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Prophylaxis and Isosorbide

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Prophylaxis Symptoms and Causes

In the early 1980s, when the HIV/AIDS epidemic began, patients rarely lived longer than a few years. But today, there are many effective medicines to fight the infection, and people with HIV have longer, healthier lives.

There are five major types of medicines:

  • Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors - interfere with a critical step during the HIV life cycle and keep the virus from making copies of itself
  • Protease inhibitors - interfere with a protein that HIV uses to make infectious viral particles
  • Fusion inhibitors - block the virus from entering the body's cells
  • Integrase inhibitors - block an enzyme HIV needs to make copies of itself
  • Multidrug combinations - combine two or more different types of drugs into one

These medicines help people with HIV, but they are not perfect. They do not cure HIV/AIDS. People with HIV infection still have the virus in their bodies. They can still spread HIV to others through unprotected sex and needle sharing, even when they are taking their medicines.

NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Check out the latest treatments for prophylaxis

prophylaxis treatment research studies

Isosorbide clinical trials, surveys and public health registries


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Isosorbide Side Effects

Product Quality Issue (279)
Dizziness (135)
Chest Pain (85)
Hypotension (80)
Headache (71)
Fall (69)
Dyspnoea (65)
Myocardial Infarction (65)
Asthenia (64)
Blood Pressure Decreased (52)
Syncope (49)
Loss Of Consciousness (42)
Nausea (34)
Diarrhoea (29)
Fatigue (29)
Renal Failure Acute (28)
Vomiting (28)
Incorrect Dose Administered (28)
Cardiac Failure (28)
Cardiac Failure Congestive (27)
Angina Pectoris (26)
Cerebrovascular Accident (25)
Heart Rate Increased (25)
Cardiac Disorder (23)
Cardiac Arrest (23)
Malaise (23)
Myocardial Ischaemia (23)
Condition Aggravated (22)
Arrhythmia (21)
Coronary Artery Disease (20)
Chest Discomfort (20)
Bradycardia (19)
Pain (19)
Renal Failure (19)
Palpitations (19)
Silent Myocardial Infarction (18)
Pneumonia (18)
Pain In Extremity (17)
Completed Suicide (16)
Heart Rate Decreased (16)
Gait Disturbance (16)
Arthralgia (15)
Anxiety (15)
Atrial Fibrillation (15)
Hypertension (15)
Death (15)
Orthostatic Hypotension (15)
Muscle Spasms (15)
Rash (14)
Somnolence (14)

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Prophylaxis Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Unknown  A Clinical Trials of Quick-Acting Heart Reliever for Moderate Coronary Stenosis
Conditions: Coronary Artery Stenosis;   Coronary Heart Disease
Interventions: Drug: Quick-Acting Heart Reliever;   Drug: Isosorbide Dinitrate;   Drug: Placebo of Isosorbide Dinitrate;   Drug: Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets;   Drug: Placebo of Quick-Acting Heart Reliever
Outcome Measures: the effective power of angina pectoris;   plaque;   myocardium blood-supply;   the end point of the heart(a composite of cardiovascular events including death, nonfatal myocardial infarction,coronary revascularization, hospitalized unstable angina);   symptoms score;   quality of life;   MMP-9;   SCD40L;   VEGF;   bFGF
2 Recruiting Bi Treatment With Hydralazine/Nitrates Versus Placebo in Africans Admitted With Acute Heart Failure
Conditions: Acute Heart Failure;   Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Interventions: Drug: Hydralazine;   Drug: Isosorbide Dinitrate
Outcome Measures: Time to death or HF re-admission;   Change in symptoms of heart failure;   Change in systolic blood pressure;   Functional status;   Changes in serum creatinine;   Change in left ventricular dimensions
3 Recruiting Nitrate's Effect on Activity Tolerance in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction
Conditions: Heart Failure;   Preserved Ejection Fraction
Interventions: Drug: Isosorbide Mononitrate;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Change in arbitrary accelerometry units;   Change in 6 minute walk distance;   Improvement in daily activity;   Patient preference for Isosorbide mononitrate treatment at the end of study.;   Change in Borg Score during 6 minute walk test;   Quality of Life score(Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire);   Change in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level
4 Recruiting Vasodilator Therapy for Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction
Conditions: Heart Failure;   Congestive Heart Failure
Interventions: Drug: Isosorbide Dinitrate;   Drug: Isosorbide Dinitrate + Hydralazine;   Drug: Placebo
Outcome Measures: The change in late systolic load from wave reflections between baseline and after 24 weeks of randomized therapy;   The change in LV mass & collagen volume fraction measured by MRI; early mitral annular velocity, myocardial strain, 6-minute walk distance and NT-pro-BNP levels between baseline and after 24 weeks of randomized therapy;   Change in quality of life
5 Unknown  To Compare the Pharmacokinetics Profiles of ISO 20, IBU 200 and IBU Plus ISO Combinations 200 + 20
Condition: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)
Interventions: Drug: Isosorbide Dinitrate;   Drug: Ibuprofen;   Other: Ibuprofen and Isosorbide Dinitrate combination
Outcome Measures: Pharmacokinetic parameter: AUC 0-12;   C max;   T max;   Adverse Events;   Vital signs
6 Recruiting Effect of Isosorbide Mononitrate on Hypertension to Improve LVH, Fibrosis and Myocardial Function
Condition: Hypertension
Interventions: Drug: Isosorbide Mononitrate, sustained release;   Drug: Placebo capsule
Outcome Measures: Change in left ventricular mass;   Change in extracellular volume fraction;   Change in peak myocardial systolic longitudinal strain measured by MRI;   Change in peak early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradient measured by MRI;   Change in late systolic hypertension derived from pulse wave analysis
7 Not yet recruiting Influence of Nitrates on Bone Remodeling and Endothelial Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Conditions: Endothelial Dysfunction;   Bone Disease
Intervention: Other: Isosorbide-5-mononitrate
Outcome Measures: Improvement in endothelial function as measured by laser doppler imaging.;   Improvement in bone metabolism
8 Unknown  Treatment for Prevention of Variceal Rebleeding Guided by the Hemodynamic Response
Conditions: Portal Hypertension;   Complications of Cirrhosis
Intervention: Other: Hemodynamic guided therapy
Outcome Measures: Rebleeding;   Survival;   Adverse effects
9 Recruiting Treatment of Orthostatic Intolerance
Conditions: Tachycardia;   Chronic Orthostatic Intolerance
Interventions: Drug: Acetazolamide;   Drug: Atomoxetine;   Other: NO Drug;   Drug: Clonidine;   Drug: Entacapone;   Drug: Entacapone & Propranolol;   Drug: Atomoxetine & Propranolol;   Drug: Indomethacin;   Drug: Mecamylamine;   Drug: Isosorbide Dinitrate;   Dietary Supplement: Melatonin;   Drug: Midodrine;   Drug: Modafinil;   Drug: Octreotide;   Radiation: Placebo;   Drug: Propranolol;   Drug: Modafinil & Propranolol;   Drug: Sertraline;   Procedure: IV Saline;   Other: Drinking Water;   Device: Breathing Device;   Drug: memantine;   Device: Abdominal binder
Outcome Measures: Increase in heart rate with standing;   Sitting heart rate;   Standing heart rate;   Blood pressure;   Decrease in blood pressure with standing;   Orthostatic symptoms score
10 Not yet recruiting Efficacy and Safety of Monocordil Manufactured by Laboratórios Baldacci
Condition: Stable Angina
Intervention: Drug: Isosorbide-5-mononitrate
Outcome Measures: Absolute number of episodes of angina;   Adverse events
11 Recruiting Intensive Arterial Pressure Control in Acute Coronary Syndrome
Condition: Acute Coronary Syndrome
Interventions: Drug: Isosorbide Dinitrate;   Drug: Labetalol
Outcome Measures: mortality;   recurrence of chest pain;   Acute Coronary Syndrome complication;   revascularisation;   stroke;   non cardiac deaths
12 Recruiting Nitrates and Bone Turnover; Nitrates and Bone Turnover Bisphosphonate Sub-Study
Condition: Osteoporosis
Interventions: Drug: Nitrates (NABT Main trial);   Other: Placebo
Outcome Measures: Bone Turnover Markers;   Headache
13 Recruiting A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Effect of Chronic Nitrate Therapy on Vasodilation Function in Coronary Heart Disease
Condition: Coronary Artery Disease
Interventions: Drug: nitrate group;   Drug: control group
Outcome Measures: flow-mediated dilation;   serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) level;   serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level;   serum hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level
14 Not yet recruiting Microvascular Disease Exercise Trial
Condition: Coronary Microvascular Disease
Interventions: Behavioral: Exercise Program;   Drug: Medical Therapy
Outcome Measures: Change in MPR on CMR imaging from baseline with intensive medical therapy + supervised exercise versus intensive medical therapy alone.;   Incremental change in MPR with exercise over intensive medical therapy alone in the exercise subgroup;   Identification of reduced MPR (<2.0 ml/g/min) and borderline reduced MPR
15 Recruiting A Study on the Safety and Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Gel in Subjects With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy
Condition: Neuropathic Pain
Interventions: Drug: nitric oxide gel;   Drug: placebo gel
Outcome Measures: Neuopathic Pain Scale;   vascular duplex parameters;   the likelihood of reusing the nitric oxide gel recorded
16 Recruiting Nitroglycerin in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Condition: Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
Intervention: Drug: Nitroglycerin patch
Outcome Measures: Increase of 2 year overall survival of 15% vs historical controls;   Demonstrate effect on enhancement on tumor perfusion;   Toxicity;   Demonstrate the effect on enhancement of tumor oxygenation;   Evaluating the possible value of Perfusion CT and hypoxia scans on treatment with nitroglycerin of NSCLC
17 Unknown  Prevalence and Outcome of Brachial Artery Endothelial Function in Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery
Conditions: Obesity, Morbid;   Ischemic Heart Disease
Intervention: Other: Measurement of flow mediated dilation of brachial artery.
Outcome Measure: Flow-mediated (endothelial-dependent) vasodilatation (FMD) difference (before vs after surgery)