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VISION BLURRED Symptoms and Causes

What is high blood pressure in pregnancy?

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood. High blood pressure, or hypertension, is when this force against your artery walls is too high. There are different types of high blood pressure in pregnancy:

  • Gestational hypertension is high blood pressure that you develop while you are pregnant. It starts after you are 20 weeks pregnant. You usually don't have any other symptoms. In many cases, it does not harm you or your baby, and it goes away within 12 weeks after childbirth. But it does raise your risk of high blood pressure in the future. It sometimes can be severe, which may lead to low birth weight or preterm birth. Some women with gestational hypertension do go on to develop preeclampsia.
  • Chronic hypertension is high blood pressure that started before the 20th week of pregnancy or before you became pregnant. Some women may have had it long before becoming pregnant, but didn't know it until they got their blood pressure checked at their prenatal visit. Sometimes chronic hypertension can also lead to preeclampsia.
  • Preeclampsia is a sudden increase in blood pressure after the 20th week of pregnancy. It usually happens in the last trimester. In rare cases, symptoms may not start until after delivery. This is called postpartum preeclampsia. Preeclampsia also includes signs of damage to some of your organs, such as your liver or kidney. The signs may include protein in the urine and very high blood pressure. Preeclampsia can be serious or even life-threatening for both you and your baby.
What causes preeclampsia?

The cause of preeclampsia is not known.

Who is at risk for preeclampsia?

You are at higher risk of preeclampsia if you

  • Had chronic high blood pressure or chronic kidney disease before pregnancy
  • Had high blood pressure or preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy
  • Have obesity
  • Are over age 40
  • Are pregnant with more than one baby
  • Are African American
  • Have a family history of preeclampsia
  • Have certain health conditions, such as diabetes, lupus, or thrombophilia (a disorder which raises your risk of blood clots)
  • Used in vitro fertilization, egg donation, or donor insemination
What problems can preeclampsia cause?

Preeclampsia can cause

  • Placental abruption, where the placenta separates from the uterus
  • Poor fetal growth, caused by a lack of nutrients and oxygen
  • Preterm birth
  • A low birth weight baby
  • Stillbirth
  • Damage to your kidneys, liver, brain, and other organ and blood systems
  • A higher risk of heart disease for you
  • Eclampsia, which happens when preeclampsia is severe enough to affect brain function, causing seizures or coma
  • HELLP syndrome, which happens when a woman with preeclampsia or eclampsia has damage to the liver and blood cells. It is rare, but very serious.
What are the symptoms of preeclampsia?

Possible symptoms of preeclampsia include

  • High blood pressure
  • Too much protein in your urine (called proteinuria)
  • Swelling in your face and hands. Your feet may also swell, but many women have swollen feet during pregnancy. So swollen feet by themselves may not be a sign of a problem.
  • Headache that does not go away
  • Vision problems, including blurred vision or seeing spots
  • Pain in your upper right abdomen
  • Trouble breathing
  • Eclampsia can also cause seizures, nausea and/or vomiting, and low urine output. If you go on to develop HELLP syndrome, you may also have bleeding or bruising easily, extreme fatigue, and liver failure.

    How is preeclampsia diagnosed?

    Your health care provider will check your blood pressure and urine at each prenatal visit. If your blood pressure reading is high (140/90 or higher), especially after the 20th week of pregnancy, your provider will likely want to run some tests. They may include blood tests other lab tests to look for extra protein in the urine as well as other symptoms.

    How is preeclampsia treated?

    Delivering the baby can often cure preeclampsia. When making a decision about treatment, your provider take into account several factors. They include how severe it is, how many weeks pregnant you are, and what the potential risks to you and your baby are:

    • If you are more than 37 weeks pregnant, your provider will likely want to deliver the baby.
    • If you are less than 37 weeks pregnant, your health care provider will closely monitor you and your baby. This includes blood and urine tests for you. Monitoring for the baby often involves ultrasound, heart rate monitoring, and checking on the baby's growth. You may need to take medicines, to control your blood pressure and to prevent seizures. Some women also get steroid injections, to help the baby's lungs mature faster. If the preeclampsia is severe, you provider may want you to deliver the baby early.

    The symptoms usually go away within 6 weeks of delivery. In rare cases, symptoms may not go away, or they may not start until after delivery (postpartum preeclampsia). This can be very serious, and it needs to be treated right away.

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VISION BLURRED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Not yet recruiting Study of Promethazine for Treatment of Diabetic Gastroparesis
Condition: Diabetic Gastroparesis
Interventions: Drug: Promethazine;   Drug: Sugar pill
Outcome Measures: Change in patient-reported symptoms as measured by the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index score (GCSI, 14) from week 0 to week 4.;   Occurrence of adverse events;   Use of rescue medication;   The impact on work activity as measured by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. (WPAI).
2 Unknown  Morphine Versus Morphine-Promethazine Combination for Acute Low Back Pain Relief in the Adult Emergency Department
Condition: Low Back Pain
Interventions: Drug: Morphine-Promethazine;   Drug: morphine
Outcome Measures: Pain relief;   Ambulatory status
3 Recruiting Pharmacogenetic Factors and Side Effects of Metoclopramide and Diphenhydramine
Condition: Drug Metabolism, Poor, CYP2D6-RELATED
Interventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Metoclopramide
Outcome Measures: Area under curve of metoclopramide (MCP);   Area under curve of diphenhydramine(DPH);   Cmax of metoclopramide;   Tmax of metoclopramide;   Cmax of diphenhydramine;   Tmax of diphenhydramine
4 Unknown  Does Thiamine Help Vomiting and Nausea in Pregnancy?
Condition: Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Intervention: Drug: thiamine & Promethazine
Outcome Measure: the improvement in nausea and/or vomiting after treatment
5 Unknown  Adjunct Sedatives in Procedures Involving Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
Conditions: Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS);   Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
Interventions: Drug: Saline;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Promethazine
Outcome Measures: Sedation Level;   Time to achieve adequate level of sedation to begin procedure;   Time for Recovery;   Adverse Symptoms From Sedative Agents
6 Recruiting Diphenhydramine for Acute Migraine
Condition: Migraine
Interventions: Drug: metoclopramide;   Drug: diphenhydramine;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measure: Sustained headache relief
7 Recruiting Antitussive Effect of a Naturally Flavored Syrup Containing Diphenhydramine, Compared With Dextromethorphan and Placebo
Condition: Cough Reflex Sensitivity
Interventions: Drug: Phenylephrine;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Dextromethorphan
Outcome Measure: change in cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin
8 Not yet recruiting Diphenhydramine as an Adjunctive Sedative in Patients on Chronic Opioids
Conditions: Colonoscopy;   Adjunct Anesthesia Medication
Interventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Dosage of Fentanyl and Midazolam;   Quality of sedation;   Duration of Procedure;   Adverse events;   24 hour follow up
9 Not yet recruiting Randomized Trial of Diphenhydramine Versus Continued Midazolam in "Difficult-to-sedate" Patients Undergoing Colonoscopy
Conditions: Sedation;   Endoscopy
Interventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Midazolam
Outcome Measure: Proportion of patients who achieve adequate sedation to allow colonoscopy (defined as MOAA/S ≤3)
10 Recruiting Ketamine as a Rapidly-Acting Antidepressant in Depressed Emergency Department Patients
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Drug: Ketamine;   Drug: Diphenhydramine
Outcome Measures: Evaluate the effects of ketamine on depressive symptomatology;   Evalaute the effects of ketamine on treatment alliance;   Evalaute the effects of ketamine on suicidal ideation
11 Not yet recruiting Countermeasures to Reduce Sensorimotor Impairment and Space Motion Sickness Resulting From Altered Gravity Levels
Condition: Vestibular
Interventions: Drug: Promethazine;   Behavioral: Hyper gravity training;   Drug: Placebo;   Behavioral: No hypergravity training
Outcome Measure: Rate of recovery of roll tilt perception errors after exposure to hypergravity
12 Not yet recruiting Histamine Glutamate Antagonism in Stroke
Conditions: Acute Cerebrovascular Accident;   Cerebral Edema
Interventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Pantoprazole;   Drug: Famotidine;   Drug: Dextromethorphan
Outcome Measures: Modified Rankin Score;   National Institutes of Health Stroke Severity (NIHSS) Scale;   Neurological examination of the subject;   All cause mortality data
13 Not yet recruiting Psilocybin-facilitated Treatment for Cocaine Use
Condition: Cocaine-Related Disorders
Interventions: Drug: Psilocybin;   Drug: Diphenhydramine
Outcome Measure: The difference between the treatment and placebo groups in the number of participants with biochemically verified cocaine abstinence.
14 Recruiting Pazopanib Versus Temsirolimus in Poor-Risk Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)
Condition: Kidney Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Pazopanib;   Drug: Temsirolimus;   Behavioral: Quality of Life Assessment;   Drug: Benadryl
Outcome Measure: Progression Free Survival (PFS)
15 Not yet recruiting First-time-in-man, to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of BP1.5375
Condition: Healthy Male Volunteers
Interventions: Drug: BP1.5375 suspension;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Single Ascending Dose - safety and tolerability (Part 1);   Proof of Concept - effect on polysomnography (Part 2)
16 Not yet recruiting A Double-Blind Trial of Psilocybin-Assisted Treatment of Alcohol Dependence
Condition: Alcohol Dependence
Interventions: Drug: Psilocybin;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Behavioral: Motivational Enhancement and Taking Action (META)
Outcome Measures: percent heavy drinking days;   Changes in vital signs;   adverse events;   Percent days abstinent;   drinks per drinking day;   days to first drinking day;   Days to first heavy drinking day;   consequences of drinking;   craving;   self efficacy;   Motivation to change drinking behavior
17 Recruiting Study Looking at End Expiratory Pressure for Altitude Illness Decrease (SLEEP-AID)
Condition: Acute Mountain Sickness
Interventions: Device: Theravent;   Device: Control
Outcome Measures: Incidence of acute mountain sickness;   number of nocturnal desaturations;   acute mountain sickness severity;   nocturnal awakenings;   subjective quality of sleep
18 Recruiting The Role of Intravenous (IV) Lidocaine in the Management of Chronic Neuropathic Pain of Peripheral Nerve Origin
Condition: Neuropathic Pain
Interventions: Drug: Lidocaine;   Drug: Diphenhydramine
Outcome Measures: Changes from Baseline Pain scores on the Visual Analog Scale at 6 weeks;   Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale;   Modified Brief Pain Inventory;   Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire;   Patient Global Satisfaction with Treatment and Impression of Change;   Side Effects;   Quality of Life Health Outcome Instrument
19 Recruiting FUS1-nanoparticles and Erlotinib in Stage IV Lung Cancer
Condition: Lung Cancer
Interventions: Drug: DOTAP:Chol-fus1;   Drug: Erlotinib;   Drug: Dexamethasone;   Drug: Diphenhydramine
Outcome Measures: Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) Level for Drug Treatment Combination;   Response Rate
20 Unknown  Efficacy and Safety of the Herbal Medicine Sominex ® (Passiflora Incarnata L., Valeriana Officinalis L. and Crataegus Oxyacantha L.), Manufactured by the Laboratory EMS S / A in Patients With Psychophysiological Insomnia
Condition: Insomnia
Interventions: Drug: Sominex;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Improvement in sleep efficiency;   Improvement of the values obtained by the answers of the questionnaires obtained during the treatment