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Metastatic Symptoms and Causes

What are painful periods?

Menstruation, or period, is normal vaginal bleeding that happens as part of a woman's monthly cycle. Many women have painful periods, also called dysmenorrhea. The pain is most often menstrual cramps, which are a throbbing, cramping pain in your lower abdomen. You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not the same as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). PMS causes many different symptoms, including weight gain, bloating, irritability, and fatigue. PMS often starts one to two weeks before your period starts.

What causes painful periods?

There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary. Each type has different causes.

Primary dysmenorrhea is the most common kind of period pain. It is period pain that is not caused by another condition. The cause is usually having too many prostaglandins, which are chemicals that your uterus makes. These chemicals make the muscles of your uterus tighten and relax, and this causes the cramps.

The pain can start a day or two before your period. It normally lasts for a few days, though in some women it can last longer.

You usually first start having period pain when you are younger, just after you begin getting periods. Often, as you get older, you have less pain. The pain may also get better after you have given birth.

Secondary dysmenorrhea often starts later in life. It is caused by conditions that affect your uterus or other reproductive organs, such as endometriosis and uterine fibroids. This kind of pain often gets worse over time. It may begin before your period starts, and continue after your period ends.

What can I do about period pain?

To help ease your period pain, you can try

  • Using a heating pad or hot water bottle on your lower abdomen
  • Getting some exercise
  • Taking a hot bath
  • Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation

You might also try taking over-the-counter pain relievers such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs include ibuprofen and naproxen. Besides relieving pain, NSAIDs reduce the amount of prostaglandins that your uterus makes, and lessen their effects. This helps to lessen the cramps. You can take NSAIDs when you first have symptoms, or when your period starts. You can keep taking them for a few days. You should not take NSAIDS if you have ulcers or other stomach problems, bleeding problems, or liver disease. You should also not take them if you are allergic to aspirin. Always check with your health care provider if you are not sure whether or not you should take NSAIDs.

It may also help to get enough rest and avoid using alcohol and tobacco.

When should I get medical help for my period pain?

For many women, some pain during your period is normal. However, you should contact your health care provider if

  • NSAIDs and self-care measures don't help, and the pain interferes with your life
  • Your cramps suddenly get worse
  • You are over 25 and you get severe cramps for the first time
  • You have a fever with your period pain
  • You have the pain even when you are not getting your period
How is the cause of severe period pain diagnosed?

To diagnose severe period pain, your health care provider will ask you about your medical history and do a pelvic exam. You may also have an ultrasound or other imaging test. If your health care provider thinks you have secondary dysmenorrhea, you might have laparoscopy. It is a surgery that that lets your health care provider look inside your body.

What are treatments for severe period pain?

If your period pain is primary dysmenorrhea and you need medical treatment, your health care provider might suggest using hormonal birth control, such as the pill, patch, ring, or IUD. Another treatment option might be prescription pain relievers.

If you have secondary dysmenorrhea, your treatment depends upon the condition that is causing the problem. In some cases, you may need surgery.

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Metastatic Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Unknown  Acute Effect of Lorazepam on Brain Activity Measured by Magnetoencephalograpy (MEG) and Electroencephalography (EEG)
Condition: Healthy Subjects
Interventions: Drug: Lorazepam;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Correlated Brain Activity using MEG and SNI analysis;   Correlated Brain Activity using MEG and standard analyses
2 Unknown  Effect of Additive Lorazepam on Patient Satisfaction as a Premedication in Diagnostic Flexible Bronchoscopy
Condition: Patient Satisfaction for Bronchoscopy
Interventions: Drug: Lorazepam;   Drug: Control
Outcome Measures: patient satisfaction;   relationship between patient satisfaction and sleep quality, anxiety level
3 Unknown  IM Olanzapine Versus IM Haloperidol Plus Lorazepam for Acute Agitation in Schizophrenia
Conditions: Schizophrenia;   Schizoaffective Disorder;   Agitation
Interventions: Drug: IM olanzapine;   Drug: haloperidol plus lorazepam IM
Outcome Measures: Positive and Negative Symptom Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC);   Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES)
4 Recruiting Haloperidol and Lorazepam for Delirium in Patients With Advanced Cancer
Condition: Advanced Cancers
Interventions: Drug: Lorazepam;   Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Haloperidol decanoate;   Behavioral: Questionnaires
Outcome Measure: Control of Delirium Symptoms
5 Recruiting The Cognitive Effects of Lorazepam in Healthy Older Individuals With TOMM40 Variable-length Polymorphisms
Condition: Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
Intervention: Drug: lorazepam
Outcome Measures: AVLT Long term memory score;   Groton Maze Learning Test (GMLT) score
6 Recruiting Comparison Between Lorazepam, Clonazepam and Clonazepam + Fosphenytoin for the Treatment of Out-of-hospital Generalized Status Epilepticus
Conditions: Status Epilepticus;   Epilepsy
Interventions: Drug: Clonazepam;   Drug: Fosphenytoin;   Drug: Placebo;   Drug: Lorazepam
Outcome Measures: Percentage of patient with a cessation of seizures and absence of recurrence;   Duration between the first cessation and the recurrence of seizures;   Percentage of patients having had a second injection of benzodiazepine;   Percentage of patients having had an injection of the second line treatment;   Percentage of patients having a general anesthesia for refractory status epilepticus;   Percentage of patients having had a side effect;   Percentage of patients having been mechanically ventilated;   Glasgow Coma Scale;   Mortality;   Length of stay in Intensive Care Unit;   Length of stay in hospital
7 Not yet recruiting Clobazam Use in Epilepsia Partialis Continua - Pilot Study
Conditions: Epilepsia Partialis Continua;   Kojewnikov's Epilepsy;   Epilepsy
Interventions: Drug: Clobazam;   Drug: Clonazepam;   Drug: Lorazepam
Outcome Measures: Time (measured in minutes) to onset of seizure freedom;   Reduction of seizure frequency/minute;   Mental status preservation off sedating anticonvulsants as measured by the MoCA© scale;   Ambulatory function as measured by the Hauser Ambulation Index
8 Recruiting Evaluation of the Effects of Etifoxine 100 mg and Lorazepam 2 mg on Vigilance and Cognitive Functions in the Elderly
Condition: Healthy Volunteers
Interventions: Drug: etifoxine;   Drug: lorazepam;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Reaction time (RTI) of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Batteries (CANTAB)
9 Recruiting Evaluation of the Effects of Etifoxine 100 mg and Lorazepam 2 mg on Vigilance and Cognitive Functions in Elderly
Condition: Volunteers Aged Between 65 and 75 Years Old
Interventions: Drug: etifoxine;   Drug: Lorazepam;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measure: Reaction time (RTI) of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Batteries (CANTAB)
10 Recruiting Characterizing and Predicting Drug Effects on Cognition
Condition: Cognitive Deficits
Interventions: Drug: Topiramate;   Drug: Lorazepam
Outcome Measures: Relationship between neurocognitive performance and study drug plasma concentration;   Neurophysiological effect of study drug on working memory
11 Recruiting Liver Fibrosis in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD)
Conditions: Liver Fibrosis;   Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency;   AAT Deficiency;   AATD
Interventions: Device: Abdominal ultrasound;   Procedure: History and physical;   Procedure: Intravenous catheter;   Procedure: Blood draw;   Other: Liver questionnaire;   Procedure: Liver Biopsy;   Drug: Midazolam;   Drug: Fentanyl;   Drug: Lidocaine;   Drug: Acetaminophen;   Drug: Lorazepam;   Drug: Oxycodone/Acetaminophen;   Drug: Ondansetron
Outcome Measures: To estimate the prevalence and histologic spectrum of liver injury in an adult with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin deficiency and a genotype of ZZ.;   To identify environmental and host risk factors for clinically significant liver fibrosis.;   To define the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive markers of fibrosis in AAT liver disease.;   To explore epigenetic markers for the development of liver fibrosis.;   To quantify liver fibrosis progression.
12 Recruiting Sedative Premedication: Efficacy On Patient Experience
Condition: Perioperative Anxiety
Interventions: Drug: Lorazepam;   Other: no premedication;   Drug: Placebo (microcrystalline celluloses)
Outcome Measures: the EVAN score;   the perioperative level of anxiety
13 Not yet recruiting Explanation About Sleep in Post Trauma Patients
Conditions: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder;   Sleep Deprivation
Interventions: Behavioral: Explanation encouraging sleep;   Behavioral: Explanation discouraging sleep;   Drug: Lorazepam
Outcome Measure: PTSD severity as measured by CAPS
14 Recruiting Optimization of Procedural Sedation Protocol Used for Dental Care Delivery in People With Mental Disability
Condition: Dental Care for Disabled
Interventions: Drug: Midazolam Mylan;   Drug: Lorazepam Mylan;   Drug: Valium + Akineton + Dehydrobenzperidol + Atropine sulfate
Outcome Measures: Level of cooperation of patient when receiving regular dental care;   Recording of vital parameters during regular dental care delivery;   Level of patient comfort and possible side-effects after dental treatment session
15 Recruiting A First In Human Study In Healthy People To Evaluate Safety, Toleration, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Single Oral Doses Of PF-06372865
Condition: Healthy
Interventions: Drug: PF-06372865 or Placebo;   Drug: PF-06372865 or Placebo or Lorazepam
Outcome Measures: Maximum Observed Plasma Concentration (Cmax);   Area Under the Curve From Time Zero to Last Quantifiable Concentration (AUClast);   Area Under the Curve From Time Zero to Extrapolated Infinite Time;   Apparent Oral Clearance (CL/F);   Apparent Volume of Distribution (Vz/F);   Plasma Decay Half-Life (t1/2);   Area Under the Curve From Time Zero to 24 hours;   Change in Saccadic Eye Movements (saccadic reaction time, saccadic peak velocity and saccadic inaccuracy);   Change in Body Sway;   Change in Smooth Pursuit;   Change in Bond and Lader VAS;   Change in Adaptive Tracking;   Change in Visual Verbal Learning Test;   Change in Pharmaco-EEG
16 Unknown  Enteral Versus Intravenous Sedation in Critically Ill High-risk ICU Patients
Conditions: Critical Illness;   Mechanical Ventilation Complication
Interventions: Procedure: Enteral Sedation (EN);   Procedure: Control group: Intravenous Sedation (IV)
Outcome Measures: Percent of efficacy, measured by observed RASS = desired RASS ± 1.;   Sedation protocol effectiveness: percentage of "protocol violation days" on the total of ICU days.;   Delirium and coma free days (respectively negative CAM-ICU and RASS > - 3 in all daily observations until 28° ICU day) (11);   Ventilation free days (12);   Nursing evaluation of sedation adequacy (communication skills, cooperation, environment tolerance) (13);   Overall ICU and hospital mortality, absolute mortality after 1 year from ICU discharge.;   Sedative drugs costs.;   Indirect inefficacy markers
17 Recruiting Dexmedetomidine (Precedex®) for Severe Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) and Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium (AWD)
Conditions: Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium;   Alcohol Withdrawal Associated Autonomic Hyperactivity;   Alcohol Withdrawal Hallucinosis;   Alcohol Withdrawal-Induced Delirium Tremens
Interventions: Drug: Dexmedetomidine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: The length of ICU stay defined as the time between randomization and ICU transfer orders.;   The number of delirium-free and ventilator-free days during the first 28 days of hospitalization;   The length in days of the hospital stay;   Scores at hospital discharge on the Mini Mental Exam, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and PTSD checklist.;   Resource utilization costs associated with this hospitalization.;   Predefined adverse events;   average MINDS score
18 Unknown  Continuation Electroconvulsive Therapy (C-ECT) for Relapse Prevention in Major Depression
Condition: Depression
Interventions: Device: Thrymatron System IV device (CONSOLIDATION ELECTROCONVUsLIVE THERAPY) plus PHARMACOTHERAPY;   Drug: PHARMACOTHERAPY
Outcome Measures: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 21 items (HDRS-21);   Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE 35);   UKU - Adverse effects rating scales;   Demographical Data Memory (MEDABI-20);   Rey Figure;   Trail Making Test A;   Trail Making Test B;   Stroop Test;   Direct and inverse digits (WAIS, Weschler Adults Intelligence Sacle).;   Vocabulary WAIS (Weschler Adults Intelligence Scale);   Frequency Hospitalization Quotient;   Hospital Day Quotient (HDQ)
19 Not yet recruiting Emesis Control Study in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Receiving R-CHOP
Condition: Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin
Intervention: Drug: Standard anti-emetics in conjunction with R-CHOP
Outcome Measures: Complete Response, Acute Phase (Day 1), Cycle 1;   Complete Response, Delayed Phase (Days 2 to 11), Cycle 1;   Complete Response - Cycle 2 and beyond;   No Significant Nausea - Cycle 2 and beyond;   Failure of standard anti-emetic prophylaxis, Day 1 to Day 11, Cycle 1 and beyond;   Frequency of common adverse events associated with anti-emetics;   Severity of common adverse events associated with anti-emetics
20 Recruiting TELSTAR: Treatment of ELectroencephalographic STatus Epilepticus After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Conditions: Cardiac Arrest;   Postanoxic Encephalopathy;   Status Epilepticus
Interventions: Drug: Anti-epileptic drugs;   Other: No anti-epileptic drugs
Outcome Measures: Neurological outcome;   Long term outcome