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Renal and Kremezin

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Renal Symptoms and Causes

You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. They are near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage. Inside each kidney there are about a million tiny structures called nephrons. They filter your blood. They remove wastes and extra water, which become urine. The urine flows through tubes called ureters. It goes to your bladder, which stores the urine until you go to the bathroom.

Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys unable to remove wastes. Causes can include genetic problems, injuries, or medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a close family member with kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease damages the nephrons slowly over several years. Other kidney problems include

  • Cancer
  • Cysts
  • Stones
  • Infections

Your doctor can do blood and urine tests to check if you have kidney disease. If your kidneys fail, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Check out the latest treatments for renal

renal treatment research studies

Kremezin clinical trials, surveys and public health registries


Find Drug Side Effect reports



Kremezin Side Effects

Thrombocytopenia (19)
Renal Failure (14)
Blood Urea Increased (12)
Renal Failure Chronic (8)
Face Oedema (7)
Diabetic Neuropathy (6)
Anaemia (5)
Nephrogenic Anaemia (4)
Malaise (4)
Palmar-plantar Erythrodysaesthesia Syndrome (4)
Oedema Peripheral (3)
Hypothyroidism (3)
Angioedema (2)
Thirst (2)
Rectal Perforation (2)
Aspartate Aminotransferase Increased (2)
Peritonitis (2)
Alanine Aminotransferase Increased (2)
Cerebral Haemorrhage (1)
Cerebral Infarction (1)
Vomiting (1)
Cardiac Failure (1)
Bleeding Time Prolonged (1)
Interstitial Lung Disease (1)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (1)
Blood Creatinine Increased (1)
Blood Pressure Increased (1)

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Common Meds

Abilify (10132)
Adderall (1304)
Amlodipine (6664)
Amoxicillin (4387)
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Cipro (8580)
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Mobic (957)
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Zocor (5718)
Zoloft(6792)
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Recent Reviews

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Frankly i expected the side effects to be worse!! i am 46 year old female and i had the injection. i just made sure to have the renal test before the injection and also prior to taking the injection had atleast a litre of water.&a

Renal Clinical Trials and Studies

Treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. People participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Healthy volunteers say they participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward. Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff.
Rank Status Study
1 Recruiting Renal Protection Using Sympathetic Denervation in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease
Conditions: Arterial Hypertension;   Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Intervention: Procedure: Renal denervation
Outcome Measures: The changes of eGFR by MDRD;   Changes in proteinuria (Microalbuminuria) in 6 months;   Changes in the value of Cystatin C;   Time to the development of end-stage Renal disease (ESRD)/Hemodialysis;   combined Renal endpoint;   Total mortality;   The total cardiovascular mortality;   total Renal mortality;   changes in blood pressure;   •Changes in concentration of Blood urea Nitrogen (BUN) , creatinine in 6 months, 3 years;   albumin-creatine ratio;   changes in cardiac structure and function;   the changes in Renal resistive index
2 Recruiting Renal Sympathetic Modification in Patients With Chronic Renal Failure
Condition: Chronic Renal Failure
Intervention: Procedure: Renal sympathetic modification
Outcome Measures: the incident of uremia and dialysis requirement;   serum creatinine increases into multiples in 1 month follow-up;   effect of urine microalbumin, urine microalbumin/creatinine, serum creatinine, or 24 hrs urine protein value;   incidence of composite cardiovascular events
3 Recruiting Study of Pomalidomide to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics and Safety for Patients With Multiply Myeloma and Impaired Renal Function (POM Renal)
Conditions: Multiple Myeloma;   Renal Impairment
Interventions: Drug: 4 mg Oral POM + 40 mg Oral DEX;   Drug: 2 mg Oral POM + 40 mg Oral DEX
Outcome Measures: PK-Area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC);   PK-Time to maximum plasma concentration (Cmax);   PK-Apparent total body clearance (CL/F);   PK-Renal clearance (CLr);   PK-Apparent volume of distribution (V/F);   PK-Effective terminal half-life (T1/2);   Number of participants with adverse events (AEs);   Number of participants alive;   Time to response;   Duration of response
4 Recruiting Renal Hypothermia During Partial Nephrectomy
Conditions: Renal Impairment;   Kidney Diseases;   Urologic Diseases;   Cancer;   Hypothermia;   Kidney Cancer
Intervention: Procedure: Renal hypothermia
Outcome Measures: Renal function;   Difference in affected Renal function
5 Not yet recruiting Immunotherapy Study for Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer
Conditions: Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma;   Metastatic Clear-cell Renal Cancer;   Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma;   Refractory Renal Cell Carcinoma;   Metastatic Kidney Cancer
Intervention: Biological: HyperAcute®-Renal (HAR) Immunotherapy
Outcome Measures: Toxicity;   Immunological Correlative Studies;   Progression-Free Survival
6 Recruiting Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Resistant Hypertension
Condition: Chronic Kidney Disease
Interventions: Procedure: RSD;   Drug: medicine
Outcome Measures: All-cause mortality, doubling of the serum creatinine level or end-stage Renal disease;   Urinary protein excretion and Renal function;   Blood pressure;   Blood sugar;   Cardiac function and structure;   Arrhythmia;   Pulse wave velocity;   Life quality;   Rehospitalization rate
7 Unknown  A Clinical Study of the Living Renal Transplantation With Restored Kidneys Between Third Parties
Conditions: Kidney Neoplasms;   Renal Insufficiency;   Renal Replacement Therapy
Intervention: Procedure: Restored Kidney Transplant Between Third Parties
Outcome Measure: Evaluation of curative efficacy (Renal function and QOL) and safety (side effects, complications or occurence of Renal cancer) after Renal transplantation with restored donor kidneys to third party recipients
8 Unknown  A Clinical Study of the Living Renal Transplantation With Restored Kidneys Between Family Members
Conditions: Kidney Neoplasm;   Kidney Stone;   Ureteral Tumor;   Ureteral Stricture;   Renal Insufficiency
Intervention: Procedure: Restored Kidney Transplant Between Family Members
Outcome Measure: Evaluation of curative efficacy (Renal function and QOL) and safety (side effects, complications) after Renal transplantation with restored kidneys between family members
9 Recruiting Modalities of Renal Replacement Therapy in Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury
Condition: Kidney Failure, Acute
Intervention: Procedure: acute extra Renal replacement therapy
Outcome Measures: extra Renal replacement therapy;   Current incidence;   etiologies;   Risk factors of mortality and non recovery of the Renal function
10 Recruiting Combined Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Renal Transplant for Multiple Myeloma (MM) With End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
Conditions: Multiple Myeloma;   End Stage Renal Disease
Interventions: Drug: Cyclophosphamide, anti-thymocyte globulin;   Procedure: Kidney transplant;   Radiation: Thymic irradiation;   Procedure: Bone marrow transplant from a related donor
Outcome Measures: Remission status of multiple myeloma;   Renal allograft acceptance and ability to discontinue immunosuppressive therapy;   Graft versus host disease (GVHD);   Opportunistic infections;   T cell recovery and immune reconstitution
11 Recruiting A Prospective Pilot Study Evaluating Renal Lesions Through Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound (US) in Patients With Renal Cancer and in Those With a Risk Factor for Renal Malignancy
Condition: Kidney Cancer
Interventions: Procedure: Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound;   Drug: Perflutren lipid
Outcome Measures: Feasibility of using contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosing Renal malignancy in patients with known Renal disease (Cohort 1) and in patients with a risk factor for Renal malignancy diagnosed with suspicious or indeterminate lesions (Cohort 2);   Feasibility of comparing the sensitivity and specificity of contrast enhanced ultrasound to traditional imaging techniques (CT and MRI) in detecting Renal lesions in patients already diagnosed with a Renal malignancy
12 Not yet recruiting Renal Denervation in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure
Conditions: Chronic Heart Failure;   Cardio-Renal Syndrome
Intervention: Device: Renal denervation (Symplicity™)
Outcome Measures: Safety of Renal denervation with the Symplicity Catheter System with special consideration of clinically significant periprocedural adverse events in CHF patients;   Physiologic response to Renal denervation: ventricular function;   Physiologic Response to Renal denervation: Renal function;   Physiologic Response to Renal denervation: symptomatology/Quality of Life;   Physiologic Response to Renal denervation: additional parameters
13 Recruiting Effect of Renal Transplantation on Obstructive Sleep Apnea in End Stage Renal Disease Patients (SASinTx)
Conditions: Obstructive Sleep Apnea;   Overhydration;   End Stage Renal Disease;   Renal Transplantation
Intervention: Procedure: Renal transplantation
Outcome Measures: Reduction of the obstructive sleep apnea severity;   Reduction in nocturnal leg fluid volume shift between the legs and the neck;   Relationship between overhydration, leg fluid volume shift, ankle and neck circumference and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea;   Change in the severity of the periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD);   Change in the severity of central sleep apnea
14 Recruiting Study of Catheter Based Renal Denervation Therapy in Hypertension
Conditions: Resistant Hypertension;   Renal Denervation;   Ambulatory Blood Pressure;   Renal Function
Interventions: Procedure: Renal angiography followed by Renal sympathetic denervation;   Procedure: Renal angiography alone
Outcome Measures: glomerular filtration rate;   Ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure;   Baroreflex sensitivity;   Biological markers of acute kidney injury
15 Recruiting Influence of Catheter-based Renal Denervation in Diseases With Increased Sympathetic Activity
Conditions: Hypertension;   Heart Failure;   Chronic Kidney Disease;   Diabetes;   Heart Rhythm Disorders
Interventions: Device: Renal denervation with Symplicity Flex Medtronic/Ardian;   Device: Renal denervation with EnligHTN St. Jude Medical;   Device: Renal denervation with Paradise Recor;   Device: Renal denervation with V2 Vessix
Outcome Measures: Safety and efficacy of Renal denervation;   Effect of Renal denervation on different organ systems.
16 Recruiting Renal Denervation for Treatment of Resistant Hypertension in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease
Conditions: Hypertension;   Chronic Kidney Disease
Intervention: Procedure: Renal denervation
Outcome Measures: Blood pressure measurements;   Renal function
17 Not yet recruiting Medical and Endovascular Treatment of Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis (METRAS Study)
Condition: Renal Artery Stenosis
Interventions: Drug: Optimal medical therapy;   Procedure: revascularization
Outcome Measures: Glomerular filtration rate in the ischemic kidney after revascularization by means of percutaneous Renal angioplasty (PTRAS) or optimal medical treatment.;   Lowering blood pressure after revascularization by means of percutaneous Renal angioplasty (PTRAS) or optimal medical treatment.;   Preserving overall Renal function after revascularization by means of percutaneous Renal angioplasty (PTRAS) or optimal medical treatment.;   Regression of damage in the target organs of hypertension, including cardiac hypertrophy, microalbuminuria and aortic stiffness after revascularization by means of percutaneous Renal angioplasty (PTRAS) or optimal medical treatment.
18 Not yet recruiting Comparative Evaluation of Pharmacokinetics After CKD-501 Between Renal Impaired and Normal Renal Function Subjects
Conditions: Renal Impairment;   Healthy
Intervention: Drug: CKD-501
Outcome Measures: The pharmacokinetic( Cmax, AUCt ) of lobeglitazone(CKD-501) Between Renal Impaired patients and Normal Renal function subjects;   The pharmacokinetic( Cmax, AUCt ) of main metabolites(M7) of CKD-501 Between Renal Impaired patients and Normal Renal function subjects
19 Recruiting Radiofrequency Ablation for ADPKD Blood Pressure and Disease Progression Control
Conditions: Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease;   Hypertension
Interventions: Procedure: Renal sympathetic denervation;   Drug: antihypertensive drugs
Outcome Measures: office-based measurements of systolic blood pressure;   24-hour systolic blood pressure by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM);   Incidence of office systolic blood pressure reduction;   office diastolic blood pressure;   number and dosage of blood pressure tablets;   estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate(eGFR);   albuminuria;   total kidney volume (TKV);   pain;   procedure-related complications at femoral puncture site;   Renal artery lesion;   New Renal artery stenosis;   Embolic events;   hypotension;   hypertension.;   acute kidney injury;   total cyst volume (TCV)
20 Recruiting Nephronic Reduction After Neonatal Acute Renal Failure in Preterm
Condition: Neonatal Acute Renal Failure in Preterm
Interventions: Other: Renal echography;   Other: Blood sampling;   Other: collection of an urine sample;   Other: Blood pressure measurement
Outcome Measures: microalbuminuria;   measurement of blood pressure;   measurement of length and volume of kidney by Renal echography;   creatinine clearance;   calciuria;   sodium clearance