conditions: Head and Neck Cancer;   Squamous Cell Cancer
Intervention: Drug: Afatinib, Ribavirin, and weekly carboplatin/paclitaxel
Outcome Measures: maximum tolerated dose (For Dose Escalation Portion of the study);   expression of PTPN13 (For Expansion Cohort only);   safety and tolerability (toxicity);   objective response rate;   pharmacokinetics
6 Recruiting Therapy With Asunaprevir, Daclatasvir, Ribavirin and Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2a in HCV Genotype 4-infected Patients Who Have Failed to a Previous Therapy With Peg-Interferon/Ribavirin (ANRS HC32 QUATTRO)
Condition: Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 Infection
Interventions: Drug: Asunaprevir;   Drug: Daclatasvir;   Drug: Ribavirin;   Drug: Pegylated Interferon alpha-2a
Outcome Measures: SVR12 Rate;   Number of patients with adverse events;   Treatment discontinuations;   Self-reported symptoms;   Patients' adherence;   SVR 24 rate;   HCV viral load;   Number of patients with virological failure under treatment;   HCV subtypic distribution;   Proportion of patients with resistance mutations to Asunaprevir and/or Daclatasvir in case of virological failure;   Cirrhosis evaluation;   Insulin resistance : HOMA-IR score;   Metabolic syndrome parameters;   Liver fibrosis;   Polymorphism of the gene of IL28B
7 Recruiting Safety Study of Pegylated Interferon Lambda Plus Single or 2 Direct Antiviral Agents With Ribavirin
Condition: Hepatitis C
Interventions: Biological: Pegylated Interferon Lambda;   Drug: Ribasphere;   Drug: Daclatasvir
Outcome Measures: Antiviral activity, as determined by the proportion of non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects with 12-week sustained virologic response (SVR12), defined as HCV RNA < LLOQ target detected or not detected;   Proportion of non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects with eRVR, defined as HCV RNA < LLOQ target not detected;   Proportion of non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects with treatment-emergent cytopenic abnormalities (anemia as defined by Hb < 10 g/dL, and/or neutropenia as defined by ANC < 750 mm3, and/or thrombocytopenia as defined by platelets < 50,000 mm3) on treatment;   Proportion of non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects with on-treatment (maximum of 12 weeks) interferon-associated flu-like symptoms (pyrexia or chills or pain);   Proportion of non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects with on-treatment (maximum of 12 weeks) interferon-associated musculoskeletal symptoms (arthralgia or myalgia or back pain);   Proportion of non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects with SVR24, defined as HCV RNA < LLOQ target detected or not detected;   Frequency of deaths among non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects through the end of follow-up (maximum of 60 weeks);   Frequency of Serious adverse events (SAEs) among non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects through the end of follow-up (maximum of 60 weeks);   Frequency of drug related Adverse events (AEs) among non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects through the end of treatment (maximum of 12 weeks);   Frequency of dose reductions and discontinuations due to AEs among non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects through the end of treatment (maximum of 12 weeks);   Frequency of treatment emergent laboratory abnormalities among non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects through the end of treatment (maximum of 12 weeks);   Proportion of non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects with interferon-associated constitutional symptoms (fatigue or asthenia) through the end of treatment (maximum of 12 weeks);   Proportion of non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects with interferon-associated neurologic symptoms (headache or dizziness) through the end of treatment (maximum of 12 weeks);   Proportion of non-cirrhotic HCV GT-1b subjects with psychiatric symptoms (depression or irritability or insomnia) through the end of treatment (maximum of 12 weeks)
8 Recruiting Boceprevir/PegIFN α-2b/Riba in HCV+ Gt1 Menopausal Women, Nonresponders to PegIFN/Riba or Treatment-naives (MEN_BOC)
Conditions: Chronic Hepatitis C;   Menopause
Intervention: Drug: Pegylated Interferon, Ribavirin, Boceprevir
Outcome Measures: Improvement of sustained virological response in previous treatment failure or naive HCV-positive menopausal women.;   Early virological response
9 Recruiting Miravirsen in Combination With Telaprevir and Ribavirin in Null Responder to Pegylated-Interferon Alpha Plus Ribavirin Subjects With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection
Condition: Hepatitis C, Chronic
Interventions: Drug: Miravirsen;   Drug: Telaprevir;   Drug: Ribavirin
Outcome Measures: The proportion of subjects with a Sustained Virological Response at 24 weeks after the end of therapy.;   The proportion of subjects with undetectable HCV RNA levels at end of treatment.;   The proportion of subjects with a Sustained Virological Response at 12 and 48 weeks after the end of therapy.;   Change in HCV RNA levels from baseline throughout the study.;   The proportion of subjects who experience virological failure throughout the study.
10 Not yet recruiting A Pilot Study to Treat Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genotype 1 and End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
Conditions: Chronic Hepatitis C;   End Stage Renal Disease
Interventions: Drug: Ribavirin;   Drug: Peginterferon;   Drug: Boceprevir
Outcome Measures: Percentage of patients who achieve eRVR at treatment week 28;   Tolerability of treatment
11 Recruiting Concentration-Controlled Ribavirin for the Treatment of Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection
Condition: Hepatitis C Virus
Intervention: Drug: ribavirin
Outcome Measures: ribavirin AUC-12 variability;   safety - absolute hemoglobin declines;   efficacy - early and sustained virologic response
12 Unknown  Drug Interaction Study With Ribavirin and Abacavir in Male Subjects With Hepatitis C Who Have Failed Ribavirin Treatment
Condition: Hepatitis C
Interventions: Other: Ribavrin;   Drug: Abacavir plus Ribavirin
Outcome Measures: To evaluate the effect of abacavir (ABC) on Ribavirin Triphosphate (RBV-TP) intracellular concentrations.;   To evaluate the effect of ABC on plasma RBV trough concentrations.
13 Unknown  Four Arms, Multicenter Study of Tailored Regimens With Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin for Genotype 2 Chronic Hepatitis C
Condition: Chronic Hepatitis C
Interventions: Drug: pegylated interferon alpha 2a and plus ribavirin;   Drug: Pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin;   Drug: pegylated interferon alpha 2a and ribavirin
Outcome Measures: Efficacy - Rapid virologic response (RVR), HCV RNA seronegative by PCR at week 4 Sustained virological response (SVR), HCV RNA seronegative by PCR throughout 24-week off-treatment period;   Safety - adverse event rate and profile
14 Recruiting A Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Effectiveness of a 12-Week Combination Therapy of TMC647055 and TMC435 With and Without GSK23336805 With a Pharmacokinetic Enhancer With and Without Ribavirin in Patients Infected With Chronic Genotype 1 Hepatitis C Virus
Condition: Chronic Hepatitis C
Interventions: Drug: TMC647055;   Drug: TMC435;   Drug: Ritonavir;   Drug: Ribavirin;   Drug: Pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PegIFN);   Drug: GSK2336805
Outcome Measures: Number of patients with a sustained virologic response (SVR) 12 Weeks after the actual end of treatment;   Number of patients with adverse events;   Number of patients with a sustained virological response (SVR at 4 and/or 24 Weeks after the actual end of treatment);   HCV RNA levels over time;   Number of patients with undetectable hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA (less than 25 IU/mL undetectable) and/or HCV RNA levels less than 25 IU/mL at all time points;   Number of patients with on-treatment virologic failure;   Number of patients with viral relapse;   Number of patients with presence of HCV variants associated with reduced susceptibility to investigational treatment;   Maximum plasma analyte concentration of TMC435;   Minimum plasma analyte concentration of TMC435;   Area under the plasma concentration-time curve of TMC435;   Maximum plasma analyte concentration of TMC647055;   Minimum plasma analyte concentration of TMC647055;   Area under the plasma concentration-time curve of TMC647055;   Maximum plasma analyte concentration of ritonavir (RTV);   Minimum plasma analyte concentration of RTV;   Area under the plasma concentration-time curve of RTV;   Minimum and maximum plasma concentrations of GSK233680k;   Area under the plasma concentration-time curve of GSK233680k
15 Unknown  Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin for Hepatitis C Patients Concomitant With Malignancy Other Than Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Conditions: Chronic Hepatitis C;   Neoplasms
Intervention: Drug: pegylated interferon alpha 2a and plus ribavirin
Outcome Measures: Efficacy - Sustained virological response (SVR), HCV RNA seronegative by PCR throughout 24-week off-treatment period.;   Rapid virologic response (RVR), HCV RNA seronegative by PCR at week 4.;   Early virological response (EVR), by PCR-negative or at least 2 logs decline from baseline of serum HCV RNA at 12 weeks of treatment.;   Safety - adverse event rate and profile
16 Unknown  Phase I/II Study of Ribavirin Given as Monotherapy in Solid Tumour Cancer Patients
Condition: Malignant Solid Tumour
Intervention: Drug: Ribavirin
Outcome Measures: Phase I: Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) and/or recommended phase II dose (RP2D);   Phase II: Determine the overall response rate to therapy with ribavirin;   Incidence and nature of DLTs;   Incidence, nature and severity of adverse events;   Time to and duration of response, defined as the first occurence of documented objective response until the time of recurrence or death from any cause;   Clinical benefit rate, defined as the overall response rate and stable disease for greater than or equal to 24 weeks;   Pharmacokinetic parameters of ribavirin determine by total exposure, maximum plasma concentration, etc.;   Correlation between eIF4E activity and response;   To determine the effect of ribavirin on the activity of eIF4E related pathways through correlative studies
17 Unknown  Does 3 Months Therapy With Vitamin D + Peg + Ribavirin Improve Sustained Virologic Response (SVR) in Genotype 2, 3 Chronic Hepatitis C Patients?
Condition: Chronic Hepatitis C
Interventions: Drug: Peg + Vitamin D + Ribavirin;   Drug: Peg + Ribavirin
Outcome Measure: sustained virologic response (SVR)rate
18 Recruiting An Open Label Trial of Pegylated Interferon, Ribavirin and Telaprevir Versus Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Alone in the Treatment of Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Virus Infection in Patients With HIV-1 Co-infection
Condition: HIV
Interventions: Drug: Ribavirin;   Drug: Telaprevir
Outcome Measure: • Comparison of rates of sustained virologic response(SVR24) between treatment arms; defined as HCV RNA not detectable at 24 weeks after planned completion of therapy
19 Unknown  Interferon and Ribavirin Treatment in Patients With Hemoglobinopathies
Condition: Hemoglobinopathies
Intervention: Drug: PEG-IFN alpha2a or PEG-IFN alpha2b and Ribavirin
Outcome Measures: A sustained virological response (SVR), defined as absence of HCV RNA in serum by a highly sensitive test at the end of treatment and 6 months late.;   Early virological response (EVR) , defined as the loss of HCV RNA during the first 12 weeks of therapy; main side effects enclosing changes in blood transfusion requirement; increase in ferritin levels and variations in chelation treatment
20 Unknown  Phase IV Study to Evaluate the Efficacy/Safety to Extend Treatment and High Dose of Ribavirin in co-Infected Patients
Condition: Chronic Hepatitis C
Interventions: Drug: ribavirin;   Drug: Peginterferon alfa-2a;   Drug: epoetin beta
Outcome Measure: % patients with RNA-HCV < 50 UI/ml