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Blood pressure and Lisinopril

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Blood Pressure Symptoms and Causes

About 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure, or hypertension, but many don't realize it. High blood pressure usually has no warning signs, yet it can lead to life-threatening conditions like heart attack or stroke. The good news is that you can often prevent or treat high blood pressure. Early diagnosis and simple, healthy changes can keep high blood pressure from seriously damaging your health.

What is blood pressure?

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is called diastolic pressure.

Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers. Usually the systolic number comes before or above the diastolic number.

How do I know if my blood pressure is high?

High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. So the only way to find out if you have high blood pressure is to get regular blood pressure checks from your health care provider. Your provider will use a gauge, a stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. For most adults, blood pressure readings will be in one of four categories:

Normal blood pressure means

  • Your systolic pressure is less than 120 AND
  • Your diastolic pressure is less than 80

Prehypertension means

  • Your systolic pressure is between 120-139 OR
  • Your diastolic pressure is between 80-89

Stage 1 high blood pressure means

  • Your systolic pressure is between 140-159 OR
  • Your diastolic pressure is between 90-99

Stage 2 high blood pressure means

  • Your systolic pressure is 160 or higher OR
  • Your diastolic pressure is 100 or higher

For children and teens, the health care provider compares the blood pressure reading to what is normal for other kids who are the same age, height, and gender.

People with diabetes or chronic kidney disease should keep their blood pressure below 130/80.

Why do I need to worry about prehypertension and high blood pressure?

Prehypertension means you're likely to end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it.

When your blood pressure stays high over time, it causes the heart to pump harder and work overtime, possibly leading to serious health problems such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and kidney failure.

What are the different types of high blood pressure?

There are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure.

  • Primary, or essential, high blood pressure is the most common type of high blood pressure. For most people who get this kind of blood pressure, it develops over time as you get older.
  • Secondary high blood pressure is caused by another medical condition or use of certain medicines. It usually gets better after you treat the cause or stop taking the medicines that are causing it.
Who is at risk for high blood pressure?

Anyone can develop high blood pressure, but there are certain factors that can increase your risk:

  • Age - Blood pressure tends to rise with age
  • Race/Ethnicity - High blood pressure is more common in African American adults
  • Weight - People who are overweight or have obesity are more likely to develop prehypertension or high blood pressure
  • Gender - Before age 55, men are more likely than women to develop high blood pressure. After age 55, women are more likely than men to develop it.
  • Lifestyle - Certain lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure, such as eating too much sodium or not enough potassium, lack of exercise, drinking too much alcohol, and smoking.
  • Family history - A family history of high blood pressure raises the risk of developing prehypertension or high blood pressure
How can I prevent high blood pressure?

You can help prevent high blood pressure by having a healthy lifestyle. This means

  • Eating a healthy diet. To help manage your blood pressure, you should limit the amount of sodium (salt) that you eat, and increase the amount of potassium in your diet. It is also important to eat foods that are lower in fat, as well as plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The DASH diet is an example of an eating plan that can help you to lower your blood pressure.
  • Getting regular exercise. Exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight and lower your blood pressure. You should try to get moderate-intensity aerobic exercise at least 2 and a half hours per week, or vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise for 1 hour and 15 minutes per week. Aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, is any exercise in which your heart beats harder and you use more oxygen than usual.
  • Being at a healthy weight. Being overweight or having obesity increases your risk for high blood pressure. Maintaining a healthy weight can help you control high blood pressure and reduce your risk for other health problems.
  • Limiting alcohol. Drinking too much alcohol can raise your blood pressure. It also adds extra calories, which may cause weight gain. Men should have no more than two drinks per day, and women only one.
  • Not smoking. Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and puts you at higher risk for heart attack and stroke. If you do not smoke, do not start. If you do smoke, talk to your health care provider for help in finding the best way for you to quit.
  • Managing stress. Learning how to relax and manage stress can improve your emotional and physical health and lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include exercising, listening to music, focusing on something calm or peaceful, and meditating.

If you already have high blood pressure, it is important to prevent it from getting worse or causing complications. You should get regular medical care and follow your prescribed treatment plan. Your plan will include healthy lifestyle habit recommendations and possibly medicines.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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Blood Pressure Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Not yet recruiting Bedtime Administration of Amlodipine Versus Lisinopril
Condition: Hypertension
Intervention: Drug: Amlodipine
Outcome Measures: Change in mean sleep-time systolic blood pressure after addition of a bedtime dose of amlodipine versus Lisinopril;   Changes in mean sleep-time diastolic, awake systolic and diastolic blood pressures, including comparison of % achieving target BP;   Impact of individual medications on sleep-time blood pressure drop (dipping status);   Association of baseline renin levels to sleep-time blood pressure drop;   Association of baseline renin levels with response to amlodipine versus Lisinopril;   Association of baseline dipping status with response to amlodipine versus Lisinopril;   Association of age and response to amlodipine versus Lisinopril
2 Recruiting Lisinopril or Coreg CR® in Reducing Side Effects in Women With Breast Cancer Receiving Trastuzumab
Conditions: Breast Cancer;   Cardiac Toxicity
Interventions: Drug: Coreg CR®;   Drug: Lisinopril;   Other: placebo
Outcome Measures: Reduction in incidence of trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity after 52 weeks of treatment as measured by preservation of LVEF;   Comparison of the LVEF of each treatment group with the placebo arm;   Number of trastuzumab courses completed without interruption;   Quality-of-life changes as assessed by EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire at baseline and at the end of treatment;   Long-term effects of study drugs as assessed at 18 and 24 months (or 6 and 12 months after completion of trastuzumab therapy)
3 Recruiting Lisinopril in Reducing Shortness of Breath Caused by Radiation Therapy in Patients With Lung Cancer
Conditions: Dyspnea;   Non-small Cell Lung Cancer;   Small Cell Lung Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Lisinopril;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measures: Incidence of grade 3 or higher hypotension, acute kidney injury, allergic reaction, or anaphylaxis, as measured using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE) version 4.0;   Incidence of adverse events as measured using the NCI CTCAE version 4.0;   Quality of life, assessed using lung cancer symptom scale (LCSS), Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer (FACT-L), and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Lung Cancer (EORTC-QLQ-LC13);   Incidence of acute respiratory distress (dyspnea), measured using the maximum score, at any time, of the shortness of breath question on the LCSS;   Patient-level symptoms as measured using the Symptom Experience Questionnaire (SEQ)
4 Not yet recruiting CAndesartan vs Lisinopril Effects on the BRain
Conditions: Hypertension;   Mild Cognitive Impairment
Interventions: Drug: Candesartan;   Drug: Lisinopril
Outcome Measures: Executive function (EXAMINER score);   Perfusion and Vasoreactivity (VR);   rs-fMRI
5 Recruiting Clinical Trial of Coenzyme Q10 and Lisinopril in Muscular Dystrophies
Conditions: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy;   Becker Muscular Dystrophy;   Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy
Intervention: Drug: Coenzyme Q10 and Lisinopril
Outcome Measure: myocardial performance index (MPI)
6 Unknown  Paramedic Initiated Lisinopril For Acute Stroke Treatment
Condition: Stroke
Interventions: Drug: Lisinopril;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Number of participants enrolled per month;   Proportion fulfilling eligibility criteria;   Proportion attended by research trained paramedic;   Proportion enrolled by research trained paramedic;   Proportion approached but not enrolled;   Additional time spent on scene;   Paramedic compliance;   Hospital staff compliance;   Proportion completing study medication;   Clinical outcome measures;   Adverse events
7 Recruiting Effect of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor, Lisinopril, on Renal Blood Flow and Its Correlation With Proteinuria Reduction in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes and Kidney Disease
Condition: Type 2 Diabetes
Interventions: Drug: ACEI or ARB;   Drug: Lisinopril
Outcome Measures: Change in renal blood flow (RBF);   Change in Proteinuria
8 Recruiting Genetic Mechanisms in Human Hypertension Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System (RAAS) Inhibition Study
Condition: Hypertension
Intervention: Drug: Lisinopril, Atenolol
Outcome Measure: One type of blood pressure medication will better treat individuals with certain genetic backgrounds.
9 Recruiting Non-invasive Haemodynamic Assessment in Hypertension
Condition: Arterial Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Lisinopril;   Drug: Telmisartan;   Drug: Nebivolol;   Drug: Indapamide/hydrochlorothiazide;   Drug: Amlodipine
Outcome Measures: 24-h mean Systolic Blood Pressure (in ABPM);   24-h mean Diastolic Blood Pressure (in ABPM);   daytime mean Systolic Blood Pressure (in ABPM);   daytime mean Diastolic Blood Pressure (in ABPM);   night-time mean Systolic Blood Pressure (in ABPM);   night-time mean Diastolic Blood Pressure (in ABPM);   Systolic Blood Pressure (in OBPM);   Diastolic Blood Pressure (in OBPM);   change from baseline in Systolic Blood Pressure (in OBPM) at 3 months;   change from baseline in Diastolic Blood Pressure (in OBPM) at 3 months;   change from baseline in 24-h Systolic Blood Pressure (in ABPM) at 3 months;   change from baseline in 24-h Diastolic Blood Pressure (in ABPM) at 3 months;   change from baseline in daytime Systolic Blood Pressure (in ABPM) at 3 months;   change from baseline in daytime Diastolic Blood Pressure (in ABPM) at 3 months;   change from baseline in night-time Systolic Blood Pressure (in ABPM) at 3 months;   change from baseline in night-time Diastolic Blood Pressure (in ABPM) at 3 months
10 Recruiting The VALDIATE-D Study
Conditions: Type 2 Diabetes;   Obesity
Interventions: Drug: Calcitriol and Lisinopril;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Circulating RAS activity after calcitriol/placebo therapy;   Renal-vascular tissue RAS activity after calcitriol/placebo therapy;   Renal-vascular RAS activity and urien protein after calcitriol/Lisinopril therapy;   Adiponectin levels;   Adipose-tissue RAS measures
11 Not yet recruiting Single Pill to Avert Cardiovascular Events
Condition: Cardiovascular Disease
Interventions: Drug: polipillV1;   Drug: polipillV2;   Drug: usual care
Outcome Measures: compliance with treatment;   changed in blood pressure;   changes in LDL-cholesterol levels;   the main reason for non compliance with treatment;   safety of poli pill measures by laboratorial tests;   combined outcome
12 Recruiting ACE Inhibitors to Decrease Lymphoid Fibrosis in Antiretroviral-Treated, HIV-infected Patients: A Pilot Study
Condition: HIV
Interventions: Drug: Lisinopril;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in HIV RNA (copies/mil CD4);   Change in HIV DNA (copies/mil CD4)
13 Recruiting The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and Parathyroid Hormone Control: The RAAS-PARC Study
Condition: Hyperparathyroidism
Interventions: Drug: captopril;   Drug: Lisinopril
Outcome Measures: Parathyroid hormone, before and after, ACE inhibitor administration;   Serum and urinary aldosterone measurements before and after ACE inhibitor use;   Serum calcium before and after ACE inhibitor administration
14 Recruiting Risk Factor Control Before Orthopedic Surgery
Conditions: Osteoarthritis;   Cardiovascular Disease
Interventions: Drug: Metoprolol;   Drug: Lisinopril;   Drug: Atorvastatin;   Behavioral: Lifestyle counseling
Outcome Measures: Composite of cardiovascular events;   Modified composite of cardiovascular events
15 Not yet recruiting Microvascular Disease Exercise Trial
Condition: Coronary Microvascular Disease
Interventions: Behavioral: Exercise Program;   Drug: Medical Therapy
Outcome Measures: Change in MPR on CMR imaging from baseline with intensive medical therapy + supervised exercise versus intensive medical therapy alone.;   Incremental change in MPR with exercise over intensive medical therapy alone in the exercise subgroup;   Identification of reduced MPR (<2.0 ml/g/min) and borderline reduced MPR
16 Not yet recruiting Chronic Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Intermediate Risk Surgery
Condition: Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Take ACE-I;   Drug: Hold ACE-I
Outcome Measures: Intraoperative Hypotension;   Acute Renal Failure;   Low blood pressure subgroup;   Older age subgroup;   Postoperative Hypertension
17 Recruiting Prognostic Value of the Circadian Pattern of Ambulatory Blood Pressure for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment
Conditions: Essential Hypertension;   Cardiovascular Disease;   Stroke;   Chronic Kidney Disease
Interventions: Drug: Any antihypertensive medication alone or in combination;   Device: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
Outcome Measures: To evaluate the impact of circadian time of treatment in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal risk assessment.;   To evaluate the influence of circadian time of treatment in BP control of hypertensive patients.;   To evaluate the prevalence of an altered (non-dipper) BP profile in patients with resistant hypertension as a function of the circadian time of treatment.;   To evaluate the influence of diabetes and circadian time of treatment in the prevalence of an altered (non-dipper) BP profile.;   To evaluate the influence of age and circadian time of treatment in the prevalence of an altered (non-dipper) BP profile.;   To evaluate, for all groups of interest, the prevalence and cardiovascular risk profile of white-coat hypertension.;   To evaluate, for all groups of interest, the prevalence and cardiovascular risk profile of masked hypertension.;   To evaluate, for all previous objectives, potential differences between men and women.;   To evaluate the impact of changes in ambulatory BP in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal risk assessment.
18 Unknown  Effect of ACE-inhibitors on Aortic Stiffness in Elderly Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease
Conditions: Cardiovascular Disease;   Chronic Kidney Disease
Interventions: Drug: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor;   Drug: Lisinopril
Outcome Measure: There may be a statistical correlation between eGFR(estimated glomerular function) and PWV (pulse wave velocity) in patients with CKD, the addition of an ACE inhibitor will decrease PWV in all groups, but to a greater extent in patients wil CKD.
19 Recruiting Renal Denervation in Patients After Acute Coronary Syndrome
Conditions: Acute Coronary Syndrome;   Arterial Hypertension
Interventions: Procedure: Renal denervation;   Drug: Metoprolol;   Drug: Lisinopril
Outcome Measures: cardiovascular death;   myocardium infarction;   stroke;   repeat revascularization;   blood pressure changes;   CCS and NYHA;   heart rhythm disturbances;   intima-media index;   IVS thickness;   restenosis;   diastolic disfunction
20 Unknown  Is There a Benefit to Optimize Heart Failure (HF) Treatment in Aged Over 80 Year's Old Patients?
Condition: Heart Failure
Intervention: Drug: - Angiotensin conversing enzyme inhibitors: enalapril, captopril, Lisinopril, ramipril, trandolapril.
Outcome Measures: Change from baseline in quality of life;   Mortality;   Rehospitalisation;   Cardiovascular events;   Cardiac fibrosis;   Quality of life