Blood pressure and Bengay


Blood Pressure Symptoms and Causes

About 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure, or hypertension, but many don't realize it. High blood pressure usually has no warning signs, yet it can lead to life-threatening conditions like heart attack or stroke. The good news is that you can often prevent or treat high blood pressure. Early diagnosis and simple, healthy changes can keep high blood pressure from seriously damaging your health.

What is blood pressure?

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is called diastolic pressure.

Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers. Usually the systolic number comes before or above the diastolic number.

How do I know if my blood pressure is high?

High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. So the only way to find out if you have high blood pressure is to get regular blood pressure checks from your health care provider. Your provider will use a gauge, a stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. For most adults, blood pressure readings will be in one of four categories:

Normal blood pressure means

  • Your systolic pressure is less than 120 AND
  • Your diastolic pressure is less than 80

Prehypertension means

  • Your systolic pressure is between 120-139 OR
  • Your diastolic pressure is between 80-89

Stage 1 high blood pressure means

  • Your systolic pressure is between 140-159 OR
  • Your diastolic pressure is between 90-99

Stage 2 high blood pressure means

  • Your systolic pressure is 160 or higher OR
  • Your diastolic pressure is 100 or higher

For children and teens, the health care provider compares the blood pressure reading to what is normal for other kids who are the same age, height, and gender.

People with diabetes or chronic kidney disease should keep their blood pressure below 130/80.

Why do I need to worry about prehypertension and high blood pressure?

Prehypertension means you're likely to end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it.

When your blood pressure stays high over time, it causes the heart to pump harder and work overtime, possibly leading to serious health problems such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and kidney failure.

What are the different types of high blood pressure?

There are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure.

  • Primary, or essential, high blood pressure is the most common type of high blood pressure. For most people who get this kind of blood pressure, it develops over time as you get older.
  • Secondary high blood pressure is caused by another medical condition or use of certain medicines. It usually gets better after you treat the cause or stop taking the medicines that are causing it.
Who is at risk for high blood pressure?

Anyone can develop high blood pressure, but there are certain factors that can increase your risk:

  • Age - Blood pressure tends to rise with age
  • Race/Ethnicity - High blood pressure is more common in African American adults
  • Weight - People who are overweight or have obesity are more likely to develop prehypertension or high blood pressure
  • Gender - Before age 55, men are more likely than women to develop high blood pressure. After age 55, women are more likely than men to develop it.
  • Lifestyle - Certain lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure, such as eating too much sodium or not enough potassium, lack of exercise, drinking too much alcohol, and smoking.
  • Family history - A family history of high blood pressure raises the risk of developing prehypertension or high blood pressure
How can I prevent high blood pressure?

You can help prevent high blood pressure by having a healthy lifestyle. This means

  • Eating a healthy diet. To help manage your blood pressure, you should limit the amount of sodium (salt) that you eat, and increase the amount of potassium in your diet. It is also important to eat foods that are lower in fat, as well as plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The DASH diet is an example of an eating plan that can help you to lower your blood pressure.
  • Getting regular exercise. Exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight and lower your blood pressure. You should try to get moderate-intensity aerobic exercise at least 2 and a half hours per week, or vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise for 1 hour and 15 minutes per week. Aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, is any exercise in which your heart beats harder and you use more oxygen than usual.
  • Being at a healthy weight. Being overweight or having obesity increases your risk for high blood pressure. Maintaining a healthy weight can help you control high blood pressure and reduce your risk for other health problems.
  • Limiting alcohol. Drinking too much alcohol can raise your blood pressure. It also adds extra calories, which may cause weight gain. Men should have no more than two drinks per day, and women only one.
  • Not smoking. Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and puts you at higher risk for heart attack and stroke. If you do not smoke, do not start. If you do smoke, talk to your health care provider for help in finding the best way for you to quit.
  • Managing stress. Learning how to relax and manage stress can improve your emotional and physical health and lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include exercising, listening to music, focusing on something calm or peaceful, and meditating.

If you already have high blood pressure, it is important to prevent it from getting worse or causing complications. You should get regular medical care and follow your prescribed treatment plan. Your plan will include healthy lifestyle habit recommendations and possibly medicines.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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Blood Pressure Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Not yet recruiting Manipulating Tobacco Constituents in Female Menthol Smokers
Condition: Nicotine Dependence
Interventions: Other: Reduced Nicotine;   Other: Reduced Nicotine Content-Menthol;   Other: Conventional Nicotine-Menthol;   Other: Conventional Nicotine
Outcome Measures: The goal of the cigarette conditions is to find the impact of varying nicotine and menthol concentrations on smoking rate and abstinence.;   Toxicant Exposure
2 Recruiting A Multicenter Efficacy Study of a Diclofenac+Menthol Gel in Subjects With Ankle Sprain
Condition: Ankle Sprain
Interventions: Drug: 1% diclofenac sodium plus 3% menthol;   Drug: 1% diclofenac sodium plus 0.09% menthol;   Drug: 3% menthol;   Drug: Placebo with 0.09% menthol gel
Outcome Measures: AUC (1-3 days);   Pain Intensity Difference (PID) on movement;   PID at rest;   Pain Relief Score (PRS);   Sum of Pain Intensity Difference (SPID);   Time of Onset of Pain Relief (TOPR);   Time of Onset of Meaningful Pain Relief (TOMR);   Time of Onset of Cooling Sensation (TOCS);   Total Pain Relief (TOTPAR);   Skin Temperature;   Ankle Swelling;   Time to complete Recovery;   Patient's Global Assessment in Response to Treatment (PGART);   Adverse events (AEs)
3 Recruiting The Effects of Menthol as Delivered by an Electronic Cigarette on the Desirability of Nicotine in Tobacco Users
Condition: Nicotine Dependence
Interventions: Drug: IV nicotine;   Drug: Tobacco Flavor;   Drug: Low dose Menthol;   Drug: High Dose Menthol
Outcome Measure: Peak Change on Items of the Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ)
4 Recruiting Reduced Exposure Study Using the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2) Menthol for 91 Days in Confinement and Ambulatory
Condition: Smoking
Interventions: Other: THS 2.2 Menthol;   Other: SA;   Other: mCC
Outcome Measures: The evaluation of the total levels of monohydroxybutenyl mercapturic acid (MHBMA); 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA); S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA); total4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (total NNAL) in 24 hours urine.;   The evaluation of the total levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in blood.
5 Recruiting Effects and Safety of Menthol on Blood Pressure and Metabolic Parameters in Prehypertensive and Mild Hypertensive Patients
Conditions: Hypertension;   Prehypertension
Interventions: Drug: Menthol;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: The decrease in diastolic blood pressure after an 8-week oral menthol administration
6 Recruiting Reduced Exposure Study Using the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2) Menthol for 90 Days in Confinement and Ambulatory
Condition: Smoking
Interventions: Other: THS 2.2 Menthol;   Other: SA;   Other: mCC
Outcome Measures: To demonstrate the levels of monohydroxybutenyl mercapturic acid (MHBMA); 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA); S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) expressed as concentration adjusted to creatinine in 24-hour urine and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in blood.;   To demonstrate the levels of Total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3- pyridyl)-1-butanol) (Total NNAL)
7 Recruiting STOPAIN in the Treatment of a Single Migraine Attack
Condition: Migraine
Intervention: Drug: STOPAIN topical gel
Outcome Measures: Efficacy of STOPAIN in the Acute Treatment of Migraine;   evaluate the tolerability, safety, and sustained pain freedom of STOPAIN
8 Not yet recruiting Acute Effect of Topical Menthol on Neck Pain
Condition: Musculoskeletal Disorders
Interventions: Other: Biofreeze;   Other: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Neck pain intensity (scale 0-10);   Pressure pain threshold (PPT)
9 Not yet recruiting EverFlex™ Self-expanding Peripheral Stent With Entrust™ Delivery System Clinical Study
Condition: Peripheral Arterial Diseases
Intervention: Device: EverFlex™ Stent with Entrust™ Delivery System
Outcome Measures: Absence of stent elongation;   Successful stent deployment
10 Recruiting Topical Menthol for the Treatment of Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy
Conditions: Breast Cancer;   Colon Cancer
Interventions: Other: topical menthol;   Other: placebo cream
Outcome Measures: neuropathic pain;   functional tests
11 Recruiting Effectiveness of Biofreeze® on Shoulder Pain and In-office Exercise Performance
Condition: Shoulder Pain
Intervention: Drug: Biofreeze
Outcome Measures: Change from Baseline of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Questionnaire at 2 weeks;   Change from baseline of Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) at 2 weeks;   Change from baseline of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Questionnaire at 4 weeks;   Change from baseline of Numeric Pain Rating Scale at 4 weeks
12 Recruiting EverFlex Post Approval Study
Conditions: Peripheral Arterial Disease;   Lower Extremity Arterial Disease
Intervention: Device: EverFlex™ Self-Expanding Peripheral Stent System
Outcome Measure: Primary Outcome - Composite endpoint
13 Unknown  Osteoarthritis in Older Adults: Recovery of Mobility and Pain With a Topical Analgesic
Condition: Knee Osteoarthritis
Interventions: Drug: Biofreeze;   Other: Placebo
Outcome Measures: WOMAC score;   Quality of life measured using SF 36
14 Recruiting Self-operated Endo-vaginal Telemonitoring (SOET), an Economic and Patient-empowered Method for Ovarian Stimulation for In-vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Condition: IVF Treatment
Intervention: Device: Perform Echo at home.
Outcome Measure: Higher efficacy by taking an echo at home.
15 Recruiting Effects of Electronic Cigarettes on Nicotine Concentrations
Condition: Health Behavior
Interventions: Other: Nicotine with Tobacco Flavor;   Other: Nicotine with Tobacco and Menthol Flavor
Outcome Measures: Effects E-cig use on venous nicotine concentrations before and 5, 10, 15,20 and 30 minutes after use;   Effects of E-cig use on measures of pulmonary resistance before and 5 minutes after use
16 Recruiting Does Ultrasound Guidance Improve Time to Perform a Spinal or Number of Attempts in Obese Patients?
Condition: Spinal Anesthesia Administration.
Interventions: Procedure: Ultrasound guidance;   Procedure: Palpation of Tuffier's line;   Procedure: Spinal anesthetic
Outcome Measures: Total time to perform the spinal;   Time from administration of the local anesthetic needle until free flow CSF;   Number of needle redirections;   Number of attempts to complete the spinal;   Number of failed blocks
17 Unknown  Comparative Efficacy of the Suppository Versus Guaiacol Suppository Versus Guaifenesin Syrup in Pediatric Patients With Cough Due the Infectious Origin
Condition: Cough
Interventions: Drug: Guaiacol, eucalyptol, menthol and camphor suppository;   Drug: guaiacol suppository;   Drug: Guaifenesin syrup
Outcome Measures: Improvement of cough of infectious origin.;   Analysis of parameters for the improvement of infectious cough.
18 Recruiting A Test of the Comparison Between Trans-rectal and Trans-perineal Biopsy of Prostate
Condition: Complication
Interventions: Procedure: trans-rectal to perform the prostate biopsy;   Procedure: trans-perineal to perform the prostate biopsy
Outcome Measures: the rate of positive detections;   the incidence rate of each complication
19 Unknown  PERfusion CT in the FOXFIRE Trial to Study Blood Flow to Liver Metastases
Condition: Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Intervention: Other: Perfusion CT scan
Outcome Measures: Recruitment rate to this voluntary study and acquisition of sufficient data for perfusion analysis;   Correlation between the tumour perfusion pattern on perfusion CT studies at baseline and shortly after the start of therapy and morphological response by RECIST criteria on CT scan 3 months post therapy in both arms of the FOXFIRE trial.
20 Recruiting St.Jude Medical Cardiac Lead Assessment Study
Condition: Prevalence of Externalized Conductors and Other Visual Lead Anomalies in Certain Family of High Voltage and CRT Leads
Outcome Measures: The prevalence of electrical dysfunction in the Riata, Riata ST, QuickSite/QuickFlex (1056T, 1058T, 1156T, 1158T) and Durata leads.;   The prevalence of externalized conductors in the Riata, Riata ST, QuickSite/QuickFlex (1056T, 1058T, 1156T, 1158T) and Durata leads.;   The prevalence of other visual lead anomalies by each subcategory (fracture, kink, subclavian crush, other irregularities) in the Riata, Riata ST, QuickSite/QuickFlex (1056T, 1058T, 1156T, 1158T) and Durata leads.;   The annual hazard rate of lead electrical dysfunction (from enrollment) conditional on implant year in the Riata, Riata ST, QuickSite/QuickFlex (1056T, 1058T, 1156T, 1158T) and Durata leads.;   The annual hazard rate of new cases of externalized conductors (from enrollment), by year of initial implant in the Riata, Riata ST, QuickSite/QuickFlex (1056T, 1058T, 1156T, 1158T) and Durata leads.;   The annual hazard rate of new cases of other visual lead anomalies by each subcategory (from enrollment), by year of initial implant in the Riata, Riata ST, QuickSite/QuickFlex (1056T, 1058T, 1156T, 1158T) and Durata leads;   Prevalence of "other insulation anomalies" in "returned leads" by year of initial implant in the Riata, Riata ST, QuickSite/QuickFlex (1056T, 1058T, 1156T, 1158T) and Durata leads.;   Time from enrollment to externalized conductors by year of initial implant;   Time from enrollment to other visual lead anomalies (evidenced by imaging) by year of initial implant and each subcategory.;   Time from enrollment to electrical dysfunction, by year of implant;   Time from externalized conductors to electrical dysfunction, by year of initial implant.;   Time from other visual lead anomalies by each lead subcategory to electrical dysfunction, by year of initial implant.;   Adverse Event rate through 30 days post-intervention for lead (e.g. extraction, abandonment, revision, other).;   Time from externalized conductors to clinical intervention;   Time from other visual lead anomalies by each subcategory to clinical intervention.;   Comparison of patients with lead compromise as evidenced by imaging (includes externalized conductors and other visual lead anomalies by each subcategory) to those without lead compromise.;   Comparison of patients with electrical dysfunction to those without electrical dysfunction.