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Hypercholesterolaemia and Atarax

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Hypercholesterolaemia Symptoms and Causes

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your body needs some cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help you digest foods. Your body makes all the cholesterol it needs. Cholesterol is also found in foods from animal sources, such as egg yolks, meat, and cheese.

If you have too much cholesterol in your blood, it can combine with other substances in the blood to form plaque. Plaque sticks to the walls of your arteries. This buildup of plaque is known as atherosclerosis. It can lead to coronary artery disease, where your coronary arteries become narrow or even blocked.

What are LDL and HDL?

There are two main types of cholesterol:

  • HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is called the "good" cholesterol because it carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. Your liver then removes the cholesterol from your body.
  • LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries.
What causes high cholesterol?

The most common cause of high cholesterol is an unhealthy lifestyle. This can include

  • Unhealthy eating habits, such as eating lots of bad fats. One type, saturated fat, is found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. Another type, trans fat, is in some fried and processed foods. Eating these fats can raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol.
  • Lack of physical activity, with lots of sitting and little exercise. This lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol.
  • Smoking, which lowers HDL cholesterol, especially in women. It also raises your LDL cholesterol.

Genetics may also cause people to have high cholesterol. For example, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited form of high cholesterol. Other medical conditions and certain medicines may also cause high cholesterol.

What can raise my risk of high cholesterol?

A variety of things can raise your risk for high cholesterol:

  • Age. Your cholesterol levels tend to rise as you get older.
  • Heredity. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
  • Weight. Being overweight or having obesity raises your cholesterol level.
  • Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
  • Weight. Being overweight or having obesity raises your cholesterol level.
What health problems can high cholesterol cause?

If you have large deposits of plaque in your arteries, an area of plaque can rupture (break open). This can cause a blood clot to form on the surface of the plaque. If the clot becomes large enough, it can mostly or completely block blood flow in a coronary artery.

If the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle is reduced or blocked, it can cause angina (chest pain) or a heart attack.

Plaque also can build up in other arteries in your body, including the arteries that bring oxygen-rich blood to your brain and limbs. This can lead to problems such as carotid artery disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease.

How do I know if I have high cholesterol?

There are usually no signs or symptoms that you have high cholesterol. There is a blood test to measure your cholesterol level. When and how often you should get this test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

For people who are age 19 or younger:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

For people who are age 20 or older:

  • Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
  • Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
How can I lower my cholesterol?

You can lower your cholesterol through heart-healthy lifestyle changes. They include a heart-healthy eating plan, weight management, and regular physical activity.

If the lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol-lowering drugs available, including statins. If you take medicines to lower your cholesterol, you still should continue with the lifestyle changes.

Some people with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) may receive a treatment called lipoprotein apheresis. This treatment uses a filtering machine to remove LDL cholesterol from the blood. Then the machine returns the rest of the blood back to the person.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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Hypercholesterolaemia Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Unknown  Comparing the Efficacy of Pregabalin and Hydroxyzine on the Anxiety Score
Condition: Feeling Anxious
Interventions: Drug: hydroxyzine;   Drug: Pregabalin;   Drug: Lactose
Outcome Measures: Efficacy treatment;   Efficacy of pregabaldin
2 Recruiting Pain and Anxiety Management of Traumatic Emergency in a Pre-hospital Setting
Condition: Pain
Interventions: Drug: Atarax (Hydroxyzine);   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Percentage of patients with pain relief (with a NRS score of 3/10 or lower);   pain score comparisons;   pain and anxiety comparisons;   comparison of adverse events;   patient and investigator satisfaction with analgesia;   assessment of post traumatic anxiety, stress and other related disorders
3 Recruiting Does Preventive Analgesia Improve the Outcome of Demerol-Vistaril Procedural Sedations in Pediatric Dentistry
Condition: Pain
Interventions: Drug: oral placebo;   Drug: Oral Analgesics
Outcome Measures: Improved sedation effectiveness based on numerical value for effectiveness as noted in description;   Difference in heart rate as measured by numerical delta value
4 Recruiting Interaction Between Drug and Placebo Effect:Randomized Placebo Controlled Trials May Not be Accurate in Determining Drug Effect Size
Conditions: Placebo Effect;   Placebo Drug Interaction
Interventions: Drug: Hydroxizine;   Other: Placebo;   Drug: hydroxyzine/placebo
Outcome Measures: Area-under-the-curve for drowsiness;   Area-under-the-curve for dryness of the mouth;   Mean percent of time of reporting drowsiness on a dichotomous scale.;   Mean percent of time of reporting dryness of mouth
5 Unknown  Enteral Versus Intravenous Sedation in Critically Ill High-risk ICU Patients
Conditions: Critical Illness;   Mechanical Ventilation Complication
Interventions: Procedure: Enteral Sedation (EN);   Procedure: Control group: Intravenous Sedation (IV)
Outcome Measures: Percent of efficacy, measured by observed RASS = desired RASS ± 1.;   Sedation protocol effectiveness: percentage of "protocol violation days" on the total of ICU days.;   Delirium and coma free days (respectively negative CAM-ICU and RASS > - 3 in all daily observations until 28° ICU day) (11);   Ventilation free days (12);   Nursing evaluation of sedation adequacy (communication skills, cooperation, environment tolerance) (13);   Overall ICU and hospital mortality, absolute mortality after 1 year from ICU discharge.;   Sedative drugs costs.;   Indirect inefficacy markers
6 Unknown  Neurocognitive Functioning Following The PROMETA® Treatment Protocol In Subjects With Alcohol Dependence
Condition: Alcohol Dependence
Intervention: Drug: Prometa Treatment Program
Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure is neurocognitive functioning as assessed by a battery of standardized neurocognitive tests that assess, executive functioning, verbal memory, general intelligence, and attention.;   Secondary outcome measures include, alcohol craving, subject retention, percent of abstinent days, percent of heavy drinking days, time to first heavy drinking day, and blood chemistries including liver enzymes, reports of side effects.
7 Recruiting Estimate the Efficiency of the Association of an Injection of Ketamine and the Venlafaxine in the Severe Major Depressive Disorder for Six Weeks
Condition: Major Depressive Disorder
Interventions: Drug: ketamine venlafaxine;   Drug: Venlafaxine
Outcome Measure: Depressive state