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Alcohol withdrawal syndrome and Valium

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Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Symptoms and Causes

For most adults, moderate alcohol use is probably not harmful. However, about 18 million adult Americans have an alcohol use disorder (AUD). This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse.

Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes

  • Craving - a strong need to drink
  • Loss of control - not being able to stop drinking once you've started
  • Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms
  • Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect

With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still have a serious problem. The drinking may cause problems at home, work, or school. It may cause you to put yourself in dangerous situations, or lead to legal or social problems.

Another common problem is binge drinking. It is drinking about five or more drinks in two hours for men. For women, it is about four or more drinks in two hours.

Too much alcohol is dangerous. Heavy drinking can increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide.

You may have an AUD if you can answer yes to two or more of these questions:

In the past year, have you

  • Ended up drinking more or for a longer time than you had planned to?
  • Wanted to cut down or stop drinking, or tried to, but couldn't?
  • Spent a lot of your time drinking, or recovering from drinking?
  • Felt a strong need to drink?
  • Found that drinking - or being sick from drinking - often interfered with your family life, job, or school?
  • Kept drinking even though it was causing trouble with your family or friends?
  • Given up or cut back on activities that you enjoyed just so you could drink?
  • Gotten into dangerous situations while drinking or after drinking? Some examples are driving drunk and having unsafe sex.
  • Kept drinking even though it was making you feel depressed or anxious? Or when it was adding to another health problem?
  • Had to drink more and more to feel the effects of the alcohol?
  • Had withdrawal symptoms when the alcohol was wearing off? They include trouble sleeping, shakiness, irritability, anxiety, depression, restlessness, nausea, and sweating. In severe cases, you could have a fever, seizures, or hallucinations.

If you have any of these symptoms, your drinking may already be a cause for concern. The more symptoms you have, the more serious the problem is. If you think you might have an AUD, see your health care provider for an evaluation. Your provider can help make a treatment plan, prescribe medicines, and if needed, give you treatment referrals.

NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

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Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Comparison of Absorption of Vaginal Diazepam Using Different Delivery Systems
Condition: Metabolism, Drug
Interventions: Drug: Diazepam tablet, 5 mg, vaginal;   Drug: Diazepam Suppository, 5 mg, vaginal;   Drug: Diazepam Cream, 5 mg, Vaginal
Outcome Measures: Serum diazepam levels measured over time;   Side effects observed with each of three types of vaginal diazepam
2 Recruiting Vaginal Diazepam for the Treatment of Female Pelvic Pain
Conditions: Pelvic Floor Disorders;   Pelvic Pain
Interventions: Drug: Diazepam;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change from baseline in Visual Analog Pain Scale score at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks.;   Change from baseline in Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 Questionnaire score at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks.;   Change from baseline in McGill Pain Questionnaire score at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks.;   Change from baseline in Global Response Assessment score at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks.
3 Recruiting Lofexidine for Inpatient Opiate Detox in Singapore
Condition: Opiate Dependent Patients Who Are Undergoing Inpatient Detoxification in Singapore
Interventions: Drug: Lofexidine;   Drug: Diazepam;   Drug: Placebo for Lofexidine;   Drug: Placebo for Diazepam
Outcome Measures: To evaluate differences in OOWS (Objective Opiate Withdrawal Scale);   To evaluate differences in SOWS (Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale);   To evaluate differences in pupil sizes;   To evaluate differences in craving on the Visual Analogue Scale;   To evaluate differences in time to drop-out (length of stay on the ward);   To evaluate differences in emotional/psychological symptoms
4 Unknown  Performance Study of the SOLO 2.0 Insulin Pump
Condition: Type 1 Diabetes
Intervention: Device: SOLO insulin pump
Outcome Measures: Device related safety issues;   SOLO use errors;   Device-related adverse outcome;   Diabetes-related adverse outcome;   Satisfaction iwth SOLO;   Product quality (MTBF)
5 Recruiting A Prospective Trial to Reduce Post-Operative Pain in Implant Based Breast Reconstruction
Condition: Post-operative Pain
Interventions: Drug: Bupivacaine;   Drug: Botulinum Toxins;   Drug: Analgesics
Outcome Measure: Pain Score Questionnaire
6 Recruiting Safety and Feasibility Study of Enhanced Recovery in Pancreaticoduodenectomy
Condition: Pancreaticoduodenectomy (E04.210.760)
Interventions: Behavioral: Enhanced recovery after surgery protocol;   Procedure: Standard perioperative care;   Drug: PONV prophylaxis with Ondansetron + Dexamethasone;   Other: Postoperative mobilization program;   Drug: Epidural analgesia with naropin + sufentanil;   Drug: Pre-anesthetic medication with diazepam;   Behavioral: Preadmission counselling;   Drug: Preoperative bowel preparation with sodium phosphate
Outcome Measures: Adherence to the pathway;   Postoperative outcome
7 Recruiting Optimization of Procedural Sedation Protocol Used for Dental Care Delivery in People With Mental Disability
Condition: Dental Care for Disabled
Interventions: Drug: Midazolam Mylan;   Drug: Lorazepam Mylan;   Drug: Valium + Akineton + Dehydrobenzperidol + Atropine sulfate
Outcome Measures: Level of cooperation of patient when receiving regular dental care;   Recording of vital parameters during regular dental care delivery;   Level of patient comfort and possible side-effects after dental treatment session
8 Recruiting The PROOF Study: The PICC Related Obstruction Of Flow Study
Condition: Patients Indicated for a PICC for Any Medical Condition
Interventions: Device: BioFlo™ Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC);   Device: Bard® Dual-Lumen PowerPICC SOLO2®
Outcome Measures: Incidence of catheter-related venous thrombosis as confirmed by diagnostic ultrasound;   Incidence of other catheter-related complications
9 Not yet recruiting Implementing Health Plan-Level Care Management for Solo & Small Practices
Conditions: Bipolar Disorder;   Depression
Interventions: Behavioral: Chronic Care Model for Mood Disorders;   Other: Educational Control
Outcome Measures: Quality of Life;   Reduced Mood Disorder Symptoms;   Improved Guideline-Concordant Care;   Reduced Hospitalizations;   Improved Work Productivity
10 Unknown  Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Flex Solo II Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanner and Stereo Navigator Biopsy Accessory for the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
Condition: Breast Cancer
Intervention: Procedure: PEM Breast Biopsy
Outcome Measures: Evidence that breast biopsy can be performed using PEM and Stereo Navigator software;   Evidence that breast biopsy can be performed in less clinical visits than if biopsy is performed using MRI, mammogram, and/or ultrasound
11 Recruiting Perioperative Δ9-THC for Postsurgical Pain
Condition: Pain
Interventions: Drug: Namisol;   Drug: Diazepam/placebo
Outcome Measures: Analgesic efficacy;   Incidence of persistent continuous or intermittent postsurgical abdominal pain
12 Unknown  The Effect of Prescription Medications in Marijuana Users
Condition: Marijuana Abuse
Intervention: Drug: bupropion, diazepam, dronabinol, ramelteon (Investigational Drug)
Outcome Measures: marijuana withdrawal;   subjective effects of smoked marijuana;   cognitive performance
13 Recruiting Tolerance of PICC Line Versus Implanted Port for Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Early Breast Cancer
Condition: Early Stage Breast Carcinoma
Interventions: Device: implanted port for chemo administration (X-port isp);   Device: Use of a PICC line for chemo administration (PowerPICC SOLO²)
Outcome Measures: Probability of occurrence of a significant adverse event related to the central venous device;   Patients' satisfaction for the use of their central venous device
14 Unknown  Quality of Sleep in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis
Condition: Rheumatoid Arthritis
Intervention: Drug: diazepam, melatonin
Outcome Measure:
15 Unknown  Continuation Electroconvulsive Therapy (C-ECT) for Relapse Prevention in Major Depression
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Device: Thrymatron System IV device (CONSOLIDATION ELECTROCONVUsLIVE THERAPY) plus PHARMACOTHERAPY;   Drug: PHARMACOTHERAPY
Outcome Measures: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 21 items (HDRS-21);   Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE 35);   UKU - Adverse effects rating scales;   Demographical Data Memory (MEDABI-20);   Rey Figure;   Trail Making Test A;   Trail Making Test B;   Stroop Test;   Direct and inverse digits (WAIS, Weschler Adults Intelligence Sacle).;   Vocabulary WAIS (Weschler Adults Intelligence Scale);   Frequency Hospitalization Quotient;   Hospital Day Quotient (HDQ)
16 Recruiting RCT of Mesh Versus Jet Nebulizers on Clinical Outcomes During Mechanical Ventilation in the Intensive Care Unit
Condition: Respiratory Insufficiency
Interventions: Device: Vibrating Mesh Nebulizer Arm;   Device: Jet Nebulizer Arm
Outcome Measures: Venilator Associated Events;   Bacterial Count and type;   Length of Stay in Intensive Care Unit;   Days on Mechanical Ventilation;   Ventilator-Associated Tracheobronchitis
17 Recruiting Gabapentin Treatment of Benzodiazepine Dependence
Condition: Benzodiazepine Dependence
Interventions: Drug: gabapentin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Abstinence from Benzodiazepine use
18 Unknown  Extended-release Epidural Morphine for Acute Post-operative Analgesia Following Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy in Children
Condition: Spastic Cerebral Palsy
Interventions: Drug: Extended-release Epidural morphine (EREM) 80;   Drug: Extended-release Epidural Morphine (EREM) 120;   Drug: Control: Saline
Outcome Measures: Quantity of fentanyl administered;   Adequacy of analgesia as judged by age-adjusted pain scales.;   Incidence of respiratory depression;   Hemodynamic instability;   Rate of CSF leak;   Rate of infection;   Urinary retention;   Nausea and/or vomiting;   Pruritis
19 Recruiting Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep: Response of Neuropsychological Deficits and Epileptiform Activity to Clobazam Treatment
Condition: Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep
Intervention: Drug: ESES treated with clobazam
Outcome Measures: Cognitive ability;   Language;   Executive function;   Adaptive/development skills;   Behavior;   Interictal epileptiform activity
20 Recruiting Pharmacokinetics of Nebulized Amikacin in Non Invasive Ventilated Healthy Volunteers.
Conditions: Acute Respiratory Insufficiency;   Chronic Respiratory Insufficiency;   Bronchospasm and Obstruction
Intervention: Device: Nebulizer
Outcome Measure: Pharmacokinetics of nebulized amikacin