Ketalar®, Ketaject®, Ketaset®, Vetalar®;
Ketamine is an anesthetic medication. Ketamine is used to put you to sleep for surgery and to prevent pain and discomfort during certain medical tests or procedures.
Primarily used in veterinary applications as a tranquilizer.
Recreationally used as a psychedelic and for its dissociative effects.
Psychological: Decreased awareness of general environment, sedation, dream-like state, vivid dreams, feelings of invulnerability, increased distractibility, disorientation, and subjects are generally uncommunicative. Intense hallucinations, impaired thought processes, out-of-body experiences, and changes in perception about body, surroundings, time and sounds. Delirium and hallucinations can be experienced after awakening from anesthesia.
Physiological: Anesthesia, cataplexy, immobility, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, nystagmus, hypersalivation, increased urinary output, profound insensitivity to pain, amnesia, slurred speech, and lack of coordination.
Chemically and Mechanistically Related Drugs
Lanicemine (a drug originally developed to treat epilepsy that targets the same brain receptors as ketamine), Tiletamine and Phencyclidine (PCP)
Pediatric and Elderly Use
Occasionally used as a short-acting general anesthetic for children and elderly patients.
A huge seizure of ketamine and a law change in India, the major supplier globally of the drug, are being blamed for a ‘ketamine drought’. Dozens of factories in the Indian states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat manufacture tonnes of ketamine annually for the legitimate international medical and veterinary markets. But many illegal outfits also operate and sell the chemicals to narcotraffickers worldwide.
The U.S. general anesthesia market (drugs such as propofol, midazolam & diazepam, fospropofol disodium, sodium pentothal, ketamine, methohexital sodium, pentobarbital, etomidate and fentanyl) was valued at $2 billion in 2011 and is poised to grow at a CAGR of approximately 4% to reach $2.3 billion by 2015.
Ketamine has a reputation as an illicit party drug due to its hallucinogenic effects. But in a handful of ketamine clinics around the country, people who weren’t helped by standard treatments are getting a series of infusions to ease their depression.
In tests, almost 70 percent of people who responded negatively to ordinary antidepressants improved within hours of taking the ketamine. Because around 40 percent of depressed people don’t respond to medication, this could be a huge help. And many others only respond after many months or years of trying different treatments.
The drug has also been used in emergency rooms for curbing suicidal thoughts, making it a potential lifesaver. But it hasn’t been thoroughly studied for long-term safety and effectiveness, and the FDA hasn’t approved it to treat depression.
Ketamine was widely employed as a field anaesthetic by the US Army during the Vietnam War.
Ketamine has been in the market for the past 41 years. There are four major players of ketamine in the U.S. market. JHP Pharmaceuticals is the only company which offers a branded generic of ketamine – ketalar. Ketalar is expected to maintain its position in the market in the coming five years but with a decreasing share in the market, due to high cost compared to the generic counterparts.