Epididymitis Symptoms and Causes

What is chlamydia?

Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. It can infect both men and women. Women can get chlamydia in the cervix, rectum, or throat. Men can get chlamydia in the urethra (inside the penis), rectum, or throat.

How do you get chlamydia?

You can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the infection. A woman can also pass chlamydia to her baby during childbirth.

If you've had chlamydia and were treated in the past, you can get re-infected if you have unprotected sex with someone who has it.

Who is at risk of getting chlamydia?

Chlamydia is more common in young people, especially young women. You are more likely to get it if you don't consistently use a condom, or if you have multiple partners.

What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

Chlamydia doesn't usually cause any symptoms. So you may not realize that you have it. People with chlamydia who have no symptoms can still pass the disease to others. If you do have symptoms, they may not appear until several weeks after you have sex with an infected partner.

Symptoms in women include

  • Abnormal vaginal discharge, which may have a strong smell
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Pain during intercourse

If the infection spreads, you might get lower abdominal pain, pain during sex, nausea, or fever.

Symptoms in men include

  • Discharge from your penis
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Burning or itching around the opening of your penis
  • Pain and swelling in one or both testicles (although this is less common)

If the chlamydia infects the rectum (in men or women), it can cause rectal pain, discharge, and/or bleeding.

How do I know if I have chlamydia?

There are lab tests to diagnose chlamydia. Your health care provider may ask you to provide a urine sample. For women, providers sometimes use (or ask you to use) a cotton swab to get a sample from your vagina to test for chlamydia.

Who should be tested for chlamydia?

You should go to your health provider for a test if you have symptoms of chlamydia, or if you have a partner who has a sexually transmitted disease. Pregnant women should get a test when they go to their first prenatal visit.

People at higher risk should get checked for chlamydia every year:

  • Sexually active women 25 and younger
  • Older women who have new or multiple sex partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted disease
  • Men who have sex with men (MSM)
What are the complications of chlamydia?

In women, an untreated infection can spread to your uterus and fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications.

Men often don't have health problems from chlamydia. Sometimes it can infect the epididymis (the tube that carries sperm). This can cause pain, fever, and, rarely, infertility.

Both men and women can develop reactive arthritis because of a chlamydia infection. Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that happens as a "reaction" to an infection in the body.

Babies born to infected mothers can get eye infections and pneumonia from chlamydia. It may also make it more likely for your baby to be born too early.

Untreated chlamydia may also increase your chances of getting or giving HIV/AIDS.

What are the treatments for chlamydia?

Antibiotics will cure the infection. You may get a one-time dose of the antibiotics, or you may need to take medicine every day for 7 days. Antibiotics cannot repair any permanent damage that the disease has caused.

To prevent spreading the disease to your partner, you should not have sex until the infection has cleared up. If you got a one-time dose of antibiotics, you should wait 7 days after taking the medicine to have sex again. If you have to take medicine every day for 7 days, you should not have sex again until you have finished taking all of the doses of your medicine.

It is common to get a repeat infection, so you should get tested again about three months after treatment.

Can I prevent chlamydia?

The only sure way to prevent chlamydia is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex.

Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading chlamydia.

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Epididymitis Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
RankStatusStudy
1 Unknown A Comparative Study Between Two Formulations of the Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride + Hydrocortisone Otic Suspension
Condition: Otitis Externa
Interventions: Drug: Cipro HC;   Drug: Ciprofloxacin HCl and Hydrocortisone
Outcome Measures: Cure (reduced pain, swelling and otorrhea);   Identification of possible side effects
2 Recruiting Ciprofloxacin for Prevention of BK Infection
Condition: BK Virus Infection
Interventions: Drug: Ciprofloxacin;   Drug: placebo
Outcome Measures: BK infection at 6 months post-transplant;   Incidence of urinary tract infections as defined by a midstream urine sample containing 10^4 or more colony-forming units per mL;   Incidence of bacteremic infections at 6 months. Incidence of bacteremia as defined by a single positive blood culture that was not thought to be contaminated.;   Incidence of quinolone-resistant bacterial infections;   Incidence of clostridium difficile infection;   Serious adverse events;   Time to BK infection;   Proportion of patients developing BK infection at 1 year;   First and peak plasma viral loads;   Incidence of acute rejection at 1 year;   Incidence and severity of BK nephropathy, as defined by positive staining of histopathological specimen, at 1 year
3 Recruiting Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation (DPI) in Non-cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis (Non-CF BE)
Condition: Bronchiectasis
Interventions: Drug: Ciprofloxacin: administered for 28 days on / 28 days off;   Drug: Placebo: administered for 28 days on / 28 days off;   Drug: Ciprofloxacin: administered for 14 days on / 14 days off;   Drug: Placebo: administered for 14 days on / 14 days off
Outcome Measures: Time to first exacerbation;   Mean number of exacerbations per patient per 48 weeks;   Pathogens present at baseline and eradicated at 48 weeks;   Quality of Life: Changes of Saint George's Respiratory;   New pathogens at 48 weeks, not present at baseline;   Changes of Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second from baseline;   Number of participants with Adverse events as a measure of
4 Recruiting Norfloxacin Versus Ciprofloxacin for Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) Prevention
Condition: Adverse Reaction to Other Drugs and Medicines
Interventions: Drug: Norfloxacin;   Drug: Ciprofloxacin
Outcome Measures: The prevention rate of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP);   1 year mortality;   Incidence of infectious event other than SBP;   Hepatorenal syndrome;   Hepatic encephalopathy;   Adverse event of drugs
5 Recruiting Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation in Non-cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis (Non-CF BE)
Condition: Bronchiectasis
Interventions: Drug: Ciprofloxacin DPI (BAYQ3939);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Time to first exacerbation;   Mean number of exacerbations per patient per 48 weeks;   Pathogens present at baseline and eradicated at 48 weeks;   Changes of Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire score from baseline to 48 weeks;   New pathogens at 48 weeks, not present at baseline;   Changes of Forced expiratory volume in 1 second from baseline to 48 weeks;   Number of participants with Adverse events as a measure of safety and tolerability
6 Recruiting Population Pharmacokinetics of Anti-infectious Drugs in Children
Conditions: Pediatrics;   Ceftazidime;   Ciprofloxacin;   Voriconazole
Interventions: Drug: Ceftazidime;   Drug: Ciprofloxacin;   Drug: Voriconazole
Outcome Measures: Population pharmacokinetic parameters and factors explaining variability;   Covariability factors explaining the variability (age, biological data, pharmacokinetics factors, associated treatments...)
7 Recruiting Bioequivalence of Two Ciprofloxacin 0.3%/Dexamethasone 0.1% Sterile Otic Suspensions in Otitis Media in Children With Tympanostomy Tubes
Condition: Otitis Media in Patients With Tympanostomy Tubes.
Interventions: Drug: Ciprofloxacin 0.3%/dexamethasone 0.1% sterile otic suspension;   Drug: CIPRODEX® (Ciprofloxacin 0.3%/dexamethasone 0.1%);   Drug: Placebo Sterile Otic Suspension
Outcome Measures: Clinical Success;   Cessation of Otorrhea
8 Unknown TINN Pharmacokinetics (PK) Study Treat Infections iN Neonates
Condition: Pharmacokinetics of Ciprofloxacin in Neonates
Intervention: Procedure: Collection of biological samples
Outcome Measures: Ciprofloxacin plasma concentration and population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters;   PK variables;   Tolerability;   Safety;   Clinical/microbiological outcomes
9 Not yet recruiting Evaluate the Effects of Itraconazole and Ciprofloxacin on Single-Dose PK of Pracinostat in Healthy Nonsmoking Subjects
Conditions: Healthy Volunteers;   Non-smokers
Interventions: Drug: Pracinostat;   Drug: Itraconazole;   Drug: Ciprofloxacin
Outcome Measures: Peak plasma concentration Cmax in healthy nonsmoking subjects given a single-dose of pracinostat;   Number of participants with Adverse Events as a measure of safety and tolerability of single-dose pracinostat when administered with itraconazole or with Ciprofloxacin in healthy nonsmoking adult subjects.;   Peak plasma PK concentration Area Under the Curve (AUC)AUC 0-t, AUC 0-inf in healthy nonsmoking subjects given a single dose of pracinostat
10 Recruiting A Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Ciprofloxacin in the Treatment of Plague in Humans
Condition: Plague
Interventions: Drug: Ciprofloxacin;   Drug: doxyxcycline
Outcome Measures: all cause mortality;   time to defervesence;   antimicrobial associated adverse events
11 Recruiting Efficacy Study of Prophylaxis With Fosfomycin Versus Ciprofloxacin Prior Prostate Biopsy
Condition: Urinary Tract Infections
Interventions: Drug: Fosfomycin 3 g;   Drug: Ciprofloxacin 500 mg
Outcome Measures: Bacteriuria;   Urinary Tract Infection;   Sepsis;   Pathogens present in urine and antimicrobial resistance;   Bacteremia;   Hematuria;   Hemospermia;   Rectal bleeding;   Urinary retention;   Difficulty for miction;   Genitourinary infections associated to fever (>38ºC);   Number of participants with adverse events
12 Recruiting A Bioequivalence Study of Two Ciprofloxacin/Dexamethasone Formulations in Patients With Otitis Externa
Condition: Otitis Externa
Interventions: Drug: Ciprofloxacin/Dexamethasone;   Drug: Ciprodex (R);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Clinical Success;   Resolution of Symptoms
13 Recruiting Phase 3 Study With Dual Release Ciprofloxacin for Inhalation in Non-CF Bronchiectasis
Condition: Non Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis
Intervention: Drug: Ciprofloxacin
Outcome Measures: Time to first exacerbation;   Number of exacerbations
14 Unknown Comparing Ciprofloxacin (CPFX) With Cefepime (CFPM) in Febrile Neutropenic Patients With Hematologic Diseases
Condition: Febrile Neutropenia
Interventions: Drug: Ciprofloxacin;   Drug: cefepime
Outcome Measures: Treatment efficacy;   Toxicity
15 Recruiting Antibiotics and Hydroxychloroquine in Crohn's
Condition: Crohn's Disease
Interventions: Drug: Ciprofloxacin;   Drug: Doxycycline;   Drug: Hydroxychloroquine;   Drug: Budesonide
Outcome Measures: • Remission, defined as Crohn's Disease activity index (CDAI) <150 at 10 weeks without addition of any other medication or treatment for the Crohn's Disease.;   • Remission, defined as CDAI ≤150 maintained through to 24 weeks;   • Remission, defined as CDAI ≤150 maintained through to 52 weeks;   • Remission defined as CDAI <150 at 4 weeks;   • Response defined as a fall in CDAI by >70 points at 4 weeks and 10 weeks;   • Markers of cost (days admitted to hospital, days unable to carry out normal daily activities, need for surgery);   • Quality of life at 4 weeks, at 10 weeks, or Early Withdrawal;   • Patient global assessment of symptom severity by 10 cm visual analogue score at 4 weeks, at 10 weeks, or Early Withdrawal;   • Adverse Events and possible drug-related side effects: nausea, diarrhoea, mood disturbance, sleep disturbance - will all be assessed at each visit;   • Fall in Faecal Calprotectin
16 Recruiting Rifamycin SV-MMX® Tablets Versus Ciprofloxacin Capsules in Acute Traveller's Diarrhoea
Condition: Traveler's Diarrhea
Interventions: Drug: Rifamycin SV MMX;   Drug: Ciprofloxacin
Outcome Measures: Time to Last Unformed Stool (TLUS);   Clinical cure
17 Recruiting Comparison of Efficacy of Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, and Ciprofloxacin for the Treatment of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Patients With Liver Cirrhosis
Conditions: SBP;   Liver Cirrhosis
Interventions: Drug: Cefotaxime;   Drug: Ceftriaxone;   Drug: Ciprofloxacin
Outcome Measures: Infection resolution rates within 5 days of treatment;   Infection resolution rates within 5 days;   Mortality & recurrence rates within 1 month
18 Recruiting BK Virus in Salivary Gland Disease: Treating the Potential Etiologic Agent
Conditions: HIV;   Salivary Gland Disease;   Benign Lymphoepithelial Lesion
Interventions: Drug: Ciprofloxacin;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: (BK) Virus replication and shedding;   Salivary function
19 Recruiting Finafloxacin for the Treatment of cUTI and/or Acute Pyelonephritis
Conditions: Urinary Tract Infections;   Acute Pyelonephritis
Interventions: Drug: Finafloxacin 800 mg i.v. once daily;   Drug: Finafloxacin placebo i.v. once daily;   Drug: Finafloxacin 800 mg tablets (as four 200 mg tablets) once daily;   Drug: Finafloxacin placebo tablets (as four tablets) once daily;   Drug: Ciprofloxacin 400 mg i.v. two times daily;   Drug: Ciprofloxacin placebo i.v. two times daily;   Drug: Ciprofloxacin 500 mg oral (as two 250 mg capsules) two times daily;   Drug: Ciprofloxacin placebo oral (as two capsules each) two times daily
Outcome Measures: Clinical and microbiological response of patients with cUTI or pyelonephritis.;   The clinical and microbiological response at the On Therapy (OT) visit (Day 3).;   The clinical and microbiological response at the End of Therapy (EoT) visit (Day 10).;   The clinical and microbiological response at the End of Study (EoS) visit (Day 24).;   The safety and tolerability of multiple doses of finafloxacin of both 5 days and 10 days of treatment with finafloxacin (i.v. and oral) in subjects with cUTI, compared to 10 days of Ciprofloxacin (i.v. and oral).;   The predictive capacity of PK/PD data of both 5 days and 10 days of treatment with finafloxacin (i.v. and oral) in subjects with cUTI, using 10 days of Ciprofloxacin (i.v. and oral) as reference on clinical outcomes (EMA guidance).
20 Recruiting Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Condition: Cholelithiasis
Interventions: Drug: Ciprofloxacin;   Drug: Ampicillin-sulbactam;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Surgical site infection;   Extra-abdominal infections;   Adverse events.;   Quality of life