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VISION BLURRED Symptoms and Causes

What is high blood pressure in pregnancy?

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood. High blood pressure, or hypertension, is when this force against your artery walls is too high. There are different types of high blood pressure in pregnancy:

  • Gestational hypertension is high blood pressure that you develop while you are pregnant. It starts after you are 20 weeks pregnant. You usually don't have any other symptoms. In many cases, it does not harm you or your baby, and it goes away within 12 weeks after childbirth. But it does raise your risk of high blood pressure in the future. It sometimes can be severe, which may lead to low birth weight or preterm birth. Some women with gestational hypertension do go on to develop preeclampsia.
  • Chronic hypertension is high blood pressure that started before the 20th week of pregnancy or before you became pregnant. Some women may have had it long before becoming pregnant, but didn't know it until they got their blood pressure checked at their prenatal visit. Sometimes chronic hypertension can also lead to preeclampsia.
  • Preeclampsia is a sudden increase in blood pressure after the 20th week of pregnancy. It usually happens in the last trimester. In rare cases, symptoms may not start until after delivery. This is called postpartum preeclampsia. Preeclampsia also includes signs of damage to some of your organs, such as your liver or kidney. The signs may include protein in the urine and very high blood pressure. Preeclampsia can be serious or even life-threatening for both you and your baby.
What causes preeclampsia?

The cause of preeclampsia is not known.

Who is at risk for preeclampsia?

You are at higher risk of preeclampsia if you

  • Had chronic high blood pressure or chronic kidney disease before pregnancy
  • Had high blood pressure or preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy
  • Have obesity
  • Are over age 40
  • Are pregnant with more than one baby
  • Are African American
  • Have a family history of preeclampsia
  • Have certain health conditions, such as diabetes, lupus, or thrombophilia (a disorder which raises your risk of blood clots)
  • Used in vitro fertilization, egg donation, or donor insemination
What problems can preeclampsia cause?

Preeclampsia can cause

  • Placental abruption, where the placenta separates from the uterus
  • Poor fetal growth, caused by a lack of nutrients and oxygen
  • Preterm birth
  • A low birth weight baby
  • Stillbirth
  • Damage to your kidneys, liver, brain, and other organ and blood systems
  • A higher risk of heart disease for you
  • Eclampsia, which happens when preeclampsia is severe enough to affect brain function, causing seizures or coma
  • HELLP syndrome, which happens when a woman with preeclampsia or eclampsia has damage to the liver and blood cells. It is rare, but very serious.
What are the symptoms of preeclampsia?

Possible symptoms of preeclampsia include

  • High blood pressure
  • Too much protein in your urine (called proteinuria)
  • Swelling in your face and hands. Your feet may also swell, but many women have swollen feet during pregnancy. So swollen feet by themselves may not be a sign of a problem.
  • Headache that does not go away
  • Vision problems, including blurred vision or seeing spots
  • Pain in your upper right abdomen
  • Trouble breathing
  • Eclampsia can also cause seizures, nausea and/or vomiting, and low urine output. If you go on to develop HELLP syndrome, you may also have bleeding or bruising easily, extreme fatigue, and liver failure.

    How is preeclampsia diagnosed?

    Your health care provider will check your blood pressure and urine at each prenatal visit. If your blood pressure reading is high (140/90 or higher), especially after the 20th week of pregnancy, your provider will likely want to run some tests. They may include blood tests other lab tests to look for extra protein in the urine as well as other symptoms.

    How is preeclampsia treated?

    Delivering the baby can often cure preeclampsia. When making a decision about treatment, your provider take into account several factors. They include how severe it is, how many weeks pregnant you are, and what the potential risks to you and your baby are:

    • If you are more than 37 weeks pregnant, your provider will likely want to deliver the baby.
    • If you are less than 37 weeks pregnant, your health care provider will closely monitor you and your baby. This includes blood and urine tests for you. Monitoring for the baby often involves ultrasound, heart rate monitoring, and checking on the baby's growth. You may need to take medicines, to control your blood pressure and to prevent seizures. Some women also get steroid injections, to help the baby's lungs mature faster. If the preeclampsia is severe, you provider may want you to deliver the baby early.

    The symptoms usually go away within 6 weeks of delivery. In rare cases, symptoms may not go away, or they may not start until after delivery (postpartum preeclampsia). This can be very serious, and it needs to be treated right away.

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Headache (505)
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VISION BLURRED Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Unknown  Does Oral Sildenafil (Viagra) Decrease Mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure After Cardiac Surgery?
Condition: Pulmonary Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Sildenafil (Viagra);   Drug: Sildenafil;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: To determine the efficacy of 12.5mg oral sildenafil to decrease the mPAP in patients presenting with a mPAP >/= 25mmHg after cardiopulmonary bypass.;   To determine the efficacy of a second dose of oral sildenafil 12.5mg to decrease the mPAP in those patients who do not respond with a 20% decrease in mPAP after the initial administration of study medication.;   To determine the safety of oral sildenafil to treat increased mPAP after cardiac surgery.
2 Unknown  Sildenafil for Prevention of Cerebral Vasospasm
Conditions: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage;   Cerebral Vasospasm;   Rupture of Intracranial Aneurysm
Interventions: Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Sildenafil Citrate, 25 mg, 3 times a day.;   Drug: Sildenafil Citrate 50 mg, 3 times a day
Outcome Measures: New neurological Deficit;   Transcranial Ecodoppler;   Mortality;   Side effects;   Time to discharge;   Rankin Scale
3 Unknown  A Study to Evaluate a Possible Superiority Expressed by the Faster Onset of Action and the Efficacy and Safety of Sildenafil Citrate 20mg Sublingual Tablet in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction of Different Etiologies
Condition: Erectile Dysfunction
Interventions: Drug: Sildenafil Citrate 20mg Tablet Sublingual;   Drug: Viagra ® 50mg tablet Coated
Outcome Measures: Evaluate a possible superiority expressed by the faster onset of action.;   Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Sildenafil Citrate 20mg Sublingual tablet, compared to Viagra ® 50mg tablet Coated in control of Erectile Dysfunction.
4 Recruiting Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil in Premature Infants
Condition: Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn
Intervention: Drug: 1 dose of sildenafil
Outcome Measures: Area under the plasma concentration versus time curve 0-24 hours for sildenafil;   Peak plasma concentration of sildenafil;   Clearance of sildenafil;   Volume of distribution at steady state;   Half life of sildenafil;   Number of subjects with adverse events as a measure of safety and tolerability.;   Correlation between serum and dried blood spot samples;   Evaluate P450 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
5 Unknown  Use of Sildenafil (Viagra) to Alter Fatigue, Functional Status and Impaired Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients With CFS
Condition: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Interventions: Drug: Sildenafil (Viagra);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: The principal aim of this study is to determine whether chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is due to inadequate blood flow to the brain and to test a medication, Viagra, which should help increase blood flow to the brain and improve the symptoms of CFS.
6 Unknown  Effects of Viagra on Heart Function in Patients With Heart Failure
Conditions: Heart Failure;   Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Intervention: Drug: sildenafil
Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure is a fall in the left ventricular filling pressure in association with administration of sildenafil;   A secondary outcome is the distance walked with the 6-minute walk test after the administration of sildenafil
7 Not yet recruiting Effects of Oral Sildenafil on Mortality in Adults With PAH
Condition: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Intervention: Drug: sildenafil citrate
Outcome Measures: Overall Survival (OS);   Time to first clinical worsening (TTCW) event;   6 Minute Walk Distance (6MWD) at Months 6 & 12
8 Recruiting VasoREACTivity Testing With Intravenous SILdenafil in Patients With Precapillary Pulmonary Hypertension
Condition: Pulmonary Hypertension Associated With Connective Tissue Disease
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil
Outcome Measures: efficacy of Sildenafil I.V. for vasoreactivity testing;   clinical efficacy of sildenafil per os predicted by testing it intravenously in the course of oral therapy
9 Unknown  Early Start of Oral Sildenafil 100mg for Erectile Dysfunction After Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy
Condition: Prostate Cancer
Intervention: Drug: sildenafil 100mg
Outcome Measures: patterns of recovery of erectile functions after nerve sparing RALP in men with on- demand sildenafil 100mg dosing from the early postoperative period (using IIEF-5);   comparison of the potency rates in men with on- demand sildenafil 100mg dosing from the early postoperative period with from the delayed postoperative period
10 Unknown  Evaluation of Sildenafil for the Treatment of Moderate Congestive Heart Failure
Condition: Heart Failure
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil
Outcome Measures: Change in 6-minute walk distance;   Changes in peak oxygen consumption (measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing);   Change in the level of neurohormones (b-type natriuretic peptide, catecholamines, ET-1),;   Change in quality of life
11 Unknown  The Effects of Sildenafil on Exercise Function and Capacity in Patients With Fontan Circulation
Condition: Fontan Circulation
Interventions: Drug: sildenafil;   Other: placebo
Outcome Measure: An increase in exercise capacity for patients administered sildenafil
12 Recruiting The Revaki-001. A Study to Determine the Pharmacokinetic Profile, Safety and Tolerability of Sildenafil (REVATIO®) in Cardiac Surgery
Condition: Acute Kidney Injury
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil
Outcome Measures: Area under the plasma concentration versus time curve and Plasma Concentration of Sildenafil;   Serum creatinine and Biochemical markers of AKI
13 Recruiting Effects of Sildenafil on Choroidal Thickness in AMD
Condition: Age-related Macular Degeneration
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil citrate
Outcome Measures: Change in Choroidal Thickness as Assessed on Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography (EDI-OCT);   Change in Central Foveal Thickness as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT)
14 Unknown  Viagra for the Treatment of IUGR
Condition: IUGR
Intervention: Drug: Viagra administration in IUGR/PET pregnancies
Outcome Measures: Uteroplacental perfusion;   Fetal growth;   Maternal and fetal safety
15 Not yet recruiting Blood Flow and Vascular Function in Cystic Fibrosis
Condition: Cystic Fibrosis
Interventions: Drug: Acute (1 hour) Sildenafil;   Drug: Sub-Chronic (4 weeks) Sildenafil;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Exercise Capacity;   Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD);   Arterial Stiffness Evaluation (PWV);   Physio Flow
16 Recruiting "As Required" Oral Sildenafil in Raynaud's Phenomenon
Condition: Raynaud's Phenomenon
Interventions: Drug: Sildenafil 40 mg;   Drug: Sildenafil 80 mg;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Mean change in the Raynaud's Condition Score (RCS) during treatment, as compared to placebo.;   Frequency of RP: number of RP attacks during treatment, as compared to placebo.;   Patients' preference: comparison between the number of patients favoring a treatment to another.;   Pain associated with RP: Mean change in the Raynaud's pain score during treatment, as compared to placebo.;   Frequency and severity of adverse drug events during treatment, as compared to placebo;   Microvascular reactivity: index of skin perfusion in response to local/regional cooling after a single dose of sildenafil, as compared to placebo (laboratory experiments)
17 Recruiting Effectiveness of the Vasodilator Test With Revatio, Made in Patients With Acute Pulmonary Hypertension
Condition: Pulmonary Hypertension
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil 20mg oral vs Sildenafil 10mg intravenous
Outcome Measure: Effectiveness
18 Recruiting Sildenafil Citrate Before Surgery in Improving Kidney Function in Patients With Kidney Cancer
Condition: Kidney Tumor
Interventions: Drug: sildenafil citrate;   Other: placebo;   Procedure: therapeutic conventional surgery
Outcome Measures: Accrual rate;   Retention rate;   Participation rate;   Change in GFR;   Change in proteinuria;   Estimated blood loss;   Hemoglobin concentration;   Changes in blood pressure measurements;   Vasopressor support requirements during the operative procedure;   Intravenous fluid requirements during the operative procedure;   Overall complication rates;   Preliminary effect size of sildenafil citrate on change in GFR
19 Unknown  On Demand Versus Daily Sildenafil for Patients Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy
Condition: Erectile Dysfunction
Intervention: Drug: Sildenafil
Outcome Measures: Proportion of patients with an Erectile Function domain score of International Index of Erectile Function ( IIEF) => 22 at the end of the wash-out period (44 wks after surgery);   Proportion of patients with an Erectile Function domain score of IIEF => 22 at the end of the study (52 wks after surgery);   IIEF - Domain Scores for: Erection Hardness Score (1-4) Intercourse success rates defined by the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) questionnaire (questions 2 and 3) Safety Endpoints: Adverse event summarized Global assessment questions
20 Not yet recruiting Growth Hormone or Sildenafil as Therapies for Fatigue in Mild-​Traumatic-brain-injury (MTBI)
Condition: Traumatic Brain Injury
Interventions: Drug: Growth Hormone;   Drug: Sildenafil;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Perceptual fatigue as measured weekly using the Brief Fatigue Inventory;   Performance fatigue as measured by using hand and leg dynamometry.