Blood pressure and Xalatan


Blood Pressure Symptoms and Causes

About 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure, or hypertension, but many don't realize it. High blood pressure usually has no warning signs, yet it can lead to life-threatening conditions like heart attack or stroke. The good news is that you can often prevent or treat high blood pressure. Early diagnosis and simple, healthy changes can keep high blood pressure from seriously damaging your health.

What is blood pressure?

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is called diastolic pressure.

Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers. Usually the systolic number comes before or above the diastolic number.

How do I know if my blood pressure is high?

High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. So the only way to find out if you have high blood pressure is to get regular blood pressure checks from your health care provider. Your provider will use a gauge, a stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. For most adults, blood pressure readings will be in one of four categories:

Normal blood pressure means

  • Your systolic pressure is less than 120 AND
  • Your diastolic pressure is less than 80

Prehypertension means

  • Your systolic pressure is between 120-139 OR
  • Your diastolic pressure is between 80-89

Stage 1 high blood pressure means

  • Your systolic pressure is between 140-159 OR
  • Your diastolic pressure is between 90-99

Stage 2 high blood pressure means

  • Your systolic pressure is 160 or higher OR
  • Your diastolic pressure is 100 or higher

For children and teens, the health care provider compares the blood pressure reading to what is normal for other kids who are the same age, height, and gender.

People with diabetes or chronic kidney disease should keep their blood pressure below 130/80.

Why do I need to worry about prehypertension and high blood pressure?

Prehypertension means you're likely to end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it.

When your blood pressure stays high over time, it causes the heart to pump harder and work overtime, possibly leading to serious health problems such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and kidney failure.

What are the different types of high blood pressure?

There are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure.

  • Primary, or essential, high blood pressure is the most common type of high blood pressure. For most people who get this kind of blood pressure, it develops over time as you get older.
  • Secondary high blood pressure is caused by another medical condition or use of certain medicines. It usually gets better after you treat the cause or stop taking the medicines that are causing it.
Who is at risk for high blood pressure?

Anyone can develop high blood pressure, but there are certain factors that can increase your risk:

  • Age - Blood pressure tends to rise with age
  • Race/Ethnicity - High blood pressure is more common in African American adults
  • Weight - People who are overweight or have obesity are more likely to develop prehypertension or high blood pressure
  • Gender - Before age 55, men are more likely than women to develop high blood pressure. After age 55, women are more likely than men to develop it.
  • Lifestyle - Certain lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure, such as eating too much sodium or not enough potassium, lack of exercise, drinking too much alcohol, and smoking.
  • Family history - A family history of high blood pressure raises the risk of developing prehypertension or high blood pressure
How can I prevent high blood pressure?

You can help prevent high blood pressure by having a healthy lifestyle. This means

  • Eating a healthy diet. To help manage your blood pressure, you should limit the amount of sodium (salt) that you eat, and increase the amount of potassium in your diet. It is also important to eat foods that are lower in fat, as well as plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The DASH diet is an example of an eating plan that can help you to lower your blood pressure.
  • Getting regular exercise. Exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight and lower your blood pressure. You should try to get moderate-intensity aerobic exercise at least 2 and a half hours per week, or vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise for 1 hour and 15 minutes per week. Aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, is any exercise in which your heart beats harder and you use more oxygen than usual.
  • Being at a healthy weight. Being overweight or having obesity increases your risk for high blood pressure. Maintaining a healthy weight can help you control high blood pressure and reduce your risk for other health problems.
  • Limiting alcohol. Drinking too much alcohol can raise your blood pressure. It also adds extra calories, which may cause weight gain. Men should have no more than two drinks per day, and women only one.
  • Not smoking. Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and puts you at higher risk for heart attack and stroke. If you do not smoke, do not start. If you do smoke, talk to your health care provider for help in finding the best way for you to quit.
  • Managing stress. Learning how to relax and manage stress can improve your emotional and physical health and lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include exercising, listening to music, focusing on something calm or peaceful, and meditating.

If you already have high blood pressure, it is important to prevent it from getting worse or causing complications. You should get regular medical care and follow your prescribed treatment plan. Your plan will include healthy lifestyle habit recommendations and possibly medicines.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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Xalatan Side Effects

Intraocular Pressure Increased (664)
Cataract (375)
Eye Irritation (374)
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Visual Acuity Reduced (237)
Eye Pain (236)
Vision Blurred (189)
Eye Disorder (184)
Glaucoma (170)
Headache (149)
Dry Eye (132)
Cataract Operation (127)
Death (127)
Eye Pruritus (123)
Hypersensitivity (112)
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Visual Impairment (98)
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Incorrect Dose Administered (76)
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Blood Cholesterol Increased (65)
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Blood Pressure Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Unknown  Efficacy and Safety of Three Different Latanoprost 0,005% Eyedrops in Subjects Affected by Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
Conditions: Intraocular Pressure (IOP);   Tear Break-Up Time
Interventions: Drug: IOPIZE© Latanoprost eyedrops;   Drug: GALAXIA© Latanoprost eyedrops;   Drug: Latanoprost RATIOPHARM© latanoprost eyedrops
Outcome Measures: intraocular pressure (IOP) in mmHg;   Tear Break-Up Time (BUT) expressed in seconds
2 Recruiting Safety Study of Latanoprost Slow Release Insert
Conditions: Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG);   Ocular Hypertension (OHT)
Interventions: Drug: Latanoprost;   Drug: Arm 2;   Drug: Latanoprost SR insert
Outcome Measures: Intraocular Pressure;   Intraocular pressure parameters i.e. mean IOP, IOP range, percentage reduction in IOP, IOP fluctuation.
3 Not yet recruiting Latanoprost/Brinzolamide BID Versus Latanoprost BID in Patients With OAG or OH
Conditions: Open Angle Glaucoma;   Ocular Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Latanoprost+Brinzolamide combination;   Drug: Latanoprost
Outcome Measures: IOP;   IOP changes;   IOP measures
4 Unknown  Effects of Latanoprost, Bimatoprost and Travoprost in Patients With Latanoprost-resistant Glaucoma
Conditions: Ocular Hypertension;   Primary Glaucoma
Interventions: Drug: Latanoprost, bimatoprost, travoprost;   Drug: travoprost, latanoprost and bimatoprost
Outcome Measure: intraocular pressure
5 Unknown  Effects of Cosopt on IOP and on Ocular Diastolic Perfusion Pressure
Condition: Glaucoma
Interventions: Drug: Xalatan+Cosopt;   Drug: Xalatan
Outcome Measures: To evaluate the effects of Cosopt on ODPP in patients not adequately controlled with latanoprost alone;   To evaluate the effects of Cosopt on IOP lowering in patients not adequately controlled with latanoprost alone.
6 Recruiting Safety and Efficacy of T-2345 Compared to Xalatan in Subjects With Primary Open Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension
Conditions: Primary Open Angle Glaucoma;   Ocular Hypertenstion
Interventions: Drug: T-2345;   Drug: Xalatan
Outcome Measures: Intraocular pressure;   Visual Acuity;   Slit Lamp Examination;   Ophthalmoscopy;   Visual Field Testing;   Safety
7 Unknown  Effects of Xal-Ease on Patient Compliance With Xalatan
Condition: Glaucoma
Intervention: Device: Xal-Ease device to be used with Xalatan eye drops
Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure is compliance with the medication Xalatan using and not using the Xal-Ease delivery aid for their glaucoma treatment.;   To determine if any of the other factors mentioned in the survey affect compliance to their medical regimen;   To see whether or not the Xal-Ease device helps patients conserve medication. ie - aids in drops not distilled in the eye.
8 Recruiting Effects of Anti-Glaucoma Medications on the Ocular Surface
Condition: Glaucoma
Interventions: Drug: Travoprost;   Drug: Latanoprost
Outcome Measures: Effectiveness in Lowering Intraocular Pressure;   Observation of Dry Eye Symptoms Across the Cornea
9 Recruiting Efficacy of the Brand-name Latanoprost and One of Its Generic Version in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension
Conditions: Primary Open Angle Glaucoma;   Ocular Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Generic latanoprost;   Drug: Brand-name latanoprost
Outcome Measures: Change in Intraocular Pressure (IOP);   Change in Conjunctival hyperemia;   Change in corneal staining;   Change in TSS-IOP (Treatment Satisfaction Survey for IntraOcular Pressure)
10 Unknown  Intraocular Pressure and Ocular Perfusion Pressure of Cosopt in Normal Tension Glaucoma
Condition: Normal Tension Glaucoma
Interventions: Drug: dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination;   Drug: latanoprost
Outcome Measures: Intraocular Pressure (IOP);   IOP;   Blood Pressure (BP);   BP;   Ocular Perfusion Pressure (OPP);   OPP
11 Unknown  Intraocular Pressure (IOP) Lowering Efficacy of Transdermal Latanoprost Therapy
Condition: Glaucoma
Intervention: Drug: 0.005% Latanoprost dosed once.
Outcome Measure: Intraocular Pressure
12 Unknown  Efficiency of XAL-EASE Device in Glaucoma and/or Ocular Hypertension (OHT) Patients, Treated With Xalatan or Xalacom
Conditions: Glaucoma;   Hypertension
Intervention: Device: Xal-Ease
Outcome Measures: Consumption of Xalatan/Xalacom bottles per year per patient.;   Evaluating cost of Xalatan/Xalacom eye drops use per year with Xal-Ease;   Characterizing the optimal conditions for proper usage of the Xal-Ease device
13 Unknown  Comparison of Efficacy of Two Groups of Glaucoma Drops (Xalatan vs.Cosopt) in Reducing Eye Pressure Following Laser (SLT)Treatment in the Management of Glaucoma.
Condition: Open Angle Glaucoma
Interventions: Drug: Cosopt;   Drug: Xalatan
Outcome Measure: Reduction in Intraocular Pressure
14 Not yet recruiting A Phase 1/2 Multicenter, Randomized, Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of VS101 Subconjunctival Latanoprost Insert in Subjects With Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension
Conditions: Open Angle Glaucoma;   Ocular Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: VS101 Insert Dose A;   Drug: VS101 Insert Dose B;   Drug: VS101 Insert Dose C;   Drug: Latanoprost 0.005% eye drops
Outcome Measure: Intra-ocular pressure
15 Recruiting Topical Application of Latanoprost in Diabetic Retinopathy
Condition: Diabetic Retinopathy
Intervention: Drug: Latanoprost
Outcome Measures: The diameter of retinal arterioles;   The severity of diabetic retinopathy
16 Recruiting Intraocular Pressure and Tolerability Study of Preservative-free Prostaglandins (Bimatoprost and Latanoprost) on Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension: European, Multicentric, Investigator-led, Single Masked Study
Conditions: Glaucoma;   Ocular Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Preservative-free latanoprost;   Drug: Preservative-free bimatoprost
Outcome Measures: Difference in mean IOP values between the 2 groups at 6 months;   Difference in IOP values IOP values, visual acuity, hyperaemia, visual acuity and tolerability between the groups in change from baseline
17 Unknown  Central Corneal Thickness and 24-hour Fluctuation of Intraocular Pressure
Conditions: Open Angle Glaucoma;   Ocular Hypertension
Intervention: Drug: Latanoprost
Outcome Measures: Correlation analyses between mean central corneal thickness (CCT) and 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation and between mean CCT and mean IOP reduction from baseline after a 4-weeks period of treatment with latanoprost.;   Correlation analyses between corneal hysteresis (CH) and 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation and between CH and mean IOP reduction from baseline after a 4-weeks period of treatment with latanoprost.
18 Recruiting Treatment of Pediatric Glaucoma
Condition: Childhood Glaucoma
Intervention: Drug: Latanoprost, Dorzolamide
Outcome Measures: percentage of "responder";   Time to treatment failure (TTF);   Incidence of adverse events (AEs)
19 Recruiting Comparison of Latanoprost PPDS With Timolol Maleate GFS in Subjects With Ocular Hypertension or Open-Angle Glaucoma
Conditions: Ocular Hypertension;   Open-Angle Glaucoma
Interventions: Drug: Latanoprost Punctal Plug Delivery System (L-PPDS);   Drug: Timolol Maleate GFS, 0.5%
Outcome Measure: IOP change from baseline and the primary analysis time point will be the early morning assessment at Week 12
20 Recruiting Safety and Efficacy of a New Ophthalmic Formulation of Bimatoprost in Patients With Open Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension
Conditions: Open-Angle Glaucoma;   Ocular Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: bimatoprost ophthalmic formulation A;   Drug: bimatoprost ophthalmic formulation B;   Drug: bimatoprost ophthalmic formulation C;   Drug: bimatoprost ophthalmic formulation D;   Drug: bimatoprost ophthalmic formulation E;   Drug: bimatoprost ophthalmic formulation F;   Drug: Sham;   Drug: timolol 0.5%;   Drug: bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03%;   Drug: latanoprost 0.005%;   Drug: timolol vehicle (placebo)
Outcome Measures: Stage 1: Change from Baseline in Intraocular Pressure (IOP);   Stage 2: Change from Baseline in IOP;   Stage 2: IOP;   Time to Escape Treatment;   Time to Second Injection